Gumuz and Highland Resettlers: Differing Strategies of Livelihood and Ethnic Relations in Metekel, Northwestern Ethiopia
This study, based on many years of field research, attempts to reveal the complex socio-cultural, economic, and environmental changes brought about by the state-sponsored resettlement scheme, Pawe, in the northwestern lowlands of Ethiopia. The autochthonous inhabitants of the area, the Nilo-Saharan-speaking Gumuz and practicing shifting cultivation, were confronted with a massive influx of about 80,000 relocated plough cultivators from various drought- and famine-stricken highland parts of the country. From the contradictory strategies of livelihood and resource management of these two groups serious conflicts evolved which have so far not yet been overcome.
Wolde-Selassie Abbute teaches at the University of Gttingen, Germany.
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Research Methodology and Theoretical
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Gumuz Inhabited Zones in BenishangulGumuz National
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Abbay River activities Addis Ababa administrative Agaw agricultural Amhara autochthonous Gumuz Bega Beles River Beles Valley resettlement belief systems chapter considered context crops cultural Dangur Dangur Woreda Dibati economic elders emerging encroachment environment environmental Ethiopia ethnic conflict ethnic groups exchange farm field finger millet forest gafia Gojjam Gondar Gumuz informants Hadiyya harvest highland resettlers households hunting iddir identity immigrant farmers inhabited institutional arrangements inter-ethnic interactions Kambaata kebele keya labour land resources livelihood adaptation livelihood resources livestock located lowlands Maataaba mainly Mandura mangima marriage ment Metekel Metekel Zone natural resource management neighbouring non-Gumuz organisations Oromo oxen Pawe Special Woreda peasants plots plow cultivators population practice primordialist production relations relocation reset resettlement area resettlement scheme resettlement villages ritual role Scudder season sharecropping shifting cultivation Shinasha Shuwa social institutions socio-cultural soil state-sponsored resettlers stress swidden tion tlers Total traditional Wolde-Selassie Wollo women