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The trebly hundred triumphs.
Stanza lxxxii, line 2. Orosius gives three hundred and twenty for the number of tri. umplis. He is followed by Panvinius; and Panvinius by Mr. Gibbon and the modern writers
Oh thou, whose chariot rolld on Fortune's wheel, &c. .
Stanza lxxxiii. line 1. Certainly were it not for these two traits in the life of Sylla, al. luded to in this stanza, we should regard him as a monster unredeemed by any admirable quality. The atonement of his voluntary resignation of empire may perhaps be accepted by us, as it seems to bave satisfied the Romans, who is they had not respected must have destroyed him "There could be no mean, no division of opinion; they must have all thought, like Eucrates, that what had appeared ambition was a love of glory, and that what had been mistaken for pride was a real grandeur of soul !*
And laid him with the earth's preceding clay.
Stanza lxxxvi. line 4. On the third of September Cromwell gained the victory of Dunbar; a year afterwards he obtained his crowning mercy" of Worcester; and a few years after, on the same day, which he had ever esteemed the most fortunate for him, died.
Stapza lxxxvii. lines 1 and 2. The projected division of the Spada Pompey has already been recorded by the historian of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Emdire. Mr. Gibbon found it in the memorials of Flaminius Vacca,t
and it may be added to his mention of it that Pope Julius III. gave the contending owners five hundred crowns for the statue; and presepted it to Cardinal Capo di Ferro, who had prevented the judgment of Solomon from being executed upon the image. In a more civilized age this statue was exposed to an actual operation : for the French who acted the Brutus of Voltaire in the Coliseum, resolved that their Cesar should fall at the base of that Pompey, which was supposed to have been sprinkled with the blood of the original dictator. The nine foot hero was therefore removed to the arena of the amphitheatre, and to facilitate its transport suffered the temporary amputation of its right arm The republican tragedians had to plead that the arm was a restoration : but their accusers do not believe that the integrity of the statue would have protected it. The love of finding every coincidence has discovered the true Cæsarean jebor in a stain near the right knee ; but colder criticism has rejected not only the blood but the portrait, and assigned the globe of power rather to the first of the emperors than to the last of the republican masters of Rome Winkelmann* is loth to allow an heroic statue of a Roman citizen, but the Grimani Agrippa, a cotemporary almost, is heroic; and naked Roman figures were only very rare, not absolutely forbidden The face accords much better with the * hominem integrum et castum et gravem.”+ than with any of the busts of August us, and is too stern for him who was beautiful, says Suetonius, at all periods of his life. The pretended likeness to Alexander the Great cannot be discerned, but the traits resemble the medal of Pompey. I The objectionable globe may not have been an ill applied flattery to him who found Asia Minor the boundary and left it the centre of the Roman empire. It seems that Winkelmann has made a mistake in thinking that po proof of the identity of this statue, with that which received the bloody sacrifice, can be derived from the spot wbere it was discovered.ll Flaminius Vacca says sotto una cantina, and this cantina is known to have been in the Vicolo de' Leutari near the Cancellaria, a position corresponding exactly to that of the Janus before the basilica of Pompey's theatre, to which Augustus transferred the statue after the curia was
* Storia delle arti, &c. lib. ix. cap. 1. page 321, 322, tom ji.
either burnt, or taken down.* Part of the Pompeian shade,t the portico, existed in the beginning of the XVth century, and the atrium was still called Satrum. So says Blondus. At all events, so imposing is the stern majesty of the statue, and so memorable is the story, that the play of the imagination leaves no room for the exercise of the judgment, and the fiction, if a fiction it is, operates on the spectator with an effect not less powerful than truth.
And thou, the thunder-stricken nurse of Rome!
Stanza lxxxviii. line 1. Ancient Rome, like modern Sienna, abounded most probably with images of the foster-mother of her founder: but there were two she-wolves of whom history makes particular mention One of these, of brass in ancient work, was seen by Dionysius) at the tempie of Romulus, under the Palatine, and is universally believed to be that mentioned by the Latin historian, as having been made from the money collected by a fine on usurers, and as standing under the Ruminal fig-tree. The other was that which Cicero** has celebrated both in prose and verse, and which the historian Dion also records as having suffered the same accident as is alluded to by
* Sueton. in vit. August cap. 31, and in vit C. J Cæsar, cap. 88. Appian says it was burnt down. See a note of Pitiscus to Suetopius, pag. 224 † " Tu modo Pompeia lenta spatiare sub umbra.”
Ovid. Ar. Aman. | Roma instaurata, lib. ii. fo 31. || Xéén xes robusta Tanac's spacias. Antiq. Rom. lib 1.
« Ad ficum Ruminalem simulacra infantium conditorum urbis sub uberibus lupæ posuerunt." Liv. Hist. lib x. cap Ixi. This was in the year U C. 455, or 457.
*** Tum statua Nattæ, tum simulacra Deorum, Romulusque et Remus cum altrice bellua vi fulminis icti conciderunt." De Divinat. ij. 20 " Tactus est ille etiam qui hanc urbem condidit Romulus, quem inauratum in Capitolio parvum atque lactantem, uberibus lupinis inhiantem fuisse meministis." In Catilin. iii. 8.
* Hic silvestris erat Romani noininis altrix
De Consulatu. lib.ii. (lib i de Divinat. cap.ji.)
the orator.* The question agitated by the antiquaries is, whether the wolf now in the conservators' palace is that of Livy and Dionysius, or that of Cicero, or whether it is neither one or the other. The earlier writers differ as much as the moderns : Lucius Faunust says, that it is tbe one alluded to by both, wbich is impossible, and also by Virgil, which may be. Fulvius Ursinust calls it the wolf of Dionysius, and Marlianus|| talks of it as the one mentioned by Cicero. To him Rycquius tremblingly assents. Nardini is inclined to suppose it may be one of the many wolves preserved in ancient Rome: but of the two rather bends to the Ciceronian statue ** Montfauconit mentions it as a point without doubt. or the latter
writer's the decisive Winkelmann* proclaims it as having been found at the church of Saint Theodore, where, or near where, was the temple of Romulus, and consequently makes it the wolf of Dionysius. His authority is Lucius Faunus, who, however, only says that it was placed, not found, at the Ficus Ruminalis by the Comitium, by which he does not seem to allude to the church of Saint Theodore. Rycquius was the first to make the mistake, and Winkelmann followed Rycquius.
Flaminius Vacca tells quite a different story, and says he had heard the wolf with the twins was foundt near the arch of Septimius Severus. The commentator on Winkelmann is of the same opinion with that learned person, and is incensed at Nardini for not having remarked that Cicero, in speaking of the wolf struck with lightoing in the Capitol, makes use of the past tense. But, with the Abate's leave, Nardini does not positively assert the statue to be that mentioned by Cicero, and, if he had, the assumption would not perhaps have been so exceedingly indiscreet. The Abate himself is obliged to own that there are marks very like the scathing of lightning in the hinder legs of the present wolf; and, to get rid of this, adds, that the wolf seen by Dionysius might have been also struck by lightning, or otherwise injured.
Let us examine the subject by a reference to the words of Cicero. The orator in two places seems to particularize the Romulus and the Remus, especially the first, which his audience remembered to have been in the Capitol, as being struck with lightning. In his verses he records that the twins and wolf both fell, and that the latter left behind the marks of her feet. Cicero does not say that the wolf was consumed: and Dion only mentions that it fell down, without alluding, as the Abate has made him, to the force of the blow, or the firmness with which it had been fixed. The whole strength, therefore, of the Abate's argument, hangs upon the past teose; which, however, may be somewhat diminished by remarking that the phrase only shows that the statue was not then standing in its former position. Winkelmanu has observed, that the present
* Storia delle arti, &c. lib. iii. cap. iii & ji. note 10. Winkelmann has made a strange blunder in the note, by saying the Cicetonian wolf was not in the Capitol, and that Dion was wrong in saying so.
«Intesi dire, che l'Ercolo di bronzo, che oggi si trova nella sala di Campidoglio, fu trovato nel foro Romano appresso l'arco di Settimio; e vi fu trovata anche la lupa di bronzo che allata Romolo e Remo, e stà nella Loggia de conservatori." Flam. Vacca. Memorie. num. iii. pag. 1. ap. Montfaucon Diar. Ital. tom i.