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The achievement of the "Composition," appears to have been a principal object with Sir John Perrot. Accordingly, on 15th July, 1585, a commission issued, directed rected to Sir Richard Bingham Governor of Connaught, the Earls of Thomond and Clanrickard, the Baron of Athenrie, Sir Tyrrelagh O'Brien, Sir Richard Bourke Mac

"Elizabeth R.

"Ffirst, forasmuch as We have determyned to unite, and by theise presents do unite the Country of Thomond otherwise called the Countie of Clare to your goverment of Connaght as yt was in the tyme of Sir Edward Fitton or any other President* or governor of that province; Our pleasure is that you do carefully consider of the nomber of Baronyes within that Countie, and after view k consideracon of the same, to resarve upon the said Baronies such yerely somes of money, services of men, laborers in our works it cariadge horses by consent of the gentlemen and freeholders as ratably is resarved in the rest of Connaght by the late Composicons made by you there, the same to passe by Indentur betwene you k the said gentlemen of Thomond.

2. "Also that you have a spetiall regard to the comen quiet of that countrie of Thomonde and to prevents such hurts hereafter as have bene don betwene those of Thomond k the Inhabitaunts of Clanricard, severelie punisbinge those on both sides the mountayns that shall give any mayntenaunce to the proclaymed Rebels of the Bourks, & others that live in those parts, unlese they shalbe lycenced by you to gev them releefe when any such Rebell shalbe protected by you, k not otherwise.

3. "Also wheare by advice of our Counsell heere, wee have thought it necessary that the north parte of the cittie of Lymerick from Newgate upward where the Castell standeth, might sarve as the Shire towne for the Countie of Clare at the tyme of the assises, because a good June male be had there for tliorderly triall of all the Countrie causes, That uppon your impartinge of those our orders to the Lord Justice of that Bealme that he and you resolve upon som meane how to drawe the Haior k inhabitaunts of Lymerick to consente thereunto either by parliament or otherwise, or at least for a tyme tyll som apte place in Thomond maie at the Countrie chardges be

circuited with a wall, which we think not harde to be broght to passe in this peaceible tyme, wherein we are contented that the laborers to be resarved to us in the Composicons be imployed, fc do refer to you the choise of the place, W* we conceave maie fltlie be at Quyne, Killaloe, or Innis, yf Clare be not ours, but graunted to thearle of Thomond as We are enformid.

i. "Forther yt is to be wisshed that in every Countie of Connaght where there are not alredie apt k saulfe places for the keepinge of the Assises k Cessions, that the Countie at their chardges were induced by good perswacon Si not by constraynte, to circuit a convenyent place apte for a towne, with a wall of lyme & stone, wch places we are contente to incorporat with such liberties, to drawe inhabitaants to yt, as to other Corporacons of like situacon within that Realm have ben graunted: Ffor passinge of which graunta, these shalbe sufficient warrant to the Governor for the tyme beinge: which Our determynacon & desire to have theise places of strength builded, we will you in our name to signifie to all those under your govermente, so as every Countie performe one worke in the same, Judging that thaptest place be at Sligo for the County of Sligo, at Bures (Bvrisliool) for the County of Maio, at Roscoman for the Countie of Roscoman, & at Ballenasloe for the County of Galloway.

5. "And wheare O'Conor Sligo uppon a wronge Suggestion unto us of the small Circuit and disabilitie of his Countrie, obtayned of us a Warranto for a graunt to passe in Irelande for the fredom of his lands, in consideracon of c". Irish per annum, to be payed by hym, which graunte he hath nether passed there, nor obsarvid the condicons to be performed on his parte; we think it meete that ye treate with hym, to yelde to such Composicon as the rest of the captayns of Countries within that Province hare consented unto, ratibly accordinge to the quantetie of his countrie, which we thinke reasonable, as well in respect of our chardge and expences as selling a Goverment ther for defence of hym, and other of his qualitie, as also that the condicons to be observed by hym have not ben kepte accordinge to the worde and meaninge in our former graunte.

William William Eughter, Sir Donyll O'Connor Sligo, Sir Brian O'Royrke, Sir Morough ne Doe O'Flaherty, and others: reciting, "Wher our province of Connaught and Tho

6. "Also, we thinke yt convenyent that Connaght be restored to the auncyent boundes, & that the goverment thereof be under you, especially of all the lands of Connaght & Thomond, beinge within the waters of Shenyn, Loughrye, & Lough Erne; & because Maguyer chalengeth sum Hands in the Lough, & som uppon the tnayne uppon Connaght side, Our pleasure is that you make chalenge of a rente, by waie of Composicon, for so much therof as is out of Ulster, thinking yt also reasonable that for his lands in Connaght he shall beare with that province accordinge to the quantitie of the soyle, & to the Composicons resarved uppon others, wherein our pleasure is, he be as favorably dealte withal, as any other of Connaght that hath compounded (the goodness of the soyle considered).

7. "Also whereas at our chardge a bridge hath ben lately buylded at Ballenslowe uppon the river of Sucke, (c that there is great liklihode that the same should be shortlie overthrownc yf the Casusll there weare in the kepinge of thlrish, or any doubtfull or undutifull subject; We have thought mete in respect of our service that the said Castcll be contyneued in our hands & possession, being in the comen passadge to Galloway: And therfor do will you to kepe yt to our use, with a warde therm accordinge to the chardge now assigned in our establishment of thArmy, tyll such tyme as yt maie further be assured to us, either by release from the arle, by Composicon, or Act of parliament .

8. "Also where the arle of Ormond claymeth certayn lands in the Countrie called O'KeUies Countrey, & claymeth also by a graunt from us to have

IriSh ABCh. SOC. 15. 2

them free, whereuppon the fermors of the same landes deteyne xl11 per ann. wherewith you are chardged as parcell of the Composicons. We have ordred that the Earle shall, within twelve monethes next ensuinge, acquaynt our Counsell learned in that Realme with his tytlc, & yf yt fall out to be good and sufficient, then thearle shall be compounded withall & consideracon had of hym to the value, and you to receive the hole Composicon of the Okellies, And tyll the tytle be decided & the Earle satined, the said xl" per arm. shalbe allowed to you uppon your accompte yerely, by the Auditor for w'* this shalbe sufficient warrante to hym & to his Deputie.

9. "Also where Sir Edward Fiton late President in Connaght, hath in his custodie certeine books of the devicon of Connaght, & other conteyninge orders taken in his tyme, & bondes of recognisaunces forfeicted by divers persons to the some, as we be informed, of ten thousande pounds; Our pies' is that you repaire to our Justice, requiringe hym to demaund in our name the said bookes & bonds of the said Sir Edward; And that our said Justice cause a doble to be made of them, And the duplicate to be delivered to you, the originalls to remayne in our Exchequir there, wth the chiefe Remembrauncer of that Court. Nevertheles no execucon to be don in the levienge of the said debts, without the privitie of the lord Justice and the reste of our privie Counsell there.

10. "And we have thought good to let you knowe, that we take in good & acceptable parte the manner of your procedinge hetherto in your chardge, because you have used the sword no further than to such as have ben in open hostilitie and rebellyon, and that to the rest you have extended our clemency, after a mylde and curteous maner of dealinge; in wclt course we wysh you to continewe, beinge a matter most pleasinge to us, when we hire that our subjects shew their loialtie without force or con


mond, mond, through the contynuall dissention of the Lords and Chieftaines challenging authorities, cuttings and cessings, under pretexte of defending the people under their several rules, have run to all errors; and understanding the good inclination of these our subjects, through the good mynysterie of our truly and well beloved Sir John Perrott, our Deputy, &c . to embrace all good wayes and meanes that may be devised, to conserve them in our obedience, and their rights and titles reduced from the uncertaintye wherein it stood, to continue certain for ever hereafter." The commissioners were empowered to call before them "all the nobilitie, spiritual and temporal, and all the chieftaines and lords of the saide countries and barronies, and in lieu of the uncertain cease, cuttinge, and spendings aforesaid, to compound after their best discretions, and to devise and lay down all things that shall tend to the real good and quiet of that countrie; which after the passinge of the same by Indenture, is meant to be ratified by Act of Parliament."—Orig.

straynte to be used by our ministers: And therefor our pleasure is that you make often advertisments as well to our Justice there, (to whom the knowledge of the whole Realme appertayneth), as to us of the state of that Province, & of the particular disposicon of the chiefe gentlemen to our service, to thend that we may uppon your good report reward !t cherish those that be well affected to justice & obedience ; and on the contrarie parte, punish the wicked & ill-disposed wlh all seven tie.

11. "And where we have appoynted to you yerely, thympoet or custome of Wynes within the Towne of Gallaway, aa parcell of your intertaynement appoyntedinthestablishment; Our pleasure is that you do yerely indent with thofficer of our Casualties, or w* his deputie, as well for receipt of all such somes as shall growe uppon that ympost, as for fynes or any other casualties that shall com to your hands within your chardge: And for the fynes, we leave so much of them to your disposicon, aa you shall thinke good to bestowe either in the necessarie reparacons of our howses, or for reward of service under you, so as the same appere in your accompte, & be grounded uppon good & reasonable causes & respects, whereof we assure ourselves of your care & consideracon, that nothing shall be unnecessarily or vaynely bestowed.

12. "And forasmuch as nothing is more necessarie to be loked unto carefully by you, then that record be duly kepte, as well of all manner of composicons, as of all other rents, proffitts, or casualties that shall come unto us within your rule; we will that not onely in such cases, but in all controversies betwene partie & partie, thorders taken by you be regestred by the Clearke of the Counsel! in Connaght: And ffurther that all processes that shall passe from you for apparances or otherwise, be sent under the seale of the Province; & so likewyse for

proteccons w*h we wyshe not to be graunted, but in cases of greate necessitie.

"FRA. WALSTNGHAM." Rot. Pat. 21 EHz. M. 9,f. Rolls' Off. Dublin.

Secretary Walsingham's original draft of the foregoing "Orders," is still preserved in the Cotton Library, British Museum, Titus, B. XIL, No. 53, p. 226. It contains the following interesting clauses, which do not appear in the inrolment.

8. "Also, where we are desirus that a Colledge should be erected in the nature of an University in some convenient place of Irelande, for instructing and educacon of youth in leming. And that we conceive the town of Clonfcrt, within that province of Connaught, to be aptlie seated both for helth, and comodity of the ryver of Shenin running by it, and because it is also neere to the midle of the Realme, whereby all men may with small travell send their children thether, we have thought good that ye viewe the place, and consider with what charge the same may be circuited with a wall, and what buildings be there already, and what necessary to be addid, and what maintenance the Bishopricks of Clonfert and Elfine (if they were united to that Colledge) might give towards the exhibicon of leraid men there. And whether the other bishops of that Province be not sufficient for the same, if they were well divided into severall diocesses, of all which we will that you advertise your opinion to us; to thend we may hereafter give farder order to o' justice to assemble the Byshops of the hole Realme, for a contribuycon to be yeldid for the maintenance of lernid men in that or some other convenient place in Irlande: for we finde that the Runagates of that nacon, which under pretence of study in the Universities beyond the seas, doe retome freight with superstition and treason, are the very instrumentes to sturre up or subjects to undutifulnes and rebellion,

The following proposals were made by the Commissioners. "The Chieftaines of Countries, Gentlemen, and Free-holders of that Province of Connaught, to passe unto the Queenes Majesty, her Heirs and Successours, a graunt of tenne shillings


for whom we mean shortly to provide by parlement; and in the mean season, will you to apprehend all such as you shall lerne to remayne within yor rule, that be so evill affected.

10. "And wher Report hath bene made unto us, by or Deputy of that Realme and by you, that Sir John Burk, comonly called Afc William Euter, hath shewid great forwardnes in & service cmbrasing all civility, and shewing good example to the Irishe Captens there in their Competitions: For as much as it is also evident, that he is dissended of a noble house of Englishe race, we are therefore resolvid to nobilitate hym wth the Hon0' and Titell of an Erie, during his lief; and that his eldest sonne shall also be a Baron, to hym and to the heires males of his body, and to have estates accordingly of so much as is their own, with a talvo jure to all other that have right; for performance whereof under or Letters Patents we now send warrant to or justice accordingly: willing you to conferre with the said S' John Burk and his said sunne and heire, towching the names which they like to beare in their creacons, to thend it may be accom

plished accordinglie. The like order we have also given for Morroghe ne doe Ofiarty to be made a Baron. And therefore leave to our Justice and to you, to appoint a convenient tyme and place for their apparaunces before hym, to perfounne the ceremony of their creacons.

13. [Concludes as follows] "And whereas we understand, that divers howses freight with Friers remains in some parts of that Province unsuppressed; or plesr is that you cause them to abandon those places, and to compell them to chaunge their cotes, and to live according to or lawes; which howses may be apt places for the habitacon of such English men, as we meane shall have Estates in our lands in those parts."—Orig. draft.

Titus, B. XII., No. 143, p. 598, contains a revised transcript of the draft alluded to, but the three foregoing clauses are omitted. For "Sir John Burk, Mae William Enter," see ante, pp. 300-1; and Lodge, Ed. 1789, Vol IV. p. 288. He was commonly called Shane m6r, Johannes magnut, and died A. D. 1580. For "Morroghe na doe Oflarty," see ante, p. 60; and the sequel hereof.

English, or a marke Irish, upon every quarter of land containing 120 Acres, manured, or to be manured, as the phrase went, and was significantly set downe, that beares either horne or corne, that was, with tillage or cattell, in lieu and consideration to bee discharged from other Cess, taxation, or tallage, excepting the rising out of Horse and Foote, for the service of the Prince and State, such as should be particularly agreed upon, and some certaine dayes labour for building and fortifaction for the safety of the people and kingdome."—Government of Ireland under Sir John Perrot, Knight, 4toLondon, 1626, p. 80. The narrative then continues as follows: "According to which Commission, and the directions therein contained. These Commissioners did travaile through the several Counties of Connaught, first calling and conferring with the Lords, Chieftaines, Gentlemen, and Free-holders in their severall Precincts and Possessions, to finde their dispositions, how farre they were willing to condiscend, and yeeld to such a course, for the satisfaction of their Prince, and freedome of themselves from further burthens, to make their charge certaine, and that but small. These things well propounded, and discretely prosecuted: most, and in a manner, all the principall possessors of land in that Province, as they were generally dealt withall, did assent to this contribution."—Id*

The reasons which induced the aboriginal Irish lords and chieftains to "assent" so readily "to this contribution," are thus stated by a learned modern writer. "Harassed by the perpetual aggressions of the warlike English families, who had settled in the chief towns, and fenced themselves round with formidable castles and entrenchments—divided also by family feuds, and shorn in a great measure of their honours and power, the native princes gladly accommodated themselves to Perrot's proposals, in the hope of a settled form of government, and perhaps of revenge, as well as defence against the Anglo-Irish lords, their rivals in power, who were better armed and disciplined than they. The old leading families of that province surrendered the exorbitant power which they had hitherto exerted over their wretched vassals. But experience soon proved that the promised protection was inadequately afforded, and they quickly returned to their Irish customs, and easily prevailed on their vassals to be governed by the maxims of their brehon laws."—O'Conor, Cat. MSS. Stow. p. 123.


h Gratianus Lucius alludes to their proceedings as

follows Camb. Evers. p. 29. "Percurri scriptum,

quod iter quorundam a Joanne Perrotto Hibemise prorege, per Conaciam, & Tomoniam, anno post Christum natum 1585, stati redditus Regiiue; ac priscis possessoribus pncscribendi causa, delegatorum

accurate prosequitur. In toto illo decursu, nulla pene ditio fuit, in qua, originis Hibemicse possessor censum prisci tributi vice delegatis statuentibus non referrebat. Quod etiam non obscur£ scriptor rerum 'n Hibernia Joanne Perrotto prorege, gestarum innuit.—Lib. Imp. pag. 80. el seq."

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