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to the countrymen till they came to Roscommon. Morrogh O'Rory [O'Conor] came towards them, and guided them through Conaght. His father, Roderick the king, was then on his regal progress through Iar-Connaght, when he got intelligence of the English. The English, in their marching, burned the Maghary, i. e. the plain of Connaght, and Oilfin, and Forta-noggy (Fearta Geige), and Imleagh-Ferdoragh, and Imleagh-Brocadha, and Down-Imdhan (Dunamon). And the English came from Athmogha, [Ballime] and through Fidmonagh, and Sligy More (viz. the great road of) Ligy-gnathaile, and over Athfiny, by Down-more, and to Tuam directly; and made no prey throughout the province, for the Connactians secured their's in their holds and places of security; and Tuam was emptied, and the English burned Killbeneoin (Kilbannon), and Kill-Meadhuin (Kilmaine), and Lackagh, and Killcathgaly (Killcahitt)', and Ross-Cannin (Roscam), and the castle of the fort of the Galway. And the English were three nights in Tuam (da Gualan), without either meat or booty, and they being informed that the Connactians and Momonians were gathered together against them, which the English believed as truth, for Rory, King of Ireland, suffered not his men to meet them, expecting their meeting in a set battle, the English stole away as far as Toghar-mona-Connedha, when the Connaught footmen gave an onset on the said Toghar, when the English had been [would have been~\ defeated, were it not for O'Conor's son (Morrogh O'Rory) that encouraged them. And that night they came to Uaran, and they stole away the next day to Athliag, where a small party of the Connactians overtook them, which dealt hardly with them in the ford, and their losses were unknown (i. e. considerable) afore they left Conaght. Murrogh, Rory's son, was blinded by Sil-Muredhy and by Rory himself, for his wicked deeds. Connor Moenmoy, Rory O'Conor's son, [was] forcibly brought out of the island of Lough Cuanby Maelculard O'Flathberty, and by CaO'Flathberty, and by Gilly-berry O'Flathberty, and by the rest of his favourites (friends), he being in restraint for the space of a whole year for his own injuries (misdeeds). Hugh O'Flaherty, King of Iar-Connaught, died in Enachduin. The river of Galway was dried from Oilean na Clodagh to the sea, from sun-rising to twelve o'clock the second day, in which abyss a huge multitude of fish was found*."

After

'For these places, see ante, p. 369. of the Royal Dublin Society. See also the Annals

"Extracts from a translation of Annals of Lein- of the Four Masters, and of Inisfallen (Corny), ster made in the year 1665, by Dudly Firbisie, for A. D. 1177: the latter agrees verbatim with the AnSir James Ware. Mac Firbis's autograph is pre- nals of Leinster. In the former, the phenomenon served in the Library of the British Museum. Cod. of the Gaillimh is somewhat differently related. Claren. torn. 68, and there are transcripts of it in the They state that the river was dried up for three Library of Trinity College, Dublin, and of the library days, and that military weapons, and other "curiIBish arch. SOC. 15. 3 C

After the foregoing precipitate flight of the Anglo-Normans before the provincial force, called by the Leinster Annalist the " invincible army of Sil-MuredhyV these invaders were for some years deterred from venturing into Connaught. But in A. D. 1185, Donal M6r O'Brien, King of Thomond, who was one of the first to join them, taking advantage of the violent dissensions and wars then raging between the members of the house of O'Conor, made an incursion on the western parts of the province, "accompanied by a party of English," who pillaged and destroyed the country, and burned houses and churches in their progress*. After the lapse of a few years we find the English again in the province, led on by Cathal Crovedearg (or the red-handed) O'Conor, King of Connaught1. The old territorial disputes subsisting between the O'Conors and O'Flaherties were again revived. Cathal, the son of Hugh O'Flaherty, was slain by the son of Mortogh Midhe O'Conor. Roderic O'Flaherty lord of West Connaught, was taken prisoner by Cathal Crovdeargc, who delivered him over to the English, by whom he was put to deatht. Thus these infatuated men, by their dissensions hastened their own impending doom, and entailed irretrievable bondage on their posterity.

The thirteenth century introduced a new set of characters on the arena of Irish history. Of these one of the most remarkable was the Anglo-Norman De Burgo, William Fitz-Adelm*. The posterity and followers of this man supplanted the O'Conors, O'Flaherties, and the other Celtic tribes of Connaught; whose descendants, with very few exceptions, were reduced to the condition of "hewers of wood and drawers of water." In A. D. 1201, Cathal Crovdearg, and this William Fitz- Adelm, led an army of Irish and English into Iar-Connaught. This was the first appearance of the

De

osities," buried in it from the most remote antiquity, were collected by the people of the fort and surrounding country. Similar " antiquities" may very likely be found on the drainage of the neighbouring lake, Corrib, now [184G] in contemplation.

h The O'Conors. Annals of Leinster, at A. D. 1174.

c Four Masters.

•1 Id. A. D. 1185.

c Id A. D. 1197.

'Extracts from the Annals of Loughkee, in the library of the Royal Dublin Society, A. D. 1200. For this Roderic, sec the Gen. Table, II., No. 25. He was called " peun Ruapij; na puaj O loc Cime," old Rory or Roderic, of the onslaughts

or excursions from lough Kime; for which place sec ante.

t See Cambrensis, Hibernia Expng. lib. ii. c 16, for the character of this vicious adventurer. With him the Irish annalists agree; yet Mac Gcoghegan, in his translation of the Annals of Clonmacnoise, and Mac Firbis, in his account of the English families of Ireland, preserved in the library of the Royal Irish Academy, endeavour to defend him, on the plea of enmity in Cambrensis, and prejudice in the Annalists: but the arguments made use of in his defence would be just as applicable to the exculpation of Judas.

De Burgos in this province. They passed the Easter at Cong, and while there, the sons of that Roderic O'Flaherty (who, as we have seen, had been previously betrayed by Cathal to the English, by whom he was put to death) conspired with Fitz-Adelm against Cathal; "but," say the Annalists, "God saved him from their treachery1', through the intercession of the ecclesiastics, who were witnesses to their league of mutual fealty1." Enraged at the escape of the Irish prince, Fitz-Adelm spread destruction over his devoted kingdom. The Annals of Clonmacnoise record, that in A. D. 1204, "William Burke took the spoyles of all the churches of Connoght, viz., of Clonvicknose, Clonfert, Milick, Killbyan; the churches of O'Fiaghragh, Twayme (Tuam), Kill-Beneoine, Killmaoyne (Kilmain), Mayo of the English (Cong) of St. Ffechine, the Abbey of Athedalaragh (Boyle), Ailfynn, Uaran, Roscommon, with many other churches. God and the patrons of these churches shewed their miracles upon him, that his entrails and fundament fell from his private place, and it trailed after him even to the very earth, whereof he died impenitently, without shrive or extream unction, or good buryall in any church in the kingdom, but in a waste town." The same year Mortogh O'Flaherty, lord of Iar-Connaught, diedj, whereupon Cathal Crovdearg expelled Mortogh's son, Hugh, out of his territory of Moy-Seola, which he conferred upon his (Cathal's) own son, Hughk. This was followed by the death of Brian, the son of Roderic O'Flaherty1. Richard de Burgo, Lord of Connaught and Trim, son of William Fitz-Adelm, obtained grants of the entire province; and on the 12th June, A. D. 1225°', King Henry III. commanded William, Earl Msrshall, lord justice of Ireland, to seize on " the whole country of Connaught, and deliver it to Richard de Burgo."

The Connaught chieftains were at length awakened to a sense of the dangers which surrounded them, but even that did not prevent their unnatural dissensions. The whole country soon became a scene of confusion and blood. In these proceedings, which will be found fully detailed by our Annalists, Hugh O'Flaherty", chief of IarConnaught, acted a conspicuous part. He joined the sons of Roderick O'Conor against Hugh, king of Connaught (son of Cathal Crovdearg), who was leagued with the

English

h The Annals of Clonmacnoise relate, that the (No. 113), two generations given by O'Ferrall (Gen. conspiracy was "by God prevented; for they were Table, III.), but omitted by Mac Firbis (Tab. II). by great oaths sworn to each other before, which k Id. A. D. 1207.

whosoever would break was to be excommunicated 1 Id. A. D. 1214. This Brian does not appear with book, bell, and candle." A. D. 1201. in the Gen. Tables. His father I take to be Ron

i Four Masters. of Lough Kime (No. 25).

j Id. A. D. 1204. This Mortogh I conjecture to m Four Masters, A. D. 1225. be the same as Muredach (No. 112), son of Hugh » Gen. Table, No. II. 26.

English. These latter confederates, in A. D. 1225, invaded the country of O'Flaherty, and compelled him to surrender the islands of Inis-Creamha and Oilen na Circe, in lough Orbsen, together with all the vessels on the lake, to Hugh O'Conor. O'Flaherty then fortified himself in the fort at Bun na Gaillmhe (i. e. at the mouth of the river of Galway), but he was soon after taken prisoner by O'Conor, and delivered up to the English. This was followed by his total expulsion out of Moy-Seola, which was seized by Richard De Burgo and his followers; who also possessed themselves ot the castle at the Gaillimh, where they erected another strong fortress. Hugh O'Flaherty and his people crossed Lough Oirbsen, and took possession of those western districts, to which the name of Iar-Connaught has, in after-times, been exclusively given. He was, therefore, the first of the O'Flaherties who could properly be called the chief of the territory now known by that name". In course of time his descendants acquired greater power in their new possessions, than perhaps their ancestors ever attained in their ancient inheritance.

But the De Burgos thinking themselves insecure, as long as O'Flaherty maintained his independence in the West, they resolved to subdue him, or secure his adhesion. Accordingly, on the return of the English to Connaught with an army, in A. D. 1235, he was the first they determined to attack. Abandoned on all sides, and unable to contend with their superior force, wishing moreover to prevent the further effusion of blood and the plunder of his people, the humbled chief at length yielded, and entered into a treaty with themp. He afterwards consented to assist them againt his old allies, the O'Conors. This was the last and only disgraceful act of his life. He did not long survive it. After his death the English followers of Richard de Burgo erected several castles throughout the territory of Muintir-Murchada and the adjoining districts'1.

Henry III., King of England, in A. D. 1244, directed letters to several Irish chiefs, among others, as is said, to O' Flaherty', to attend the Lord Justice of Ireland and his forces to Scotland, "ad inimicos nostros ibidem gravandos." A reconciliation having taken place with Scotland, the Connaught auxiliaries, under Felim O'Conor, joined

Henry

0 It is probable that the O'Flaherties possessed the assistance given on this occasion; also p. 50, some local jurisdiction in these western districts an- note and the Annals of the Four Masters, A. D. tenor to the above period, but there is no direct 12S5.

evidence on the subject. The destruction of so many 1 See ante, p. 4, note h, for further particulars of of our domestic records has necessarily left several these proceedings; and some account of the descenmattere of this local nature inexplicable in Irish dants of those who settled here at the time, history. t Sir William Betham's Antiq. Researches, p. 124.

v See p. 57, ante, where our author alludes to These letters may be seen in Rymer, vol. I. 246; Henry in an expedition to Wales, whence they returned victorious. Soon after which, Morogh O'Flaherty, and his brother Roderic*, laid their complaint before the King, stating, that their ancestors and themselves, though mere Irish, always shewed their fealty and service to him and his predecessors, by assisting the English to reduce the Irish. That they had, notwithstanding, been unjustly expelled from their territory, to which they humbly prayed to be restored. This appeal was favourably received by the King, who directed his letters to John Fitz-Geoffry, the Lord Justice, in the following words: "Rex Justiciario Hibern. Salutem: Monstravit nobis MamorchOfferthierum' et Rothericus Frater ejus, quod antecessores sui, et ipsi (licet Hibernenses), semper tamen firmiter fuerunt ad fidem et servitium nostrum, et predecessorum nostrum [it should be nostrorum j, Regum Angl. ad conquestum una cum Anglicis faciendum super Hibernenses, et ideo vobis mandamus quod si ita est, tunc non permittas ipsos M. et R. repelli, quin possint terras vindicare in quibus jus habent, sicut quilibet Anglicus, quia si ipsi et antecessores sui sic se habuerunt cum Anglicis, quamvis Hibernenses, injustum esset licet Hibernenses sint quod exceptione qua repelluntur Hibernenses, a vindicatione terrarum et aliis repellantur."—Prynne, 255. Upon this writ Cox observes, "the King did design that all the Irish, who would live as subjects, should have the benefit of the English laws°." It is probable that the King did so design, but it is certain that his rulers here designed otherwise. Happy would it have been, had the just feeling expressed in that letter, been always observed in Ireland. But the O'Flaherties derived no benefit from the royal mandate. On the contrary, their new territories, as if in despite of it, were soon plundered by the English. Walter de Burgo marched against them with an army, but was routed with considerable slaughter*. He soon after made another excursion against Roderic O'Flaherty; plundered his territory of Gnomore and Gnobeg (now called the barony of Moycullen), and seized upon Lough Orbsen with its islands*. The persecuted chief was, at length,

forcibly

and in LeUnd, Vol I. 220 ; but O'Flaherty does not appear in either. Sir William Betham, however, refers to a " Close Roll in the Tower of London."

'See Gen. Table, II No. 27. Neither this Morogh nor his brother is named in it .

'This writ is given at A. D. 1253 by Cox, I. 66, from Prynne. The orthography shews that the Anglo-Normans of that day were sad bunglers at Celtic surnames. But Offrrthierum is not farther from O'Flaherty, than Vinzaniozer is from Winchester, ( Wintanceastra) for which see Milner's valuable

history of that city Vol . II. p. 294.

■ Cox, loc. cit.

'Four Hasten, A. D. 1248.

"Id. A. D. 1256. In this year, the same Annalists relate, that the son of Somairle (Sw'y) Mac Donnell, sailed with a fleet from the Hebrides, (u n-inpiB jC1ll) to Conmaicne-mara, in IarConnaught, where he captured a merchant ship, and plundered its cargo of wine, cloth, copper, and iron. Jordan de Exeter, sheriff of Connaught, pursued him to a neighbouring island, where his ships

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