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June

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Noy.
Sept.
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October 160.47
August 175.91
February (35.99
January 35.020

135.90
145.37
68.43
176.49
65.91
56.11
47.80

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80.37

66
54

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215 150 31 77-100

3 60-100 1 41-100

CAPTAIN REED. The arrival of several of the officers of the Vixen enables us to publish a more particular account of the loss of that vessel, and the death of her gallant commander,

Capt. Reed, an officer so eminently entitled to the usual Mean Tem

biographical memorial. perature.

He was the youngest son of the late President Reed,

of Pennsylvania, and received the honour of his name Maximum.

from Gen. Washington, at a time when that illustrious person was in habits of confidential intimacy with his

father. Such were the early auspices of a man, who 887066 Minimum.

in the morning of life an inscrutable Providence has Range of

consigned to an untimely death. After receiving a libe***% 789 Thermom. ral collegiate education and graduating at Princeton,

Capt. Reed entered the navy; and as he regularly rose through all the various stations from midshipman to mas

ter and commander, was always distinguished for intreHottest days pidity, scientific and practical seamanship, unexception

able deportment, in subordination and in command, ដ្ឋ

with every other endowment for the highest rank of that honourable profession, which has just exalted its adepts to the summit of maritime ascendancy, at the very mo

ment when the subject of this article has descended into Coldest days.

the tomb.

In private life his characteristics were probity, cheerfulness, extensive intellectual acquirements, a most un

affected diffidence of his own sterling merit-together Number of with a general sobriety and chasteness of conduct, a due fair days. sense of moral and religious obligations, not always the Number of

recommendations and sometimes not even the aim of Cloudy days.

young gentlemen of the sword.
He

acted as 2d lieutenant of the Nautilus in the memo

rable attack on Tripoli, in August 1806, after the deatla Depth of of Capt. Somers; and 1st lieutenant James Decatur took Rain.

command of that vessel, stood into the harbour with the

utmost gallantry and skilfulness, and effectually cover. Z ZA

ed the gun-boats in their operations. For his conduct on that occasion he was noticed by Com. Preble in his general orders, issued on the termination of that bold and successful enterprize. Lieut. Reed afterwards accompanied Gen. Eaton's detachment to the coast of Africa, and served on board the vessel which co-operated with him on that romantic expedition.

When war was declared against England last summer Capt. Reed solicited employment, though his health was extremely delicate. He was ordered to a command to the southward, whither be repaired immediately notwithstanding the unhealthiness of the climate at that season. The death of Capt. Gadsden preferred him to the command of the brig Vixen. The sea air, in a great degree restored his health: but it was his peculiar hard fate to be captured by a force so superior as to preclude any contest, (the Southampton frigate) then to be shipwrecked on an inhospitable coast, and finally to die a prisoner among strangers. During all these reverses, however, he preserved that equanimity and resolution which never forsook him. When the Southampton and Vixen ran ashore, in the night, the English crew became mutinous from intoxication, and what was saved from the wrecks was principally due to the exertions of the American seamen, under the direction and encou. ragement of Capt. Reed. For this generous interposition he received the public acknowledgments of Sir James Yeo, the British commander, and an offer of his

parole to return home, but would not leare his officers Prevailing winds of the year, N. W., S. W.

and men behind him, and chose rather to remain with Total of the year, 31 77-100 inches.

them in the unwholesome atmosphere of which he was, Hottest month, July.

unfortunately, the first victim. He died, after four days Coldest month, February.

illness, of a fever brought on by the fatigues, anxiety, Greatest range of Thermometer occurred in Decem- and exposures incident to his painful and mortifying siber, 44o.

tuation. His enemies paid those honours to his remains The mercury was the highest July 21st and 23d, 91° which the brave of all nations render to each other. His -lowest, December 13th, 12o.

interment was attended by the British officers, and a deThunder and lightning occurred in sixteen days. tachment from the garrison, who committed him to the lean temperature of the year 56.98.

earth with the ceremonies of a military funcral. Mean temperature of 1824, 55.36°

The naval annals of his own country now blazing with [.American Journ. Med. Sciences. recent renown, will not withhold a suitable testimonial

N. W., s. W

THERMOMETER.
RESULT OF METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS, MADE ON TINICUM ISLAND IN THE YEAR 1825. Br Dr. G. F. LEHMAN

Prevailing Winds.

3
3 34-100
1 64-100
1 2-100
4 29-100
4 91-100
1 69-100

S. W., S., S. E.

N. W., N. E.
1 96-100 S. W., N. W., N. E. Very hot, dry and fair.

N. E., S. W
N. E., N. w.

N. W., S. W.
3 69-100 N. E., S. W., N. W. Moderate, fair and agreeable.

Fair and moderate, cool.
Very fair, dry and warm.
Hot, moist, and favourable to vegetation.

Fair, pleasant and dry.
Cool, wet and unpleasant.
Fair, dry and mild.
Cloudy, wet and disagreeable.

Cold and variable. Dry, moderate, and pleasant.

Prevailing Weather of each month.

IN

to the memory of an officer, whose lot it was at such a low this place, and a quarter of a mile from his house: time to undergo the total frustration of his ambition, and His three sons, three sons of Mr. Samuel Sloan, and shipwreck, and captivity, and an untimely death.---Nat. three other young men, two of whom were strangers Intel. 1813.

from the lower part of Ohio, were at work in a wheat

field previous to the tempest. Very imprudently, they Extract from a Jamaica paper of the 5th July 1828. repaired to a large elm tree for shelter from the raise

“We noticed in a former number the arrival of the U. which came down in torrents. A sickle had been stuck S. schr. Grampus. We were not then aware of the into the bark of the tree as high as one could reach.precise object of ber visit. She was directed to bring some of the young men stood leaning against the tree, out a tomb-stone to be placed over the grave of Capt. one directly under the sickle, James Van Horne just be Reed, who is buried in the church yard of Spanish town. fore this one, others were seated on the roots of the

“Through the indulgence of the gentlemen to whom tree jutting above the ground, and one was under a the stone is addressed, we have had an opportunity of shock of wheat perhaps a rod off. viewing a beautiful slab of marble, with the following The lightning struck the top of the tree, and 15 or feeling record of the remembrance in which the friends 20 feet from the root, the body, gouging out a furrow. of the deceased cherish the kindness shown to him in At a moment little expected, all these nine young men captivity."

were instantly senseless!

It is painful to add that Joseph Sloan was killed; yet, Memory of

wonderful to relate, the rest escaped with their lives! GEORGE WASHINGTON REED,

He was seated.on a large projecting root of the tree.Master Commandant in the Navy of the The lightning struck his head, temples, back of his neck, UNITED STATES:

and passing under his chin, went off following his body Born at Philadelphia, May 26, 1780.

in various directions. He was at the age of nearly sixCaptured in the United States' brig of War VIXEN, teen years, the eldest son of his parents, an active and Under his Command,

promising youth, on whom his enfeebled father dependBy H. B. M. Frigate Southampton.

ed much for aid in supporting his large family. It is He died a Prisoner of War at this place, supposed that all the survivors must have remained in a January 4, 1813.

senseless state, about half an hour-none in the neighUnwilling to forsake his companions in captivity, he de bourhood suspecting the calamity till one of the young

clined a proffered Parole, and sunk under a Tropical men who was so far recovered as to give the alarm. He Fever.

hastened home, and like one of the messengers of Job, This Stone

as soon as he entered the house, exclaimed-mother they Is inscribed by the hand of Affection as a Memorial of are all dead but I. The feeling of a tender mother, unhis virtues,

forewarned, on receiving such tidings, may be conceivAnd records the gratitude of his Friends for the kind ed, but cannot be expressed. A messenger was desoffices which, in the season of sickness, and hour patched for a physician, and others with a wagon to the of death, he received at the hands of

fatal spot, and all were brought in the wagon except A generous Foe.

one, who by this time with some assistance, was able to

walk. MILL CREEK.

James Van Horne remained senseless for some hours, The head of the Schuylkill Canal, since the extension and for a time it was feared that the vital spark had fled. of the work, is Mill Creek. At the junction of that Dr. Bemus arriving soon, threw upon him a bucket of stream with the Schuylkill, a village is already laid out; cold water, which had a favourable resuscitating effect; and although at present rather wild and rugged in its put his blood into circulation, so that he was very much appearance, we have no doubt it will in a short time be- relieved by the lancetiyet the exercise of his reason was come a flourishing place. The site is directly on the not recovered till late in the evening. He is still consicanal, where commodious wharves and landings are now dered as in a critical situation. being built. The village has received the name of Port The rest who were providentially spared with life, Carbon.

are in a hopeful way, yet most of them complain of much In the very precincts of the place, several mines of soreness. Their hair was singed; a boot of one was ripsuperior coal have been opened, and as there is a gradual ped and tore at the sole; the waistcoat of another had a descent from the mines to the town, the facilities for large perforation; and most of them have livid streaks in transportation are very superior. In viewing the site of various parts of their bodies. It is worthy of remark, the village and its vicinity, we were attracted by a very that upon the breast and other parts of the body of Jocheap and simply constructed rail road, laid by Mr. seph Sloan, were distinct and well-defined impressions Abraham Pott, from the landings into a fine vein of coal of elm twigs and leaves with the minutest ramification of which he has just opened. The rails are entirely of their numerous fibres a number of such twigs and wood, and it is not intended to plate them with iron. leaves having been torn from a limb a little above bim, "This, it is true, will increase the friction, and conse and lying on the ground about him--the effect of the quently the resistance to the cars, but the road is so gra- lightning.-- Norristown Register. duated, that one horse may with ease draw ten tons, or from 50 to 75 tons a day. The coal in the neighbour. Coal Trade of the Schuylkill. ---Shipments of Coal from hood of Port Carbon is as plentiful and of as good qua. Mount Carbon to Philadelphia: lity as in any part of Schuylkill county.

Tons. [Miner's Journal. Week ending ending 9th inst. 79 boats carrying 2,1624 Per last report,

909 do do 22,844 Meadville, ( Pa.) July 31. On Thursday afternoon, the 24th inst . a severe thun. Total

988

25,0065 der gust passed over our village. A portion of the elec. tric fuid struck two trees in front of Mr. Gibson's hotel, Printed every Saturday morning by William F. Ged. when he and another gentleman were within a few feet des, No. 59 Locast street, Philadelphia; where, and at of its effects; yet neither they nor any others were in the Editor's residence, No. 51 Filbert street, subscripjured, though several in the vicinity perceived a sensible tions will be thankfully received. Price five dollars per shock.

annum-payable in six months after the commencement A little after the above noticed explosion, about 4 of publication and annually, thereafter, by subscribers o'clock, a most painful and alarming scene was exhibit- resident in or near the city or where there is an agented on the farm of Mr. Cornelius Van Horne, a mile be. Other subscribers pay in advance.

THE

REGISTER OF PENNSYLVANIA.

DEVOTED TO THE PRESENTATION OF EVERY KIND OF USEFUL INFORMATION RESPECTING TAB STATE.

EDITED BY SAMUEL HAZARD, NO. 51, FILBERT STREET.

VOL. II.-NO. 6.

PHILADELPHIA, AUGUST 23, 1828.

NO. 34.

PITTSBURG MINERAL SPRING.

1. Examination of the contenis of the water by tests and A Chemical Analysis of the Pittsburgh Mineral Spring.

reagents. BY WILLIAM MEADE, M. D. From Professor Silliman's Journal, April 1828.

Exper. 1. Litmus paper when dipped into the water Sir-A mineral spring having been lately discovered fresh from the spring has its colour immediately changed on the estate of J. S. Scully, Esq. near Pittsburg, in from blae to red, but the colour is fugacious: nor will the state of Pennsylvania, which had attracted consider. sive proof that this change was produced by the preable attention, I was favoured by the proprietor with a few bottles of the water carefully put up, with a request fixed acid.

sence of uncombined carbonic acid gas, and not by a that I would make a chemical analysis of it, with some observations on its medical qualities. The result of this

2. Paper stained with tumeric is not changed in colour analysis I now take the liberty of sending to you, toge by this water, nor could it well be expected as the carther with some extracts from the remarks which I have bonic acid gas would repress the effect of this test. made on the general properties of a class of mineral wa. 3. Lime water produces an immediate turbidness and ters, which are ranked as chalybeates, and which are precipitation when added to this water, yet a variety of not uncommon in this country, though not generally circumstances are to be attended to in the application of known, or their valuable properties fully appreciated. this test. The usual directions which are given are, If you think the subject of any interest to the public, or that the lime water shall be added to it in equal quan that such an inquiry is within the limits of those branches tity: This, however, if the mineral water is saturated of science, to which your useful Journal is appropriated, with carbonic acid, as in the case of the Ballston water, this communication is perfectly at your service. is too much, and if the water contains but little carbonic I am, sir, very respectfully, yours,

acid, it is not sufficient to decompose the same water,

W. MEADE. in order therefore to ensure a complete and permanent The Pittsburg Mineral Spring, is pleasantly situated precipitation of the lime, it requires four cubic inches of on the farm of John S. Scully. Esq. in St. Clair town- the water of this spring to decompose three cubic inches ship, Allegheny county, four miles south-west of the city of lime. It is evident, therefore, that the greater quanof Pittsburg, and two miles south of the Ohio river. it tity of carbonic acid gas, which is contained in a mine. issues from the fissures of a rock, on the side of a small ral water, the less of that water is required to produce hill

, and discharges about a gallon of water per minute, the requisite change, so that by observing this rule, an which is conveyed through a tunnel into a reservoir, experienced chemist can form a tolerable accurate judg. from which it is pumped to supply the bath house. The ment of the quantity of carbonic acid contained in any water in the spring, when undisturbed for a few hours, mineral water. is covered with a thin white pellicle, which after some 4. Tincture of galls, when poured into a glass of this time assumes an iridescent appearance. It then falls to water strikes an immediate purple colour, which after the bottom, and is renewed, if the water be not disturb- standing for some time, increases in intensity, but no ed, as may be more particularly observed every morn- such change takes place if the water has been previousing

ly boiled. When the water is first taken from the spring, its ap- 5. Prussiat of potash.—This test produces an imme. pearance in a glass is perfectly clear; its taste is lively diate change in the colour of the water; it first becomes and rather pungent, with a peculiar ferruginous flavour, green, and after standing some hours assumés å blue coand an odour which has some resemblance to the scour- lour. ing of a gun barrel, and which is easily recognised as 6. Nitrat of silver.--Wberi à few drops of this test are arising from an impregnation of sulphuretted hydrogen added to a glass of this water, a dense white flocotlent gas.

precipitate is thrown down, which after some time If the water is allowed to remain for some hours in a changes to a light purple colour. glass, it loses, in some degree, its transparency, as well 7. Acetate of lead, throws down an immediate dense as its lively and pungent taste; numerous air bubbles are white precipitate, the colour of which is rendered a shade extracted from it, and a light deposit takes place on the darker when allowed to stand in the glass for a few inside of the glass, which renders it pellucid. Vessels hours. This precipitate is partly dissolved when a few which are constantly used become lined with an ochry drops of nitric acid are poured on it, which shows that a jncrustation, which is with difficulty removed, and the small quantity of sulphuric, as well as muriatic acid, is bottom and sides of the well, as well as those substances present: muriat of lead being soluble, while the sulphate over which the water flows, contain a sediment of the is perfectly insoluble in any acid. same nature.

8. Muriat of Barytes, produces a white cloud when The temperature of the spring is nearly the same at permitted to stand for some time, a precipitate falls all seasons of the year. In the month of August, when which is not soluble in nitric acid. the atmosphere was as high as 85 of Fahrenheit, the 9. Oxalat of Ammonia, produces a slight turbidness temperature of the water was only 54.

but scarcely any precipitate. The specific gravity of the water differs little from the

10. Liquid or pure ammonia, has no effect on the wa. purest water. When compared with distilled water it is ter either when fresh from the spring or when concenas 1002 to 1000.

trated by boiling Having made these preliminary remarks on the exter. 11. Carbonat of potash, does not disturb the transpa: nal qualities of the spring, I proceed to an experimen- rency of the water. tal inquiry into its chemical properties.

12. Sulphuric acid. ---This acid produces no change Vol. II.

13

11. Inferences to be drawn from the above experiments. This powder when exposed to the atmosphere for seve

If it was only required to determine the quality of this ral days, showed no signs of deliquescence, nor was it water, and the nature of the ingredients, these experi- sensibly increased in weight. In order to determine the ments would be nearly sufficient; but no chemical in- component parts of these four grains, I proceeded in the vestigation will be deemed satisfactory at present which following manner. I poured over it, in a small phial does not exbibit the exact proportions of the different bottle, about half an ounce of alcohol of the specific graingredients. Before however we proceed further in the vity .827, and shook it repeatedly for twenty-four hours, investigation, the use of tests and reagents hecome an then filtered it carefully, when I found it had lost in important guide; by their means future experiments weight only half a grain, which was the whole that the may be conducted with more precision, and when we alcohol had taken up. The residue, now reduced to proceed to evaporation, much time and labour are spared three and a half grains, was treated with an ounce of in looking for those substances which we had previously pure distilled water, and having left it sufficiently long ascertained by reagents not to be present. Thus having to complete the solution of whatever was soluble in pure discovered iron by experiments 4 and 5, and that it was water, I again filtered it carefully, and dried the resiheld in solution by carbonic acid, it was in vain to look duum, which was now reduced to one and a half grains. for any metallic salt, and we have only to determine the Only this residuum, which resisted the action of alcoquantity of iron which is thus suspended.

holand of distilled water remained to be examined, and, Experiments 1 and 3 have shown the presence of a as from former experiments I had satisfied myself that it considerable quantity of carbonic acid gas.

must consist principally of the iron and earths contained Experiments 1 and 4 show that the iron is held in so- in the water, I re-dissolved it in dilute marine acid, lution by this gas.

which took up the whole of it, except half a grain of Experiments 6 and 7 demonstrate the presence of white powder, which remained on the filter, and which muriatic acid combined with a base.

not being soluble in dilute marine acid, was found to be Experiments 8 and 9 show the presence of a small gypsum, or sulphate of lime. quantity of sulphuric acid and of lime.

We have now three solutions, which we shall examine It now remains to confirm these, by evaporation and in the following order:more direct experiments, as well as to determine the First-That which was taken up by the alcohol, and quantity of each substance in a given quantity of water. consisted of only half a grain. This could be only mu

III. Examinaion of the gaseous contents. riate of lime or muriate of magnesia. Having converted As many of the most important qualities of mineral it into an aqueous solution by previous evaporation, and waters arise from the gas with which they are impreg- subsequent dilution in a small quantity of distilled water, nated, there is no part of their analysis which requires i found that it was precipitated by pure ammonia, and more attention. In order to determine the quantity of showed the presence of marine acid by the addition of this gas I proceeded in the manner which I have poirted nitrate of silver. Thus we have decided the presence out in my essay on the mineral waters of Ballston and of muriate of magnesia, half a grain. Saratoga, and which I have uniforinly found successful. Second—It will be perceived that the distilled water A plate of the instrument which I used on those occa- had taken up two grains of the residuum, from the sosions, will be found in the publication alluded to. It lution in alcohol. To ascertain the properties of this, I consists of a tin vessel calculated to hold one quart of evaporated this aqueous solution over a lamp in a glass water. A covering was soldered on it, and no opening vessel. When the evaporation was nearly finished sa• left except one at the top, to which was adapted a small line cubic crystals appeared, which on examination, tube about half an inch long, and one third of an inch were found to be wholly muriate of soda, or common in diameter. A graduated decanter was connected with salt. this, which was filled with hot water. Heat was then The third and last solution in marine acid, which con. applied to the tin vessel, when the gas which was extri- sisted of one grain, was diluted with distilled water, and cated from one quart of water was collected in the glass as I had no reason to doubt it contained the whole of the vessel graduated into cubic inches. I found that the iron with which the water was impregnated, I added a whole of the gas which was extricated from one quart of few drops of succinat of ammonia, which immediately the water amounted to eighteen cubic inches, which, threw down a brown precipitate. When the whole of when passed through lime water, was entirely taken up it was precipitated, the solution was filtered, and after by it, so that it consisted entirely of carbonic acid gas. the residuum had been exposed to a red heat it was Some surprise may be excited at finding so small a quan- weighed and examined, when it was found to consist of tity of carbonic acid in this water, when we compare it one grain of oxide of iron. with the waters of Saratoga and Ballston, but let it be re- The analysis of the Pittsburg Mineral Spring having collected that they have no resemblance; and if we refer been thus completed, I shall here recapitulate the whole to the analysis of the most celebrated chalybeates in of its contents as it appeared from experiments, as fol Europe, and even in this country, none of them are stat- lowsed to contain more, and few of them so much. It is Muriate of soda

20 even probable that if this water were examined when Muriate of magnesia immediately taken from the spring, it would be found Oxide of iron

10 to contain more of this gas.

Sulphate of lime IV. Examination of the contents of the Pittsburg Mineral Spring by evaporation.

Total, 40 The experiments which have already been detailed Quantity of carbonic acid gas in one quart of water, throw great light on the qualities of this water, and ena- eighteen cubic inches. ble the experienced chemist to decide upon the nature, v. General reinarks on the sensible properties of the Pittsbut not on the quantity of the different substances with burg Mineral Spring, and of its comparative qualities which it is impregnated To make an accurate estimate as resembling those most celebrated in Europe and Ameof these I proceeded to evaporate one quart of water in rica. a glazed China vessel, placed in a sand bath over a fur. When we take a view of the component parts of this nace. Heat was gradually applied, but never allowed mineral water, as they appear by analysis, we must pepto exceed 180 or 200 of Fahrenheit, when the gas began ceive it is an uncommonly pure water, possessing all the to arise, the water became slightly turbid, and a light qualities of a strong chalybeate. Those who are not pellicle appeared on its surface, which gradually subsid- accustomed to examine waters of this description, may

ed to the bottom of the vessel, and when the water was at first feel some surprise at not finding it to contain a evaporated to dryness, the whole of the residuum or greater quantity of solid contents, but when we refer to solid contents which was collected, amounted to 4 grains. ! the analysis of similar springs both in Europe and Amsrica, as performied by the most distinguished chemists in of them de, a considerable quantity of a neutral salt, the each country, we shall find that the Pittsburg spring effects of the iron as a tonic are counteracted by the possesses qualities equal to any of them, and to many is purgative quality of this salt, which totally alters their greatly superior. As an instance in point, I shall take medicinal qualities, and renders the use of them incxpe. for example, in the first place, the waters of Tunbridge, dient in many diseases, where a purely chalybeate wain England, one of the most celebrated and establishel ter would have the most beneficial effects. chalybeates of that country, on which many treatises In taking the Pittsburg water as an exainple of a nu. have been written, and much discussion taken place merous class of natural springs, properly called chaly. with respect to its medical qualities. According to the beates, I shalt first make some observations on the effect analysis of the celebrated Dr. Babington, the Tunbridge of iron on the system, and then show that in the state in water contains only one grain of oxide of iron in a gallon which it is found in such waters, it is particularly calcuof water, while the Pittsburg spring contains four times later for the cure of such diseases as preparations of iron as much, viz. one grain in a quart. It also contains only are found beneficial in. ten cubic inches of carbonic acid gas in one gallon of The effects of iron on the system are sufficiently nuwater, while the Pittsburg spring contains cighteen merous in the animal economy; it stimulates the fibres inches in a quart. On the whole, its solid contents do of the stomach and abdominal viscera; it augments the not amount to more than one-fourth of the quantity we tone of all the muscular fibres; strengthens the nerves, find in the Pittsburg spring; and yet this mineral spring and gives the whole weakened system remarkable enis as much frequented as any in England, and is known ergy; it increases the strength of the pulse, and from its to possess most valuable medicinal properties in those use, the pale emaciated countenance assumes a healthy diseases to which it is applicable. But we shall refer florid colour. to various mineral springs in this country of established With regard to the various preparations of iron, those reputation, where extensive buildings have been erect- which seem best calculated for the purpose, are such as ed, and which are frequented with great advantage, by are most certainly conveyed into the blond, and most invalids from all parts of the union. In doing so I shall easily converted into oxide. Of these, iron dissolved select those whose qualities are precisely similar, and by carbonic acid, and held in solution in a mineral whose virtues are to be attributed chiefly to their cha- water, seems by far preferable, and with respect to lybeate qualities.

quantity, experience has shown us that small doses of The mineral water of Schooley's mountain, in the state iron produce better effects than large ones, particularly of New Jersey, is perhaps one of those which has for when persevered in, as should always be the case, for a many years sustained the greatest reputation as a chaly. considerable length of time. This observation is particubeate. Having visited it myself, I have had an opportu- larly made by the celebrated Dr. Cullen, and should nity of observing its powerful medicinal qualities as a always be attended to. Mineral waters, he remarks, chalybeate, but for an accurate and able analysis of it, I often produce cures which we in vain attempt to permust refer to an essay of Professor M‘Neven, of New form by the combinations of iron in our shops, even al. York, where it will be found that the whole contents of though those waters contain nothing but iron; this is one gallon of the water are only about eight grains, two manifestly owing to the weakness of the dose, in proof grains of which consist of oxide of ironand that one of which we find that the strongly impregnated waters quart contains nineteen inches of carbonic acid gas. seldom answer so well as those which we commonly reHere then we have a mineral water of acknowledged reject. putation which does not contain much more than onefourth the quantity either of iron or saline solid contents, recommend for all purposes for which Chalybeates

The Chalybeate water at Pittsburg I can venture to which we find in the Pittsburg spring, and as nearly as in general are given, and though the quantity of iron is possible the same quantity of carbonic acid gas. I could small, yet it is equal to that contained in some of the refer to many other springs of the same nature, in this most celebrated German waters, and greater than in country, possessing the same properties, but scarcely many of those which are most esteemed and frequented one have I ever examined, possessing them in the same in this country. The mineral spirit, or fixed air by which degree; among others, the Yellow Springs, in Pennsyl- the metal is held in solution, should by no means pass vania, where beautiful buildings are erected, and accom- unnoticed, as it is an agent possessing no small powers modations of every kind are prepared for the invalid; over the human frame, and if properly applied becomes yet, having myself made an analysis of this water with one of the most useful remedies. To this principle great care, I found that it had no claim to rank as a cha, most mineral waters owe their activity; it is this agent lybeate of a superior order. In fact, all those mineral which holds many of their most powerful ingredients springs which are impregnated with iron, held in soli in solution, and enables them to pervade the remotest

tion by the carbonic acid gas, in whatever country they recesses of the human frame.
are situated, are properly called chalybeates, and are
endowed with nearly the same medicinal properties.

With these observations' on the effect of chalybeates What these are I shall now proceed to point ont.

on the system, we are prepared to enter into the media VI, On the medicinal qualities of the waters of the Pitts- cinal qualities of the Pittsburg spring.

burg Mineral Spring, with observations on the effect of The first effect of those waters, and which is easily such waters on the system.

and distinctly remarked in the water at Pittsburg, is de. The operation of the chalybeate waters, perhaps the cidedly of a stimulant kind. Soon after taking a few most important class of natural medicines, has greatly glasses of it, the pulse is increased in strength, the paoccupied the attention of practical physicians. "Much tient if previously chilly and pale, feels a glow occarefinement has been introduced into the subject, which sioned by the increased circulation, and by persevering it is my intention to avoid, as my main object is to point in the use of the water for a few days, the appetite be: out the principal effects which such waters produce on comes greatly increased, and the general spirits and the system, and the diseases to which they are more par- health improved; these effects are more striking in ticularly applicable. Let me however premise, that some than others. It is not uncommon, bowever, on though the principal virtues in those waters are derived beginning a course of this water, for the patient to exfrom their chalybeate impregnation, yet certain differ-perience nausea, vomiting, and pain about the region of ences will arise, which modify or alter their operation. the stomach, or else a heaviness of the head, slight ver

These may be traced either to the presence of an active tigo, and sense of fulness over the whole body. Someneutral salt or to a large excess of carbonic acid. I can- times these are so troublesome as to show that it was not not exemplify this better, than by referring to the wa- adapted to the nature of the complaint, and to forbid ters of Ballston and Saratoga, all of which contain iron the use of it, but in general these symptoms soon disapin greater or less quantity, but containing also, as most pear after a little use, and particularly when an increase

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