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&c. (of which my knowledge is from hearsay,) the in- hardly believed it; yet, from this remarkable incident, I ference is not far from the truth.
know it to be a fact, as I was an eye witness to it. I shall conclude with a brief outline of a few cases.
July 27, 1828They agree, in general, with all the others I have heard of, and only differ in the violence of the attack or some unimportant symptom.
Imports of Sugar and Molasses, at the Port of Philadel. John Pleasants, passenger of the ship Hibernia, was phia, from the 1st of January to the 29th July, 1828. sick in Havana. He states that he was attacked about
SUGAR. MOLA'S twelve o'clock at night with fever, pains in his head, back, and lower extremities. He took a dose of calo
WHERE FROM hhds. brls.1 bus. bgs. | hds. bls. mel and jalap, which operated copiously. Afterwards he drank warm orange-water--threw a blanket over
New Orleans and New him which produced a free perspiration. In a few days
1416\3421 he was well. Slight pains in his joints, and soreness of
1008] 212 200 285 248 the muscles to the touch, continued for a short period
51 24144 1056 45 after his convalescence.
St. Jago de Cuba.
351 51 832 341 Captain Newton, of the brig Pomona, was seized
230 21 about sunset with pains in the bones, and a little fever,
52 2 420
507 with vomiting, which continued eight hours. The fever
Trinidad de Cuba..
261 2109 89 abated in twenty-four hours, but the pains continued for
100 253 several days in the limbs. He drank orange-water cold,
38 and took a dose of calomel and jalap, and several doses of oil during convalescence, and was nigh falling a sa
Mayaguez, P. R.
8252 St. Eustatia.
149131 crifice to the strong purgatives. His face and body were
St. Barts and St. Marcoyered by red blotches.
20 25 28 Mr. Astley Punton, passenger of the ship Hibernia,
76 was taken sick in Havana, with pains in the head and fe
164) 8) ver, which continued thirty six hours. He drank warm
13777 216 2519 3 orange-water, and had mustard cataplasms to the soles
114 of his feet. He recovered in a few days with an im- St. Thomas..
615 paired appetite, James Wetherly, carpenter of the ship Hibernia, had
./11550 56066335 2719||7452/755 pain in the head, back, and limbs, nausea, but no vomit. ing; a dose of calomel and jalap was administered, and
* A great part of the sugar and molassess received plenty of warm lemonade, and in three days he was coastwise, is entered as merchandize, and not included well-covered with red blotches.
in this estimate. Pimples similar to the prickly heat, and red spots on the
cuticle, were very common during convalescence. Lazaretto, July 7th, 1828.
Total number of bags, hogsheads, lierces, and barrels of Wheat Crop.- In the eastern sections, extending to Coffee, received since the 1st January, 1828. Blue Ridge, the crop is in general abundant, and of fine quality, and with the exception of Northampton county: Havana
2470 (where it was suffered to remain too long in the field) Laguira
74 well secured. In the middle section, or Susquehanna Maracaibo
938 country, and more particularly in Mifflin, Centre, and
St. Jago, Cuba
265 Huntingdon counties, very serious injury has been sus. Aux Cayes
118 tained by rust, and the crop reduced one-third to one
509 Mayaguez, P. R.
Z half. On the west and north branches, the injury is be- Port au Prince
8826 lieved not to be so serious.
21 471 Matanzas
134 Delaware County.-George G. Leiper, of Ridley Cape Haytien
1564 township, commenced his canal on Monday week last, Jeremie
173 and one lock is ncarly completed. The length of the Trinidad, Cuba canal will be near a mile, and will be of great importance Port au Platt
2 to this section of our country. It will be connected Nuevitas
16 with Crum creek, which empties into the Delaware-and St. Johns, P. R. when completed, (which will be done as soon as possi- St. Croix
10 ble) will have a tendency to enhance the value of pro- City St. Domingo 10 perty in that neighbourhood, as well as open a direct Coastwise, t (all kinds) 4134 water communication between Philadelphia and the stone quarries belonging to Mr. Leiper.
There are se
Total...... 47,376 118 21 812 veral mill seats near its location. -Upland Union.
† About two-thirds of the coffee received coastwise, (From the Lycoming Gazette.)
is entered as merchandize, and not included in this estimate.
[Philad. Price Current Aug. 2. In the meadow of Mr. Philip Swisher, of Clinton township, Lycoming county, a few days nce, while his hands were employed in making hay, they discovered a Printed every Saturday morning by Wiliam F. Gedstriped snake of about four feet in length, and of immense des, No. 59 Locust street, Philadelphia; where, and at thickness, which being dissevercd, was found to con- the Editor's residence, No. 51 Filbert street, subscriptain one hundred and eleven young ones of about five tions will be thankfully received. Price five dollars per inches in length.
annum-payable in six months after the commencement I had often heard it said, these reptiles, on apprehen- of publication and annually, thereafter, by subscribers sion of danger, will expand their mouths, and receive resident in or near the city-or where there is an agent their young into their bellies for protection, but had other subscribers pay in advance,
DEVOTED TO THE PRESERVATION OF EVERT KIND OF USEFUL INFORMATION RESPECTING THE STATE.
EDITED BY SAMUEL HAZARD, NO. 51, FILBERT STREET.
VOL. II.-NO. 5.
PHILADELPHIA, AUGUST 16, 1828.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
The Orphan Asylum, instituted in the year 1814
Asylum for Indigent Widows and Single Women, 1817 Report of the Committee appointed to inquire into the ope- Society for the relief of the children of the poor, 1819 ration of the Poor Laws. Read, January 29th, 1825. Provident Society,
1824 MR. MEREDITH, Chairman.
Many more might, it is believed, easily be nained, but (Concluded.]
enough has been said to prove nat, notwithstanding the Your committee proceed now to the enquiries on the number of poor relieved at a vast expense from the the next head, whether the necessity for private charity public funds, there is still an increasing mass of unrelievhas been done away by the operation of the public pro-ed pauperism, which is at last thrown upon the charity vision for the poor.
of individuals, exerted either privately or through sociThe following estimate, formed in the year 1800, of eties voluntarily formed for the purpose. Your comthe annual sums paid for the support and benefit of the mittee, with these facts before them, can have no hesi. poor, in London and its environs, is taken from an au- tation in saying, decidedly, that the necessity for private thor well acquainted with the subject. (1)
charity, has been in no manner removed by the operaESTIMATE.
tion of the poor laws. 1. Asylums for the relief of objects of cha
3. Of those who are relieved by the public bounty, £30,000
whether the greater portion are not composed of such as 2. Asylums and hospitals , for the sick,
have been reduced to penury by vice or improvidence? lame and diseased,
The evidence on this head, is thought by your com3. Institutions for benevolent, charitable,
mittee to be clear and irrefragable. It is the opinion of and humane purposes,
all who have diligently investigated the subject, in dif4. Private charities,
ferent parts of the Union, that the great mass of pauper5. Charity schools for educating the poor, 10,000
ism is produced by habits of dissipation and intemper6. Endowed establishments, for which the
A committee, appointed at the session of the poor are chiefly indebted to our ances
general court of Massachusetts, in the year 1820, to take tors,
into consideration the pauper laws of that common150,000
wealth, reported as a result, supported by the experiTotal sum spent in charity, exclusive of
ence both of England and Massachusetts, and which the legal assessments,
595,000 might be adopted as a principle, “That of all causes of 7. While the annual assessment for the
pauperism, intemperance in the use of spirituous liquors poor rates paid by the inhabitants of Lon.
was the most powerful and universal.” (1) The follow. don and its environs, amounted to no
ing passages, from the appendix to the same report, will more than
255,000 place this subject in a striking light. The extracts are
taken from the returns made to the committee by the Total,
overseers of the different towns in Massachusetts, and
contain the assertions of men who speak from their own So far then bad the poor laws of England failed to re- the facts which they avouch withir. their own personal
observation, and whose official situation must have bro't move the necessity for private charity, that in the metropolis, when the poor rates stood at £255,000 the sum
knowledge. spent annually for the relief of the poor, in other ways, for us to remark, that the cause of pauperage, in a very
Towns.-Sutton.—"'It may perhaps be totally useless amounted to 595,000l. It is believed that, in this state, large share of the instances on our list; may be traced to the system has not been more effectual for this purpose habits of intemperance." than in England. (2) In the year 1821, notwithstand. ing the great number of poor, relieved by the public
Charlestown. -"By a recent and very particular in. bounty, at a vast expense, in the city and county of Phi- vestigation of the subject, we are convinced that do. ladelphia, there existed in that city and county, at the mestic pauperism is generated and subsisted mostly in very least, one hundred and sixty charitable and benefi- the multiplied resorts of idleness and intemperance." cial societies, besides sixty-nine religious institutions, all
West Cambridge.— It is worthy of remark, that of of wbich, as is well known, have a fund for the relief of the 28 persons now in our alms house, there are but two the poor of their own congregations.
who were not brought there, either directly or indirectIn addition to this, the sums given by individuals, in ly, by intemperance.” private charity, are estimated at a large amount;-and
Beverly:-“It may be confidently stated, that the chief withal, when a year of great pressure occurs, collections sources of pauperism in this county, are idleness, improare made throughout the city and liberties, and the mo
vidence and intemperance. Intemperance is the most ney thus raised is applied to the immediate relief of the fruitful source of pauperism; more than half the adult indigent, under the direction of a committee of the ci persons who have been admitted to our work house, for tizens. New societies, for charitable purposes, are also sixteen years, have been addicted to the excessive use springing up from time to time. A few may be named,
of ardent spirits." established within the last ten or eleven years.
Heath._"Under this system, the shiftless place them
selves at ease; their friends use no exertions to induce (1) Colquhoun, Pol. of the Met. p. 357. (2) Rep. of Comm. on Pauperism, 1821-2.
(1) Rep. Comm. Mass. 1821. p. 9. VOL. II.
them to lay up the fruits of their labour and keep them if drunkenness makes paupers, the poor laws in return off the town."
makes drunkards, by holding out to them the public The testimony on the same point, in the State of New purse to supply the deficiences occasioned by their misYork, is not less conclusive, as will be seen by the en- spent earnings, and to support them when incapacitated suing extract from a report of the Secretary of that by their intemperance from supporting themselves." State, on the poor laws, in the year 1824.
(1) “Of the whole number of permanent paupers, (6,896,) Upon the whole, your committee cannot shut their the returns and estimates will warrant the assertion, that eyes to the fact, which they believe to be glaring and at least 1,585 male persons were reduced to that state by undeniable, that by far the greater number of paupers the excessive use of ardent spirits; and, of consequence, are individuals who have been reduced to want by their that their families, (consisting of 989 wives and 2,167 own debauched habits, intemperance or improvidence. children,) were reduced to the same penury and want; 4. Whether any expedient has been found, by any thus presenting strong evidence of the often asserted modification of the system, to prevent the evils which fact, that intemperance has produced more than two- it produces? thirds of all the permanent pauperism in the State;- So early as the 8th and 9th of William and Mary, much and there is little hazard in adding, that to the same alarm was felt in England, on account of the rapid incause may be ascribed more than one-half of the occa. crease of the poor rates, and an attempt was then made sional pauperism."
to check the evil, by attaching an additional degradation In our own State, we are not without evidence to the to pauperism. By a statute passed in that year, every same effect. The following passages have been taken pauper was required, under severe penalties, to wear a from the communications of the directors of the poor, badge or mark, indicating his situation. The effect of in different counties of this commonwealth, to be found this badging law was, that although at first, some were on the Journals of the late House of Representatives. (1) deterred from asking relief, by an unwillingness to be
Dauphin county.-"Could our poor houses be made, subjected to a public exposure, yet the sense of shame as well the schools of reform as asylums for the indi- gradually wore off-the evil was not arrested—the numgent, it would be a very pleasing circumstance; but it ber of paupers continued to augment, as before, and any is a lainentable fact, that perhaps two-thirds of the pau- relics of pride and independence, which they might pers, in most of the poor houses in the State, have be- have possessed, and which might have been the means come such by dissipation, and only cease to remain its of redeeming them from their humiliating condition, votaries from the want of means and physical abilities were entirely destroyed. to indulge in it, and not from any change of disposition This expedient having failed entirely, another has during their pauperage."
been resorted to, in more modern times—that of erectFranklin county.—“At the present time we have a ing work houses for the reception of the poor. It is number here, that if there was no institution, they would enough to say here, that the same effects have resulted not be a charge; they calculate on being kept here a from the system in England, which were produced by considerable time before they acquire an order of relief. the device of badging the poor. The increase of their Dissipation and other bad habits is the cause.”
numbers has not been checked, and the character of that Chester county.—"Those who come to us able to work, class has been, in every way, materially depressed. come to be fed and clotbed, and to pass through the As this plan of erecting poor houses, has been introworld in the most idle and easy way, and, generally duced into this country, and is at this moment believed speaking, they are very debauched and much depraved by many of our citizens, to afford the best mode of in their morals."
checking the progress of pauperism, it may not be im. The answers from the directors of the poor, in some proper to consider it more at large. The experience of the counties of this commonwealth, to the enquiries of England, has been briefly stated above; that of our of the committee on pauperism, in the year 1821, shed own state, will be detailed hereafter. The present obfurther light on this subject. The directors of Chester ject of inquiry is, whether the plan be a reasonable one county say, "The great ease with which paupers obtain in itself
, or at all likely to produce the effect for which admission, and the vagrant idle dispositions of many who it is designed. apply, and the want of power in the board to dismiss or As a permanent check to the increase of pauperism, place to service those able to work, which they cannot by acting on the sense of shame, the scheme appears employ, that might be employed elsewhere, are among altogether irrational. The humiliation attendant upon the causes of pauperism with us. Intoxication, and á alms taking is, indeed, a powerful obstacle to mendicity, disposition in many to spend all they can earn, taking because the relief to be obtained is rever entirely cerchance for public support in time of need, is another tain, and the feeling of degradation operates in its full cause of pauperism with us. Fornication and bastardy force on a single beggar, who has no crowd of fellow is another cause of pauperism with us."
paupers around him, with whom to share it. But the The directors of the poor, for the townships of Ox-poor laws give a full assurance that assistance will be af. ford and Lower Dublin, use this language on the sub- forded, and thus enhance the temptation, while the efject. “Of the number of paupers remaining in the fect of a poor house is to lessen the sense of shame, by house on the 1st of May, fifteen are coloured people
, creating a community of paupers, protected from the and of that number four are mothers of bastard children. gaze of all who are not of their own class. If, howevIt is difficult to designate with accuracy the particular er, it should operate at all, it will be only upon the uncause to which the individual cases may be directly re- fortunate virtuous and honorable, and thus individuals, ferred; it is believed, however, that by far the greater of the very class for whose exclusive benefit the public number may be attributed, directly or indirectly, to the charity ought to be exerted, will be shut out from a pardeleterious poison of ardent spirits.” Again: “The ticipation in it, in favor of the profligate and abandoned. number of illegitimate children, together with their mo- A poor house has been considered as affording a more thers, during the period of their nurture, is a serious and comfortable and cheaper subsistence to the paupers, increasing evil.” And again: "Intemperance, consider than could be afforded in any other mode; and there are ed as the most productive source of pauperism, claims even yet some persons, who, in spite of all experience, the most serious attention to measures of prevention.- credit the possibility of such an institution producing an But if intemperance is considered as productive of pan-actual profit to the public. It is not to be denied that, perism, it should not be forgotten, on the other hand, with strict economy and attention, the same number: of that the unqualified mode of relief from the poor laws reciprocates equal encouragement to intemperance; and (1) The paper here quoted contains a very able view
of the subject. It was probably written by Stephen (1) p. 32.
paupers may be more comfortably and more cheaply ready overstocked. Of course the wages of that labou. supported in one establishment, under the immediate must be so reduced as to afford a bare subsistence to superintendence of intelligent and efficient managers, those engaged in it. No more can be brought into oper than when maintained at board wages, or supplied with ration, without loss in the first instance. If the public money, to be expended at their own discretion. It is to choose to sustain that loss, and to force into operation a be observed, however, that as the accommodations are certain amount of labour, the effect is, that, at least, to made more commodious and comfortable, the tempta- an equal extent, they force out of employment, indivitions to pauperism are rendered more irresistible, and of duals who were already barely supporting themselves course the rapidity of its augmentation is enhanced by the fruits of their labour. What then has been gain. Even the industrious poor may be seduced to become ed? A certain number of paupers have been relieved at members of this vast and well regulated family, in which the public expense, and the consequence is, that at least they are to be better provided, in every way, than at their an equal number of industrious individuals have been own houses, and to be protected entirely from all care depressed into the class of paupers, and are in like manand anxiety about their own subsistence. Thus the num- ner to be relieved, and with the like effects. Your comber of paupers will be augmented, and of course, though mittee observe, that they have been unable to find a sin. there may be a small saving at first, the expense must gle establishment of this kind in the United States which also at last be also increased.
has ever supported itself. But it is to be further remarked, that there exists no Poor houses, as has been already stated, have been in. probability that such an institution will, for a series of troduced very generally into many parts of this state. years, be well condunted. At first, indeed, there may The following extracts from communications of the dibe honest and intelligent men, of unusual public spirit, rectors of the poor (1) in different counties may serve to who having assisted in its establishment, will consent to show how usefully. devote their whole time and exertions to the promotion Dauphin county." The yearly increase of paupers of its success. Such examples are honourable and lauda- might justify a belief that the poor find their comforta ble, but they are also of rare occurrence, and not to be increased in the practical operation of alms houses.". looked for among ordinary men, or on ordinary occa- The population of the county in 1820, was 21,653; avesions. The institution must at last fall
, in a great degree, rage number of paupers in thàt year 84; average exunder the control of an hired superintendant. His office pense, exclusive of the produce of the farm, interest of is not an honourable one; the incumbent will
, in all pro- purchase money, about 50 dollars each per annum, or 96 bability, often be a man not very capable of resisting pe- cents per week. cuniary temptations, or of persevering in the discharge York county.-" The effect of establishing workof a laborious duty, in spite of his own interest. His in- houses and houses of industry, is a great improvement on terest must always be, to promote waste and disorder, the old township system, the expenses are much re. because, amidst waste and disorder, his opportunities of duced, and the paupers more comfortably situated.” speculation will be more frequent and more secret. The population of the county, in 1820, was 38,759; ave. When the abuses of profusion and ill government have rage number of paupers, 100; attached to the institution been once introduced into such an institution, it is diffi- is a farm of 134 acres of limestone land, on which the cult to eradicate them. They become at last inveterate buildings are erected, and another tract of woodland, and incurable--the public funds are dissipated—thc 159 acres, from which fuel alone is obtained. comfort of the inhabitants is destroyed-all salutary re- Cost of real property and buildings, $30,000 gulations for their ease and benefit are violated--they fall into tie worst and most degrading habits of every The interest of which is
$1,800 kind, and a scene must ensue of vice, misery, and wretch- Money annually drawn from county treaedness, loathsome and irredeemable. The experience of sury upon average heretofore,
2,000 England has proved the justice of these views. “The best regulated poor houses," says an English statesman,
3,800 “present a dreadful state of existence; a society with no Average expense of each pauper, exclusive of the proone common bond of feeling; every endearing relation duce of the farm, 38 dollars, or 73 cents per week. destroyed. In its place a principle of savage selfishness Franklin county." The effect of establishing sucho" pervading all classes, engendering mutual jealousy and institutions. we give you such information as we have hatred. Age, infirmity, youth, idleness and profligacy, derived from our experience in our official situation. indiscriminately huddled together. Can any mortal Such institutions we consider highly necessary for the contemplate such a conclusion of life, and not bless the blind and infirm that has met with misfortunes, and has attempt to preserve him from it.” (1)
not wherewith to support themselves. At the present With regard to the idea that an institution of this kind, time, we have a number here, that if there was no instibe it ever so well conducted, may be made to produce tution, they would not be a charge; they calculate on a profit to the public, or even to support itself, it may be being kept here a considerable time, before they acquire proper to say a few words.
an order of relief. Dissipation and other bad habits is The profit, if any, must of course result from the la- the cause. This we consider as some of the effects of bour of the able bodied inmates. They will cone there, establishing such institutions. Such institutions we conbecause they are too idle to work for themselves out of sider are abused in this way.”—The farm consists of 160 doors, or because they find it impossible to procure em- acres; the average number of paupers in 1823, 64; ave. ployment. In the first case, they will of course be as rage expense of cach pauper, exclusive of the farm proidle as ever, unless compelled to work, since it is not to duce, $37 01. be supposed that men, who will not labour for their own Delaware county.—"The establishment of a house of support
, will voluntarily labour for that of the public, employment in this county, has increased the number, or The only effectual mode of compelling them to work, from some other cause, there is more than when main. is to withhold their subsistence, until they have earned tained in the different townships; but we have no hesiit. If this be done, they might as well have been left out tation in saying, that the effect has been such, as to make of doors, for precisely on this footing they stood before their situation more comfortable: the morals and health they threw themselves on the public. It seems absurd better preserved.”—No statement of the expense disto incur the expense of erecting a poor house for a pur- tinct from the produce of the farm. pose such as this. Then, as to those who cannot procure Chester county.--"By establishing poor houses with employment. This must arise from the market for the proper regulations, the paupers receive a more comfortakind of labour for which they are qualified, being al- ble subsistence and maintenance, with less expense, than (1) Mr. Curwen, Deb. H. of C. May 28, 1816.
(1) Journal H. R. 18234, p. 32.
kept in the townships."-Number of paupers before the tion. Your committee therefore suggest, that the overerection of a poor liouse, about 119." Annual expense seers, directors, guardians, and managers, throughout $6,666 66; average 56 dollars per annum; $1 07 per the state, should be compelled to send annually to the week.
Secretary of State, to be laid before the Legislature, an No. of paupers in
Whole monies expended. account of the actual state of pauperism in their respec1818 186
$7857 00 tive counties, boroughs, townships, and districts. Com1819 219
7390 03 plete and accurate information will thus be always with1820 319
7984 78 in the reach of the house. In the city of Philadelphia, 1821 292
6003 63 and the adjoining districts, however, the evil is much 1822 306
7074 06 more aggravated, and the necessity of a reform more Average annual cxpense of each pauper, $27 12, or urgent than throughout the state—(since the paupers in 52 cents per week.
1822-3, composed nearly one thirty-eighth of the whole Philadelphia.--" The number in the alms house dur- population) and it seems necessary to institute, without ing the year ending the 4th Monday in May, 1823, was loss of time, a strict and thorough inquiry into the state of 1204; the number of regular out door paupers, 1222; pauperism in that part of the commonwealth. Your those who received occasional relief, average 330; in the committee therefore earnestly recommend the passage children's asylum, 173; amounting in the whole to 2929; of the bill from the Senate, (referred to them) entitled, which, as the census of our corporation amounted to “ An act to authorise the appointment of commissioners 111,724, is a little less than 1 in 38; to these may be to investigate the causes and extent of pauperism within added 161 illegitimate children.”
the city and liberties of Philadelphia, and for other pur. “The average weekly expense of supporting the poses therein mentioned,” in conformity with the prayer paupers in the alms house, during the period before men of the petition of the Society for the Promotion of Pubtioned, was 769 cents each; for the support of those out lic Economy, which was also referred to them. When all of doors 73 cents each; those in the children's asylum 70 the necessary information shall have been thus collected, cents each, and 2502 dollars were paid for bastard child measures may be taken for the extinction of the evil. In dren, more than received from their putative fathers.” the mean time, it is very important to arrest, if possible,
The kind of inhabitants to be met with in these poor its further progress, and your committee would suggest houses generally, may be found stated in the extracts the propriety of prohibiting the raising by poor rates or from these same communications of the directors, in a assessments, in any future year, in any part of this comformer part of this report.
monwealth, a greater sum than that levied by such rates Upon the whole, your committee are convinced, that or assessments during the present. Thus much it is bethe effect of a public compulsory provision for the poor, lieved might be wisely and safely done at once. is to increase the number of paupers; to entail an op. Your committee have not hitherto entered into the pressive burtben on the country; to promote idleness details of the system, but they will now offer one or two and licentiousness among the labouring classes; and to suggestions on the impropriety of some of its provisions. afford to the profligate and abandoned, the relief which By the existing laws, any two justices or aldermen, ought to be bestowed on the virtuous and industrious on complaint made to them by the overseers or guaralone. That the poor laws have not done away the dians, may direct any person "likely to become chargenecessity for private charity; that they have been onerous able,” to be removed to whatever place within the come to the community, and every way injurious to the morals, monwealth, they may consider as the place of legal settle comfort, and independence of that class for whose bene- ment of such person, unless the individual thus likely to be fit they were intended. That no permanent alleviation come chargeable shall give sufficient security to discharge of the system can rationally be expected from the erec- and indemnify the district or township. It is true that an tion of poor houses, or from any other expedient of a appeal lies to the Mayor's Court or Quarter Sessions, from similar kind; and that the only hope of effectual relief, such order of removal, but in the mean time the order is is in the speedy and total abolition of the system itself
. executed and the man is dragged to perhaps a distant In this country, where there are no privileged orders, part of the state. If the order of removal should be * where all classes of society have equal rights, and where quashed on an appeal, the consequence is, that perbaps
our population is far from being so dense, as to press just when the individual has become reconciled to his upon our means of subsistence, it is indeed alarming new place of residencc, he is liable to be seized and to find the increase of pauperism progressing with such dragged back again. The expense of these removals rapidity. It should be observed, too, that in this State and of the litigation of appeals from them, is not trifling: particularly, our citizens, in all probability, are on the but this is not the worst. The power is arbitrary and verge of becoming extensively engaged in manufactures, dangerous, and capable of being used tyrannically and and the example of England may teach us, that it is on oppressively; it is one to which no freeman, whose only a manufacturing population, that the poor laws operate offence is poverty, should ever be subjected. Those most deleteriously and fatally. An agricultural people who are actually disabled by infirmity of any kind, are naturally more hardy and independent, and will re. should be relieved, if at all, at the place of their actual sist for a longer time, the temptations which the system residence, and their proper township be called on to reholds out to them. It was when a large proportion of imburse the expense. As to the able bodied poor, if the inhabitants of England betook themselves to manu- they desire assistance, they should be left to find their faclures, that the rapidity of the increase of pauperism own way, to the place in which they may be entitled ta was enhanced in an enormous degree. We are rapidly receive it. treading in the footsteps of England; there the disease Your committee are desirous of calling the attention has been tampered with, until it has become inveterate of the House to another highly objectionable feature of and incurable; and her best and wisest men regard it and the present system, the mode of laying the rate. The despair. We should profit of her experience, and return imposition of taxes, is one of the most important acts of upon our steps while the path is open. It is believed, legislation; and it is held to be essential to a governthat with prudence and caution, we may still do so; but ment, founded on free and just principles, that a tas whatever is to be done, should be done quickly, for in should be imposed by a body directly responsible to the the meantime, we are hurrying towards the precipice, and people, and never by the same body by which its prowe cannot tell how soon retreat may become impracti- ceeds are afterwards to be expended, particularly when cable.
that expenditure cannot possibly be subjected to a very Care should be taken, however, not to act with rash. strict accountability. This principle, however, is viola ness or precipitation. It is necessary to ascertain the ted, in the existing mode of laying the poor rates, by precise extent of the evil, before it can be known what the overseers and managers, with the approbation of mode will be the safest and most operative of its extinc. I two justices, or of a certain number of aldermen and