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but he of the east had the worse. The Earl of Kildare was made knight of the garter, after the fight of Knocktow."

The foregoing description of the celebrated "field of Knock toe," in the old historical romance style, was apparently penned by a friend or retainer of the Howth family (probably some troubadour of the Pale), who flattered his patrons, but perverted the truth. That the narrator was ignorant of many leading facts connected with the subject, or that he has wilfully misrepresented them, appears from contemporaneous evidence of the highest authority. Thus, he has described the Anglo-Norman Clanrickard as a mere Irishman; and has next asserted that "O'Neill" was engaged in the battle, on the side of the lord deputy; but the contrary of this is recorded in the Annals of Ulster, A. D. 1504. Thither (to Knocktow) "went O'Donnel, O'Reilly, Mac Mahon, O'Farrell, O'Connor Faly, and all the Gaedhil of Leath Chuinn, excepting O'Neill, alone,—7 5aeo,l leice Cuinn uile, acc rhao O'Neill amain." See the copy of these Annals in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. Ware reduces the number of slain at Knocktow, from nine thousand to two thousand.—Annals, A. D. 1504. The speeches attributed to the leaders, and the night scene between Howth and Kildare, are all imaginary, and well adapted for dramatic representation.

The Book of Howth, from which the narrative has been taken, is a miscellaneous compilation of the sixteenth century; supposed to have been made for Christopher, the blind Baron of Howth, who died A. D. 1589; and who was grandson of that "lord of Howth," who is said to have performed so conspicuous a part in the battle. This book, for more than a century past, was supposed to be lost, but it has been recently discovered by Mr. O'Donovan, among the Carew MSS. preserved in the library of his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, at Lambeth, London, where it lay catalogued under a wrong title. The recovery of this book may be useful, if only to expose the origin of those fables, which Hanmer, Stanihurst, Cox, Leland, and other writers have advanced as true historical facts. From it, Hanmer published his accounts of Sir John De Courcy, and Sir Armoric St. Lawrence, ancestor of the Howth family. It likewise appears to have been consulted by Ussher and Ware. See the MS. F. 4, 4, Trinity College Library, Dublin. Also F. 4, 30, for "Extracts out of the Book of Howth, penes Thomas Stafford, Esq., very false in many particulars." By those best acquainted with our records and history, it has never been considered of authority, nor held in any other light than as a compilation of Anglo-Irish fables, invented to flatter and amuse the inhabitants of the Pale.

NOTE C. See page 3, note '. "Enachdun." In the sixth century, Aodha, the son of Eochy Tirmcharna, King of Connaught, bestowed Enachdun on God and Breanuinn (St Brendan of Clonfert), "Qooa mac

6acac 6acac Ciopmcapna mic pheapjupa po chioonuic Gunacouin oo t)hia ajup oo 6tipeanuinn ap cup."—Book of Ballymote, p. 54. The first ecclesiastical foundation here was a nunnery of canonesses of the order of St. Augustine, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary \ Ware), established by St. Brendan, who placed his sister Briga over it; and died here himself, according to the Annals of Tigernach, in A. D. 577; but according to the Four Masters (who here anticipate the common era by one year) on the 16th of May, A. D. 576. See Ussher, in Primord. p. 955, who states that Enachdun was "in provincia Connachtarum in plebe Huabruin." An abbey of Canons Regular, or Prffimonstratenses of the order of St. Augustine, was also founded here at an early period (Ware), but by whom is not stated. Enachdun was afterwards erected into a bishop's see, probably by the chiefs of Hy-Briuin Seola, the progenitors of the O'Flaherties; but there is no regular list or account extant of its ancient bishops. It is not named among the five sees of Connaught regulated at the synod held at Rath Breasaill, in Leaghes (thepresent Queen's County), A. D. 1110. Those sees were: 1. Tuaim da Gualan; 2. Cloinefeart Brenuin; 3. Conga; 4. Cilalladh; 5. Ardcharna. The see of Cong soon after this ceased; or, as is most likely, the episcopal chair was transferred to Enachdun, which is but a few miles distant. This synod made the following decree respecting Connaught: "If the clergy of Connaught be satisfied with the division, we are well pleased, but if not, let the division be made according to their own pleasure; onlie they shall have but five bishops in the province of Connaught." Harris, in Ware, was in the dark with respect to this synod; and even Dr. Lanigan himself appears not to have been fully informed on the subject . Seech. 25, ss. 13, 14. An account of this synod will be found in an old unpublished History of Ireland, preserved in manuscript in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. Ware, in his Antiq., cap. xvi. mentions ex antiquo codice, "Tuathal O'Connaigtaig episcopus Huambruin, i. Enachdunensis," as present at the synod of Kells, A. D. 1152, but Ware's explanation of Huambruin by Enachdun is doubtful; besides, no such bishop appears in the lists of Keating or Colgan, which are acknowledged accurate. Ware also states, in his Annals, since the coming of the English, that Concors, Bishop of Enachdun, with other Irish prelates, was present at the British Council held in A. D. 1189. See also Lanigan, c. 31, s. 7. At A. D. 1201, the Four Masters record the death of Conn O'Mellaigh (CPMalley), bishop of this see, and a bright ornament of the Church.

A. D. 1238, the Cloic Ceac, tower or steeple of Enachdun, was built Id.; but no

trace of it now remains. A. D. 1241, Muircheartach O'Flaherty, Bishop of Enachdun, died—Id. A. D. 1250, Thomas O'Meallaigh, Bishop of Enachdun, died.—Id. On the death of the latter, Bishop Concord was consecrated, but Florence Mac Flin, Archbishop of Tuam, entered on the see, and retained it against him. See Harris in Ware,

X 2 who quotes from Prynne some of the documents connected with this long continued dispute, particularly Archbishop Mac Flin's extraordinary petition to Hen. III. A. D. 1251, which states that "the church of Enachduin was but a parish church belonging to Tuam." In A. D. 1268, Hugh, the son of Connor O'Flaherty, official of Enachdun, died.—Four Masters. By the Close Roll, 2 Edw. II., A. D. 1309, it appears that one Gilbert, a Friar Minor, was elected to this see by the Dean and Chapter, but without license; and that the King, for a fine of £300, restored the temporalities.—Calendar, p. 7, No. 12. This bishop is not mentioned by Ware, Harris, or Lanigan. In A. D. 1328, Thomas O'Malley, Bishop of Enachdun, died at Rome, according to the Four Masters; but the Annals of Loughkee, quoted by Ware, state that he died at Avignon, in A. D. 1328, which was after the union of the see of Enachdun to Tuam.—Ware. In A. D. 1400, the church of Annadown (Enachdun), was built by O'Flaherty (Hugh Mor), chief of his name.—See an entry to that effect in the Herald's Office, Dublin; but it is probable that the church was only repaired, or partially re-edified, at the time. In A. D. 1411, the monastery was burned.—Four Masters. In A. D. 1484, the parish church of St. Nicholas of the town of Galway, being in the diocese of Enachdun, was erected into a collegiate church, and endowed with several ecclesiastical benefices which formerly belonged to that see.—Hist. Galway, p. 234. After the Suppression, the possessions of Enachdun were granted to the Earl of Clanricarde and others— Archdall, 789. All the buildings there are now in ruins.

The following Bulls of Popes Innocent VIII., Alexander VI., and Julius II., A. D. 1487-1511, relating to thediocess of Enachdun, have been transcribed by the Editor from the originals preserved in the old Collegiate Library of Gal way; and they are here inserted for the cogent reason assigned by De Burgo, for introducing similar documents: "Ne pro consueto Hibernorum infortunio, ne dicam negligentia, prorsus de memoria hominum deleantur."—Hib. Dom. p. 440.


"Bulla pro Par. de Gnowceg, A. D. 1487.
"Lecta in audientia. A Zenus, locum tenen.

"Innocentius episcopus servus servorum Dei, dilectis filiis Johanni de Burgo et Nemee Magnelly canonicis ecclesie Enachdunensis ac officialibus Enachdunensibus, salutem et apostolicam benedictionem. Apostolice sedis providentia circumspecta ad ea libenter intendit per que in singulis ecclesiis continue benedicatur altissimus, ac persone ecclesiastice in illis divinis laudibus insistentes, temporalium rerum, sine quibus spiritualia diu subsistere non possunt, ubertate fruantur. Cum itaque, sicut accepimus, rectoria parrochialium ecclesiarum de Gnobeg, Enachdunensis diocesis, invicem unitaram que de jure patronatus laicorum existet, ex eo quod dilectus filius Mauritius Offlaghart, olim rectoriam predictam, tunc certo modo vacantem et canonice sibi collatam, assecutus, illamque per annum et amplius pacifice possidens, se non fecit, impedimento cessante legitimo, nullaque per eum super hoc dispensacione obtenta ad aliquem ex sacris ordinibus promoveri, vacet ad presens, et tanto tempore vacaverit quod ejus collatio, juxta Lateranensis statuta concilii, est ad sedem predictam legitime devoluta, licet prefatus Mauritius, rectoriam predictam, sic vacante, nullo titulo, nullove juris adminiculo sibi de novo quesito, sed temeritate propria et de facto per nonnullos annos detinuerit, prout adhuc detinet indebite occupatam. Et ut exhibita nobis nuper, pro parte dilectorum filiorum moderni rectoris, Guardiani nuncupati, et octo presbiterorum ecclesie Sancti Nicholai ville Gallvie, dicte diocesis, inibi inter se collegium auctoritate apostolica constituentium, petitio continebat si rectoria predicta masse communium fructuum, reddituum et proventuum dicte ecclesie Sancti Nicholai, qui inter rectorem et octo presbiteros prefatos, qui inibi juxta dicti collegii institucionem in divinis deservire tenentur, dividuntur, et ad ipsorum sustentacionem non sufficient, perpetuo uniretur, annecteretur, et incorporaretur, ex hoc profecto commoditatibus rectoris et octo presbiterorum predictorum plurimum consuleretur, pro parte rectoris et presbiterorum offerentium masse quadraginta, et rectorie predictarum duodecim marcharum sterlingorum fructus, redditus et proventus, secundum communem estimationem 'valorem annuum non excedere, nobis fuit humiliter supplicatum, ut rectoriam predictam eidem masse perpetuo unire, annectere et incorporare, aliasque in premissis oportune providere, de benignitate apostolica dignaremur. Nos igitur, qui dudum inter alia, voluimus, statuimus et ordinavimus, quod quicunque beneficium ecclesiasticum tunc per annum immediate precedentem pacifice possessum, et quod certo modo vacare pretenderet, deinceps impetraret quot annis illud ipse possessor possedisset in hujusmodi impetratione exprimere deberet et teneretur, alioquin impetracio predicta, et quecunque indesecuta, nullius existerent firmitatis, quamque de predictis certam noticiam non habemus, prefatos rectorem et presbiteros ac eorum singulos a quibus excommunicationis, suspensionis et interdicti, aliisque ecclesiasticis sentenciis, censuris et penis, a jure vel ab homine, quavis occasione vel causa latis, si quibus quomodolibet innodati existunt, ad effectum presentium duntaxat consequendum, harum serie absolventes, et absolutos fore censentes, necnon tempus per quod prefatus Mauritius dictam rectoriam detinuit pro expresso habentes, hujusmodi supplicationibus inclinati, discretioni vestre, per apostolica scripta, mandamus, quatenus vos vel duo aut unus vestrum, si vocatis dicto Mauritio et aliis qui fuerint evocandi, rectoriam predictam, ut premittitur, vel alias quovis modo aut ex alterius cujuscunque persona, seu per liberam resignationem dicti Mauritii, vel alicujus alterius de illa extra Romanam Curiam, etiam coram notario publico et testibus sponte factam, aut constitutionem felicis recordationis Johannis Pape XXII., predecessoris nostri, que incipit 'Execrabilis,' vel assecutionem alterius beneficii ecclesiastici, ordinaria auctoritate, collati, vacare et quoad unionem hujusmodi premissa fore vera reppereritis rectoriam predictam, etiam si disposition! apostolice specialiter reservata existat, et super ea inter aliquos lis cujus statum presentibus haberi volumus, pro expresso pendeat indecisa, dummodo tempore dati presentium non sit in ea alicui jus specialiter quesitum, et ad id dictorum patronorum et aliorum, quorum interest, expressus accedat assensus, cum omnibus juribus et pertinenciis suis, eidem masse, auctoritate nostra, perpetuo unire, annectere et incorporare curetis. Ita quod liceat extunc rectori et presbiteris prefatis, per se vel alium seu alios, corporalem rectorie, juriumque et pertinenciarum predictorum, possessionem propria auctoritate libere apprehendere ac perpetuo retinere, illorumque fructus, redditus et proventus in suos ac masse et rectorie predictorum usus utilitatemque convertere, diocesani loci et cujusvis alterius licentia, alias super hoc minime requisita. Non obstantibus voluntate, statuto et ordinacione nostris predictis, ac pie memorie Bonifacii Pape VIII. etiam predecessoris nostri, et aliis apostolicis constitutionibus contrariis quibuscunque. Aut si aliqui super provisionibus sibi faciendis, de hujusmodi vel aliis beneficiis ecclesiasticis in illis partibus, speciales vel generales, dicte sedis vel legatorum ejus litteras impetrarint, etiam si per eas ad inhibitionem, reservationem et decretum, vel alias quomodolibet sit processum, quas quidem litteras et processus habitos per easdem ac indesecuta quecunque ad rectoriam hujusmodi volumus non extendi, sed nullum per hoc eis, quo ad assecutionem beneficiorum aliorum, prejudicium generari, et quibuslibet aliis privilegiis, indulgentiis et litteris apostolicis, generalibus vel specialibus, quorumcunque tenorum existant, per que presentibus non expressa vel totaliter non inserta, effectus earum impediri valeat quomodolibet vel differri, et de quibus quorumque totis tenoribus habenda sit in nostris litteris mencio specialis. Proviso qood propter unionem, annexionem et incorporationem predictas, si ille, vigore presentium, fiant, et effectum sorciuntur, dicta rectoria debitis non fraudetur obsequiis, et animarum cura in ea nullatenus negligatur, sed ejus congrue supportentur onera consueta. Nos enim ex nunc irritum decernimus et inane, si secus super hiis a quoquam, quavis auctoritate, scienter vel ignoranter, contigerit attemptari. Datum Rome apud Sanctum Petrum, Anno Incarnationis Dominice, millesimo, quadringentesimo octuagesimo septimo. Quarto Idus Februarii, Pontificatus nostri anno quarto."

[Sub plumbeo siffiMo pendente d JUo canabeo].

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