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The Compiler of this volume is a native of Michigan, and although long an exile from its borders, he has never lost his affection for the beautiful country. He has revisited it a number of times, and in a former publication did what he could to make known its physical attractions and aboriginal lore. Whilst cognizant of the fact that an admirable History of the Territory was in existence, and that one or two good Gazetteers of the State had been published, he felt convinced that there was still needed, for the use of the general public, a more comprehensive volume, and that want he has now endeavored to supply. His leading object has been to prepare an authentic book of reference, rather than to make any display as a writer; and while he has been contented to perform the duties of a literary scout, the success of his present enterprise has been assured by the effective artillery of James H. Lanman and General John Robertson. To the first, who is a relative of the Compiler, he is indebted for the history of the Territory, from its earliest settlement down to the organization of the State; and the latter, who was the able and indefatigable Adjutant-General of Michigan during the War for the Union, has contributed a complete account of the important part which the State took in subduing the Rebellion. Not only has he chronicled the action of the Legislature, but he has taken special care to place upon the record, in compact form, the heroic achievements of the Officers and Soldiers who have honorably identified their names with the State of their nativity or adoption.

With regard to the biographical part of this volume, the Compiler alone is responsible. Although most of this information has been obtained from original sources, he did not deem it advisable to amplify his records more than was absolutely necessary. He regrets, however, that a few of his notices are more brief than they should have been; and, if any persons have been omitted altogether, who deserved notice on account of their association

with Michigan, it is because his efforts to obtain the proper data were unsuccessful. His leading intention has been merely to give the salient points in the lives of the persons who pass under consideration, referring the reader, who may desire further information, either to the historical narratives in the present volume, or to the more elaborate biographies hitherto published. Indeed, so far as the numerous officers are concerned, who acquired reputation during the Rebellion, or died the death of heroes, their services were found to have been so well depicted by General Robertson, that the Compiler has generally omitted their names altogether in his department of the work. To the many friends who have kindly assisted him, by their correspondence, he would tender his grateful acknowledgements. And, to the People of Michigan, he now dedicates this Historical Record, as an expression of his regard for their superior intelligence, persevering enterprise and exalted patriotism.


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General Description of the State.-Its Soil and Scenery; Heavily Timbered Land;

Oak Openings; Burr Oak Plains; Prairies; Rivers ; Lakes; Wild Ani

mals; Birds and Fishes ......
First Advance of the French Missionaries and Travellers.-Brebeuf; Daniel ; Pijart;

Raymbault; First Arrival of White Men at Saut de Ste. Marie ; Father
Jacques Bressani; Chaumonotot; Claude Dablon; Mesnard; Lallemand;
Dreuillette; Gareau; Mesnard Advances to Che-goi-ne-gon; Allouez; Mar-
quette ; Indian Council at Saut de Ste. Marie ; Marquette's Explorations and
Death ; La Salle; His Explorations; Michilimackinac Founded; Death of
La Salle ; Saut de Ste. Marie; Fort St. Joseph ; Detroit Founded by Cadil.
lac; Early Condition ; Attacked by Ottawas and Foxes; Hennepin ; La
Hontan; Charlevoix ; Their Operations on Lakes Erie, Huron, Michi-

gan, and Superior ......
Colonial Pioneers.—Merchants; The Rangers of the Woods; The French Peas-

antry; The Jesuits ; French Soldiers ; French Policy; Indian Mythology;

Frontier Posts, and the Fur Trade at Michilimackinac and Detroit......
Struggle Between France and England for Possession - The Iroquois and Algonquins;

British Troops Advance into Canada; Battle of Quebec ; Death of Wolfe
and Montcalm; British Detachment under Rogers takes Possession of
Michigan ; Rogers traverses Lake Erie; Pontiac makes his First Appear-

ance; Bellestre ; Surrender of Detroit.................................................... Condition of the Country under the English-Pontiac forms a Confederacy to attack

the English Posts; War breaks out; Siege of Detroit; Battle of Bloody
Bridge; Indians assemble around Michilimackinac ; Minavavana; Alex-
ander Henry; Wawatam; Michilimackinac destroyed; General Brad-

street arrives ; Peace concluded; Death of Pontiac ......
The Fur Trade and American Independence.--Hudson's Bay Company; English

Administration of the Law; Criminal Trial ; Quebec Act; Mineral Rock
or Lake Superior; North-west Company; American Revolution; Expedi-
tions from Detroit; Indian Council held at Detroit; American Indepen-

dence established....
Organization of the North-western Territory.--Arthur St. Clair appointed Governor;

English refuse to surrender the Posts : Indian Disaffection; Indian Coun-,








cil at Detroit; Message from the Spanish Settlements on the Banks of the
Mississippi ; Campaign of General Harmar; Campaign of General St.
Clair; Campaign of General Wayne; Extension of French Settlements ;
Micbigan surrendered to the United States; Condition of the Territory in

connection with the Fur Trade; Currency employed in the Fur Trade ...... Condition after the Surrender of the Posts.- Michigan erected into a Territory; Gen

eral Hull appointed Governor; Detroit destroyed by Fire; Administration
of the Law; Third Indian Confedera y under Tecumseh and the Prophet;
Le Marquoit; Land Office established; Walk-in-the-Water ; Population
in 1811 ; Memorial from Michigan praying Aid from the General Govern-
ment; Savage Outbreak; Operations on the Wabash; American Fur

War between Great Britain and the United States.- Defenceless condition of Michi- .

gan; Representations of William Hull; Appointed to Command the West-
ern Army; Crosses to Sandwich and Addresses the Canadians ; Policy of
Prevost; Surrender of Detroit; Tecumseh ; Conduct of Hull; Expedition
to the River Raisin ; Capture of Chicago ; Battle of the River Raisin ;
General Harrison's Campaign ; Commodore Ferry; His Victory on Lake
Erie; General Harrison arrives at Malden ; Marches to Detroit; Battle of
the Thames ; Death of Tecumseh ; His Character; Attack on Mackinaw; ;

Peace concluded .........
Transition from Territory to State.Lewis Cass appointed Governor of the Terri-

tory; Its Condition at that Time; l'ublic Lands brought into Market;
First Steamboat on the Lakes; University Founded ; Expedition to Explore
the Lakes; The Clinton Canal; G. B. Porter appointed Governor; Mode

of making Surveys; Controversy with Ohio; State Organized .....
History as a State and Present Condition.Admission of Michigan into the Union

as a State ; Stevens T. Mason the first elective Governor; Act passed for
establisbing University of Michigan; Other Events of his Administration;
Organization of the Militia ; Administration of William Woodbridge and
J. Wright Gordon; Branches of University Established; Grand Lodge of
Free Masons; John S. Barry Elected Governor; Administration of Alpheus
Felch and William L. Greenly ; Epaphroditus Ransom elected Governor;
Progress of Agriculture; Re-election of Governor Barry; Great Rail-
road Conspiracy Case; Commercial Advantages of Michigan; Adminis-
tration of Robert McClelland and Andrew Parsons; Election and Re-elec-
tion of Kinsley S. Bingham ; Ship Canal at the Falls of St. Mary; Moses
Wisner elected Governor; Election to the same Office of Austin Blair,
Henry H. Crapo, and Henry P. Baldwin; and Complete List of Governors

under French, English, and American Rule...........
Education.University of Michigan; Its Professors and Instructors; General

Features; Homeopathic Controversy ; Action on the Admission of Women
as Students: Possessions and Advantages; Observatory; Adrian College ;
Albion College ; Kalamazoo College ; Michigan Female College; State
Agricultural College; Hillsdale College; Public Schools of the State;
State Normal School; State Reform School; Asylum for the Deaf, Dumb
and Blind; Superintendents of Public Instruction ; Asylum for the In-
sane; State Prison ; Public School Statistics; Union School System, and
List of Incorporated Literary Institutions.....


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Agriculture.- Population and Statistics; Government Lands; Value of Crops ;

Fruit Culture; Counties of the State ; Increase of Population.......
Mineral Wealth.--Copper Interest of Lake Superior ; Iron Interest of the Same;

Salt Springs of Saginaw - Plaster Beds of the Grand River; Magnetic
Waters of Eaton Rapids; Chronological History of Geological Explora-

tions in Michigan.......
Railroads.—Michigan Central Railroad and its Branches; Michigan Southern

Railroad and Branches; Detroit and Milwaukee Railroad; Flint and Pere
Marquette Railroad; Amboy, Lansing and Traverse Bay Railroad ; Condi-
tion of New Railroads......



Lumbering Interest.--The Pine Forests ; The Hard-wood Forests; Amount of

Lumber Manufactured; Climate of the Lumber Region ; Various Attrac-
tions .......


The Fisheries.—Their Commercial Value; Variety of Fish Taken ; Principal Lo

calities where the Business is Carried on...............



Commerce.—The Great Lakes; Their Coast Line and Area; The Steamboat and

other Shipping; European Consumers of Grain; The Northern Peninsula;
The Southern Peninsula; Resources of the State ; Ship Canal of St.

Mary; Indebtedness of the State; Banking Institutions.......
The Indians and Antiquities of the State.-The Number of Indians in the State ;

Their Annuities and Condition; Ancient Gardens and Mounds; Ancient
Mining on Lake Superior; The Mound Builders ; Indian Names of Michi-

Recent Developments.—The Grand Traverse Region; The Sand Dunes on Lake

Michigan; The Saginaw Valley, Its Lumber, Salt Springs and Gypsum
Beds ; The Straits of Mackinaw; Mackinaw City; The Cheboygan Re-

gion, its Lumbering and Agricultural Interests..... Notes.-Order of Odd-Fellows; Nativities of Population








Military Department of Michigan from 1861 to 1871.........
Prefatory Notes.---Love of Michigan for the Old Flag; Necessity of an Historical

Record; Origin of the Information .................................... ...... ........
Introductory.—The American Rebellion; Unprepared condition of Michigan; Val-

edictory Message of Governor Moses Wisner; Sentiments of Governor
Austin Blair; War Meeting in Detroit ; Flag Song of Michigan Troops ;
Organization of Troops and provision for Ways and Means; Special Session

of the Legislature and its Action ; Curious Telegram.....
Raising of Troops.—The First Regiments; The Secretary of War to the Governor

of Michigan; Camp of Instruction; Progress of Recruiting; Message of Governor Blair; Action of the Legislature; Re-inforcements Demanded; Action of the Adjutant General; Patriotism of the Churches; Additional


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