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deprived of this valuable animal, furnished for the food pearances as to usefulness, and we do not think well of of an increasing population, by a wise and beneficent it. If a canal is made in Peg's Run, it will be about two Providence;-and praying for the passage of a law to and three quarter miles in length. prevent all persons, except actual residents or the hold. The southern route passes from Fair Mount along the ers of lands, houses, or tenements, in the county of Pot. bank of the Schulkill, to a point between Spruce and ter, from killing or destroying any deer therein, at any Pine streets, thence following south-easterly up a small period of the year whatsoever, under the same pains and run, and by a deep cutting gain the declivity of ground penalties prescribed by the law for killing and destroy. toward the Delaware, and connect with it somewhere ing of deer from January to August.

about Wharton or Reed street, below the Navy-Yard. In England, there are a great number of laws made This will be about four and a quarter miles in length. for the security and preservation of game. The restric- On a full view of the objects and utility of this canal, tion laws relating to forests and game, were intro- and its connexion with other great improvements now duced into Europe, at the same time, and by the same going on and in contemplation, we should recommend people, who gave birth to the feudal system. It was the size of the canal to be twenty-four feet bottom, thirthe policy of every conquering general, when he van- ty-six feet top-water line, and four feet deep, and the quished a country, to bestow privileges upon his sol. locks to be seventy-five feet long between gates, and diers, for their military services, and especially to prohi- eight and a half feet wide. bit the natives from the use of arms. In order to this,

If a canal is made on the northern route, it must conit became necessary to prohibit hunting and sporting, form in width to circumstances in the bed of Peg's Run; and that the conqueror should reserve this right to bim- and where stone or brick is used to form the sewer and self, and such of his feudatories and barons, as he might sides of a canal it may be reduced in width to twentythink proper to bestow it upon. This exclusive privilege four feet water line. well suited the martial genius of those conquering

Although Mr. Hains, the city surveyor, has rendered troops who delighted in a sport which bore resemblance us every assistance we could ask, still, as far as regards to war; and it is remarkable, that in those countries the northern rcute, we have not all the data necessary to where the feudal policy remains the most uncorripted, give you a correct estimate. We however can state the the forest, or game laws, continue in their greatest ri- facts near enough for a comparative view, and it will be four. In France, all game was properly the kings; and in the power of Mr. Hains to correct such parts as he in some parts of Germany, it is death for a peasant to shall find erroneous, if further levels are taken. be found hunting in the woods of the nobility. In Eng

The western debouche of the canal on the northern land, the sole right of taking and destroying game, be- route ought to be north of Fair Mount. longs to the king; founded originally, upon the princi.

Assuming the level of top-water line, on this route at ple, that the king is the ultimate proprietor of all the eighteen feet above Fair Mount Dam, we would make lands in the kingdom, all being held either mediately, three locks on the western declivity, as near the pond as or immediately, from and under him. But in this coun they can be located, and have ponds between them of try, where the genius of the people and government are

two hundred feet, or so formed by extra width, as that so widely different, restrictive laws would be illy adapt. a lock full of water shall not reduce the pond more than ed. It is one of the blood bought privileges of this three or four inches. There would be then eighteen country, that the law recognises no order, distinction, or feet lockage on the western side, and thirty feet to low rank in society, other than intrinsic worth, or unassum- tide on the eastern: these thirty feet we should divide ing merit entitle the possessor to.

By the constitution into five locks. and laws of the country, every man from the president Taking this data, the estimated expense may be set to the lowest peasant, is entitled to equal privileges; and down thus:no admirer of a well regulated system of public freedom, 200,000 cubic yards of excavation, at 16 could desire it should be otherwise. To give the residents,

$32,000 and land holders of Potter county, the sole and exclu- Rock excavation near Fair Mount, say 13,000 sive right of taking and destroying game within the li- 35 bridges, at 1000 dollars

35,000 mits of that county, your committee respectfully con

48 feet of lockage

48,000 ceive, would be one step towards destroying that equal- Sewers, masonry in Peg's Run, &c. say 52,800 ity of privilege which it is the pride and boast of this Contingencies, 5 per cent.

8,540 country to enjoy. The committee were discharged from any further con

$189,340 sideration of the subject. (Journal of Senate, 1827-8.

The supply of water for this canal, locking down as it SCHUYLKILL AND DELAWARE CANAL.

does both ways, ad providing for lockage, leakage, In 1925, at the request of the Watering Committee, absorption, and evaporation, and assuming that great engineers were engaged to examine and ascertain the care will be used in puddling to prevent absorption, practicability and probable cost of making a canal be. and the locks kept in use at least twelve hours in twen

and assuming that twelve boats will pass every hour, tween the two rivers, to be supplied with water by ty-four, the quantity of water cannot be less than one means of the Fair Mount Dam. The following was their million two hundred and twelve thousand cubic feet for report.

every twenty-four hours to give an adequate supply. Joseph S. Lewis, Esq.

The southern route may be stated thus. The plan, as Chairman of the Watering Committee,

before mentioned, is to carry the level of the Fair City of Philadelphia.

Mount Dam along the Schuylkill, to a point between Sir-Agreeably to your request, we have examined Spruce and Pine streets, and thence by a deep cutting the ground between the Schuylkill and Delaware rivers, the Delaware, and there locate a lock, which at low war

through the dividing ridge, carry on that level to near in company with Mr. Hains, city surveyor, upon two proposed routes for a canal between those rivers.

ter would have twelve feet lift. If a saving of water, and Both projects commence at the surface of water in little more delay in passing, should be better, this the pond at Fair Mount. From thence the northern might be divided into two locks. route passes near Callowhill street, and then through

The examinations, to estimate the expense, have been the Northern Liberties, following the

bed of Peg's

Rún more complete on this route than on the northern. The to the Delaware. Another debouche was examined, to

estimate we shall state thus: fall into the Cohocksink, between Second and Third 514,136 cubic yards excavation, at 20 cts. $102,827 20 streets: this latter plan does not present favourable ap- 51,333 do.

10 cts,

5,133 30


Rock near Fair Mnunt, say

13,000 00

LONGEVITY. 40 bridges, at 1000 dolls.

40,000 00 Account of John Strangeways Hutton, in the 109th year 12 feet of lockage

12,000 00 of his age, now living* in Philadelphia. Br MR. C. Guard-lock at Fair Mount

8,000 00 W. PEALE. Culverts, &c. &o.

5,000 00 After having, a few days since, taken Mr. Hutton's Contingent expenses, 5 per cent.

8,798 00 portrait from the life, which is to be preserved in my

museum, the following particulars respecting the old $194,758 50 gentleman were collected from his children; and others

of his acquaintance. If only one lock is made at the Delaware, the quantity He was born in the city of New York, in 1684; was of water to supply lockage, leakage, absorption, and bound apprentice to a sca-faring man, who put him to evaporation, is estimated at 835,200 faet for every twen- school, in New York, to learn navigation: at which time ty-four hours, assuming that 144 boats pass in that time; he became intimate with a boy who worked at the white. and should the one lock be divided into two, the quan smith's trade, with whom he amused himself in acquir. tity of supply would be reduced to about 500,000 cubic ing the use of the hammer: from whence he obtained feet for every twenty-four hours.

a facility in working at plate work in the silver-smith's It will be seen at one view, that if we take into consi- business. He followed the sea-faring life for thirty years, derntion the number of locks on the northern route, the and then commenced the silver-smith's trade, without expense of lock keepers, annual repairs, which ought to having served any apprenticeship to it; yet in Philadel. be set down as a capital of 25 or 30,000 dollars, and then phia he has been esteemed one of the best workmen at add the expenses of raising water to supply the northern hollow work in that line of business; and there still are route, without estimating the value of water lost by this pieces of his work in this city much esteemed. He project, and without taking into view the injury which made a tumbler in silver, when he was ninety-four years may be done by disturbing the water-pipes while carry old. ing on the work, that a decided preference is given in Through the course of a long and hazardous life, in our opinion to the southern route. Although the length various climes, he was always plain and temperate in his of canal is greater, there is a gain of time in having no eating and drinking; and particularly avoided spirituous locks to pass until you reach the one on the Delaware, liquors; except in one instance. When he was lieuten. as the comparison is between the time in passing seven ant in a privateer, which sailed from Barbadoes in Queen locks and in passing one and a half mile of canal, which Anne's wars, being on a cruise on the Spanish main, he is in favour of the latter.

with fifty or sixty men, made a descent on a village in Of the importance and necessity of connexion be. pillaging, and there he became, with most of the rest; tween the two rivers, no one can doubt that the time intoxicated. And this rare instance of his conviviality, has arrived when such a connexion is required. The furnished a lesson, if not previously secured by natural trade which the city of Philadelphia has heretofore en temperance, to check it in future. For the Spaniards, joyed with the western country, has come to it by roads taking advantage of this situation, got between them and

-a new era is about to commence. The Schuylkill the sea, and killed every man of his party, except one Navigation Company have now nearly completed their and himself, whom they made prisoners, and in his at. works-an extension by the Union Canal will soon con- tempting to escape from this situation, by cutting out a nect the Schuylkill and Susquehannah by canal—and sloop, he was detected, and again put in confinement, the day is not far off when a connexion will be formed where he continued a considerable length of time. by canal between the Susquehannab and Allegheny, and He married his first wife in New York, whose maiden between the Allegheny and Lake Erie. When these name was Catharine Cheeseman, by whom he had eight works are completed, the products of a country west children, twenty-five grand children, twenty-three great and north-west of Philadelphia, with a population which grand children, and 3 great great grand children. will soon arrive at several millione, will find its easiest At the age of fifty-one, he married his second wife in and most natural connexion with the ocean by that city. Philadelphia; her maiden name was Ann Vanlear, nineThis trade, coming as it will by water down the Schuyl- teen years old at the time of the marriage; by whom he kill, will find great and beneficial advantages, by a had seventeen children, forty-one grand children, and ready and convenient connexion with the business part fifteen great grand children. of the city. This connexion between the east and the The state of his issue, at this time, according to the west parts of the city, will give a stimulus and activity best account I could collect, are:to those parts now stationary-will make a unity of inte. Children by his first marriage, 8, of whom 7 are dead. rest between the east and west-will allay jealousies if Grand children,


6 they exist, and prevent them if they do not-and make Great grand children, 23, the city united in all its great interests of trade and com- Great great grand children, 3,

We cannot close without mentioning, that in making Total by first wife, 59, 13 these estimates, we have affixed prices such as in our opinion would be the fair value of the labour, were it Children by his second marriage, 17, of whom 12 are done in the country-being in the vicinity of the city dead. will no doubt vary the cost of many items; and local ad- Grand children,


16 vantages may and will have a very important bearing on Great grand children,


4 the cost. This variation you will better understand than ourselves.

Total by the second wife, 73,

32 We beg leave to refer you to the maps and profiles Total born, 132; of whom 45 are dead. made by Mr. Hains, whose advice and good judgment Now living, 87, of whom the greatest number reside have been very useful to us in this examination, and to in Philadelphia-two families of them in Richmond, whom we have explained more in detail our views and Va. plans.

His second wife died in Philadelphia, 14th of NovemiRespectfully submitted,

ber, 1788, aged 72. He never had a head ache; and BENJAMIN WRIGHT, has often said, that he thought liimself in his prime of

CANVASS WHITE. life, when at the age of sixty years. Philadelphia, June 25, 1825.

He has always been fond of fishing and fowling; and

till his eighty-first year, he used to carry, in his hunting The Ohio river was five feet six inches above low wa- excursions, a heavy English musket. He was ever a ter mark at Pittsburg, on the 1st instant.

quiet, temperate, and hard working man; is now very


cheerful and good-humoured. He can hear, see, and red tongue, and a bright redness over the body. To walk about; has a good appetite, with no complaints day he is better. * whatever, except from the mere weakness of old age. From the conversations I have had with the

passengers In the early part of his life, he was on two scouts of the brig Pomona, some of whom have resided many against the Indians. He used to tell, that in one of these years in Havana, and one of them had sixteen cases of excursions, they went out in the night—that they lifted Dengue in his own family, I am led to believe that the up their feet high in stepping, to prevent a noise among disease of the men of the ship Columbia is the same. It the leaves that they took an Indian woman prisoner, varies occasionally in all its symptoms, excepting the who led them to where the Indians lay—that they fired, pains in the bones, which exist in all cases. The facts and killed most of the Indians, before they could get to in support of my conclusions are now all before you. their arms, and a few only escaped. That the Indians

Two of these men have been sick before, and the came in, and made a peace before the scouting party re- other predisposed to the disease, which was probably turned.

excited into operation, by exposure to tempestuous and That he knew the noted pirate Teach, called Black | wet weather here. Beard; that an act of oblivion had passed, which per- This disease, which appears to be a variety of bilioas mitted all pirates to return to their allegiance; that fever, depends no doubt on the extraordinary weather Black Beard then came to Barbadocs, where he saw experienced for some months past on the Island of Cuhim. This was a short time before that pirate made his ba. No rain has fallen for six months, and the drought last cruize, and was killed in Carolina.

is severe beyond all recollection. When the rains begin His grand father by his mother's side, Mr. Arthur to fall, the disease will no doubt, alter its complexion, Strangeways, died at Boston, sitting in his chair, when and assume a different type. at the age of one hundred and one years.

Lazaretto, July 3d, 1828. His father, Mr. John Hutton, was born at Bermuda, in Scotland; where, it is said, there are many of the fa- The person about to be affected, is usually attacked, mily now living:-(Amer. Museum.

(but not uniformly,) during the night, with a fever, Philadelphia, Sept. 3, 1792.

pain in the head, back and limbs, and a soreness of the

muscles to the touch. Sometimes the head alone sufDied December 20, 1792.

fers from pain; occasionally the severity is in the lower extremities, and indeed every part of the body is affect.

ed; but generally the head, back, and limbs are more DENGUE FEVER.

or less disordered together. The first sensation of pain

that Mrs. Vinas felt was in her wrist. Mr. Melizet, (a Some cases of this fever having occurred at the Laza- | passenger of the brig Pomona,) was warned of his at. retto, and as this is a disease, respecting which but little tack by a pain in the corn on his little toe.

Some are appears to be known in this country, we give some ex

primarily affected in the extreme end of their fingers,

and thus it varies in almost every case, but the disease tracts from a communication from Dr. Lebiman, the La- advances, and falls on more important parts. From the zaretto Physician to the Board of Health. It is publish- violence of arterial excitement, delirium is no uncomed at length in the last number of the Ainerican Journal mon occurrence. At the expiration of three days, the

morbid influence usually ceases, and the patient recovof Medical Sciences.

ers with a voracious appetite, or a total loss of it for Account of the disease called Dengue, which has prerailed many days; the soreness of the joints and muscles con

so extensively at Havana. Br G. F. LEIMAN, M. D. tinuing for some time, and eventually relieved by proLazaretto Physician to the Port of Philadelphia. (Com- fuse perspiration. All are not attacked with equal semunicated to the Board of Health.

verity. In many instances the disease is light, and ter

minates in forty or fifty hours. In answer to the resolution of the Board of last evening, requesting my opinion of the nature of the disease improper, and prepared to treat any cases that might

I was early aware that powerful remedial agents were with which the men of the ship Columbia are affected, fall under my inspection agreeably to the Spanish plan, I respectfully communicate the following facts.

Henry Allen, seaman, had, while in Havana, the dis- When the seamen of the ship Columbia were introduced ease called by the natives Dengue, from which he en

into the hospital, I gave each of them half an ounce of tirely recovered upon warm lemonade, He continued them had an alvine dejection for forty-eight hours pre

castor oil, merely to open the primæ viæ, (neither of in good health until the 20th of June, when he was seized with a high fever, and pains in all his bones, the balm tea to be drunk, repeated pediluviums, and a light

ceding,) and then directed warm weak chamomile and violence of which, particularly in his head and back, regimen. Two of them are now well, the other was was almost insupportable; a dose of calomel and jalap very much debilitated when landed, and from previous was administered to him, which had no effcct. days the violence of the affection was over. He is now neglect seems to labour under visceral obstructions. very weak, depressed in his spirits, has pains in his bones, From its incipient symptoms, independent of other and no appetite, but without any fever. I consider him, considerations, I am induced to consider Dengue as a therefore, at present, as labouring under the effects of bilious fever, modified by the prevailing weather of the Dengue.

Island of Cuba, and particularly the dryness. It preWilliam M'Elwee, the blacksmith, was taken sick sents to be sure a new face, but some of the old features June 19th of a violent fever, excruciating pains in his are so strongly marked that its identity is tolerably cerback and head, and severe vomiting. He had alternate tain. This conclusion I wish you to understand, is foundAushes of heat and cold shiverings, with a burning red- ed particularly on the observation of those under my ness over the whole body. In a few days the cuticle des. care, and if they correspond with all others in symptoms, quamated. He now complains of pains in his joints, slight head ache, and occasional nausea. He took no James Simpson was perfectly well on the 7th inst. medicine, but drank freely of warm lemonade. This but in consequence of running about too much at night, may be put down as a case of Dengue.

and exposing himself to the very heavy dews prevailing James Simpson, seaman, states, that in the morning here, he had a relapse, with all his original symptoms, of June 30th, he had a chill while aloft-the next morn- but not quite so violent. A moderate dose of castor ing he felt well again. On the night of July 1st, he was oil with warm balm tea removed the complaint in fortyseizeil by severe pains in his back and head, and thought eight hours, and he is now (July 11th,) convalescent. he was dying. Yesterday morning I saw him. He had, Second attacks, or more properly speaking, perhaps in addition to the pains, considerable fever, with a fur. Irelapses, are very common.





77| 13

&c. (of which my knowledge is from hearsay,) the in- hardly believed it; yet, from this remarkable incident, I ference is not far from the truth.

know it to be a fact, as I was an eye witness to it. I shall conclude with a brief outline of a few cases.

July 27, 1823They agree, in general, with all the others I have heard of, and only differ in the violence of the attack or some unimportant symptom.

Imports of Sugar and Molasses, at the Port of Philadel. John Pleasants, passenger of the ship Hibernia, was phia, from the 1st of January to the 29th July, 1828. sick in Havana. He states that he was attacked about


MOLA'S twelve o'clock at night with fever, pains in his head, back, and lower extremities. He took a dose of calo.

hhds. brls.1 bus. | bgs. hds./bls. mel and jalap, which operated copiously. Afterwards he drank warm orange-water-threw a blanket over

New Orleans and New him which produced a free perspiration. In a few days

8306\ 114

1416 342 he was well. Slight pains in his joints, and soreness of

Coastwise *

10081 212 200 285 248 the muscles to the touch, continued for a short period


51 2'4144 1056 45 after his convalescence.

St. Jago de Cuba.

35 51 832

341 Captain Newton, of the brig Pomona, was seized


15 381


2 about sunset with pains in the bones, and a little fever,


52 2 420

507 with vomiting, which continued eight hours. The fever Trinidad de Cuba.


2109 89 abated in twenty-four hours, but the pains continued for

Nuevitas ...

100 253 several days in the limbs. He drank orange-water cold,

Porto Rico
974 725

38 41 and took a dose of calomel and jalap, and several doses

Mayaguez, P. R.


114 of oil during convalescence, and was nigh falling a sa

St. Eustatia .

21 42

149 3 crifice to the strong purgatives. His face and body were

St. Barts and St. Marcovered by red blotches.


20 25 28

1751 Mr. Astley Punton, passenger of the ship Hibernia,


761 was taken sick in Havana, with pains in the head and fe

Bahia .....

164 ver, which continued thirty six hours. He drank warm


3777| 216 2519 3 orange-water, and had mustard cataplasms to the soles

St. Thomas..

3981 422

114 of his feet. He recovered in a few days with an im

St. Croix.

615 52 paired appetite, James Wetherly, carpenter of the ship Hibernia, had

Total ..... 11550 5606 6335 2719 || 7452/755 pain in the head, back, and limbs, nausea, but no vomit. ing; a dose of calomel and jalap was administered, and

A great part of the sugar and molassess received plenty of warm lemonade, and in three days he was coastwise, is entered as merchandize, and not included well-covered with red blotches.

in this estimate. Pimples similar to the prickly heat, and red spots on the cuticle, were very common during convalescence. Lazaretto, July 7th, 1828.


Total number of bags, hogsheads, tierces, and barrels of Wheat Crop.-In the eastern sections, extending to Coffee, received since the 1st January, 1828. Blue Ridge, the crop is in general abundant, and of fine quality, and with the exception of Northampton county,


2470 (where it was suffered to remain too long in the field) Laguira


74 well secured. In the middle section, or Susquehanna Maracaibo

939 country, and more particularly in Mifflin, Centre, and St. Jago, Cuba 4851

265 Huntingdon counties, very serious injury has been sus

Aux Cayes

358 118 tained by rust, and the crop reduced one-third to one

Mayaguez, P. R.

Z half. On the west and north branches, the injury is be. Port au Prince

8826 lieved not to be so serious.

St. Thomas


21 Matanzas

134 Delaware County.-George G. Leiper, of Ridley Cape Haytien

3936 township, commenced his canal on Monday week last, Jeremie


173 and one lock is ncarly completed. The length of the Trinidad, Cuba

51 canal will be near a mile, and will be of great importance Port au Platt

2 to this section of our country. It will be connected Nuevitas with Crum creek, which empties into the Delaware--and St. Johns, P. R.


10 when completed, (which will be done as soon as possi- St. Croix

10 ble) will have a tendency to enhance the value of pro- City St. Domingo perty in that neighbourhood, as well as open a direct Coastwise, 7 (all kinds) 4134 water communication between Philadelphia and the stone quarries belonging to Mr. Leiper. There are se

Total...... . 47,376 118 21 81% veral mill seats near its location. -Upland Union.

+ About two-thirds of the coffee received coastwise, ( From the Lycoming Gazette. )

is entered as merchandize, and not included in this esti

(Philad. Price Current Aug. 2. In the meadow of Mr. Philip Swisher, of Clinton township, Lycoming county, a few days since, while his hands were employed in making hay, they discovered a Printed every Saturday morning by William F. Gedstriped snake of about four feet in length, and of immense des, No.59 Locust street, Philadelphia; where, and at thickness, which being dissevercd, was found to con. the Editor's residence, No. 51 Filbert street, subscriptain one hundred and eleven young ones of about five tions will be thankfully received. Price five dollars per inches in length.

annum-payable in six months after the commencement I had often heard it said, these reptiles, on apprehen- of publication-and annually, thereafter, by subscribers sion of danger, will expand their mouths, and receive resident in or near the city--or where there is an agent their young into their bellies for protection, but had other subscribers pay in advance,



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* 471






VOL. II.-NO. 5.


NO. 33.




The Orphan Asylum, instituted in the year 1814
Northern and Southern Dispensaries,


Asylum for Indigent Widows and Single Women, 1817 Report of the Committee appointed to inquire into the ope- Society for the relief of the children of the poor, 1819 ration of the Poor Laws. Read, January 29th, 1825. Provident Society,

1824 MR. MEREDITI, Chairman.

Many more might, it is believed, easily be nained, but (Concluded.)

enough has been said to prove notwithstanding the Your committee proceed now to the enquiries on the number of poor relieved at a vast expense from the the next head, whether the necessity for private charity public funds, there is still an increasing mass of unrelievo has been done away by the operation of the public pro led pauperism, which is at last thrown upon the charity vision for the poor.

of individuals, exerted either privately or through sociThe following estimate, formed in the year 1800, of eties voluntarily formed for the purpose. Your comthe annual sums paid for the support and benefit of the mittee, with these facts before them, can have no hesi. poor, in London and its environs, is taken from an au- tation in saying, decidedly, that the necessity for private thor well acquainted with the subject. (1)

charity, has been in no manner removed by the operaESTIMATE.

tion of the poor laws. 1. Asylums for the relief of objects of cha

3. Of those who are relieved by the public bounty, rity and humanity,


whether the greater portion are not composed of such as 2. Asylums and hospitals, for the sick,

have been recluced to penury by vice or improvidence? lame and diseased,

The evidence on this head, is thought by your com.

50,000 3. Institutions for benevolent, charitable,

mittee to be clear and irrefragable. It is the opinion of and humane purposes,


all who have diligently investigated the subject, in dif4. Private charities,

ferent parts of the Union, that the great mass of pauper

150,000 5. Charity schools for educating the poor,

isin is produced by habits of dissipation and intemper

10,000 6. Endowed establishments, for which the

A committee, appointed at the session of the poor are chiefly indebted to our ances.

general court of Massachusetts, in the year 1820, to take tors,


into consideration the pauper laws of that common

wealth, reported as a result, supported by the experiTotal sum spent in charity, exclusive of

ence both of England and Massachusetts, and which the legal assessments,

595,000 might be adopted as a principle, “That of all causes of 7. While the annual assessment for the

pauperism, intemperance in the use of spirituous liquors poor rates paid by the inhabitants of Lon.

was the most powerful and universal.” (1) The follow. don and its environs, amounted to no

ing passages, from the appendix to the same report, will more than

255,000 place this subject in a striking light. The extracts are

taken from the returns made to the committee by the Total,


overseers of the different towns in Massachusetts, and

contain the assertions of men who speak from their own So far then bad the poor laws of England failed to re

observation, and whose official situation must have bro't move the necessity for private charity, that in the me

the facts which they arouch withir. their own personal tropolis, when the poor rates stood at £255,000 the sum

knowledge. spent annually for the relief of the poor, in other ways, for us to remark, that the cause of pauperage, in a very

Towns.-Sutton.-—“'It may perhaps be totally useless amounted to 595,000%. It is believed that, in this state, large share of the instances on our list, may be traced to the system has not been more effectual for this purpose habits of intemperance." than in England. (2) In the year 1821, notwithstand. ing the great number of poor, relieved by the public vestigation of the subject, we are convinced that do.

Charlestown.-"By a recent and very particular inbounty, at a vast expense, in the city and county of Philadelphia, there existed in that city and county, at the mestic pauperism is generated and subsisted mostly in very least, one hundred and sixty charitable and benefi- the multiplied resorts of idleness and intemperance." cial societies, besides sixty-nine religious institutions, all

West Cambridge. It is worthy of remark, that of of which, as is well known, have a fund for the relief of the 28 persons now in our alms house, there are but two the poor of their own congregations.

who were not brought there, either directly or indirectIn addition to this, the sums given by individuals, in

ly, by intemperance." private charity, are estimated at a large amount;-and

Beverly:-“It may be confidently stated, that the chief withal, when a year of great pressure occurs, collections sources of pauperism in this county, are idleness, impro. are made throughout the city and liberties, and the mo- fruitful source of pauperism; more then half the adult

vidence and intemperance. Intemperance is the most ney thus raised is applied to the immediate relief of the indigent, under the direction of a committee of the ci persons who have been admitted to our work housc, for tizens. New societies, for charitable purposes, are also sixteen years, have been addicted to the excessive use springing up from time to time. A few may be named,

of ardent spirits." established within the last ten or eleven years.

Heath._"Under this system, the shiftless place them.

selves at ease; their friends use no exertions to induce (1) Colquhoun, Pol. of the Met. p. 357. Rep. of Comm. on Pauperism, 1821-2.

(1) Rep. Comm. Mass. 1821.

Vol. II,


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