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pers relieved.

Whcat per

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Wheat per


paupers will swell rapidly; the pressure upon the com

1776. 1783-4-5. 1803. 1815. munity proportionably accumulate, the abuses grow Herefordshire, 10,5921. 16,728 48,067 59,256 more and more inveterate, and finally, all other burthens Bedfordshire, 16,663 20,977 38,070 50,371 become as nothing, when compared with this one para- The following table extracted in part from the same mount oppression.

work, exhibits the whole population of England and Your committee do not intend to enter further into the argument upon this subject. If the system were to

Wales, and the number of paupers relieved at differbe introduced now for the first time, it would be neces

ent periods. sary to resort to speculation, in the absence of facts; but Year.

Population of England Number of pausince it has prevailed in England for more than two cen

and Wales, about turies, in this commonwealth for above fifty years, and


563,964 in some of the other States in the Union, for a still long


695,177 er period, your committee will take experience alone as

1785 $

8,016,000 their guide, and direct their enquiries towards ascertain.

818,851 ing, not what might have been expected, but what has


955,326 actually taken place.


1,040,716 To avoid confusion, your committee will point the (1) 1813 10,747,280

2,601,456 most striking facts which they have collected, as far as

estimated at

3,050,000 may be, to the following heads:

(2) Table of the amount of expenditures on the poor in i. Whether under a system of poor laws, such as England in each tenth year, since the middle of the last ours, the number of paupers and the amount of the century, together with the price of wheat. public expense have uniformly been augmented?


bush. 2. Whether the necessity for private charity, has been


d. done away by the operation of the public provision for 1750


4 2 the poor?


4 10 3. of those who are relieved by the public bounty,


6 5 whether the greater portion be not composed of such


5 11 as have been reduced to penury by their own vice or


6 4 improvidence?


10 2 4. Whether any expedient has been found, by any


12 4 modification of the system, to prevent the evils which it The following are given in successive years. produces 1. Under a system of poor laws, such as ours, have the


bushel. number of paupers and the amount of the public expense Yeur ending


d. uniformly been augmented?

25th March, 1813 6,656,105 16 8 Your committee will take, in the first place, the case


6,294,584 12 3 of England, into which this system was first introduced,


5,418,846 8 10 and where it has prevailed for a longer time than in any


5,724,507 7 9 of our own states. An enlightened writer, of the last


6,918,247 10 11 century, bears the following emphatic testimony. (1)


7,890,148 11 3 “Under the operation of the poor laws, it is a sad truth,


7,531,651 10 4 that the disease of poverty, instead of being eradicated,


7,329,594 8 8 has become more and more inveterate. England in par


6,947,666 7 10 ticular overflows with beggars, though in no other coun- It was stated by Mr. Walter Burrell, a member of the ty are the indigent so amply provided for."

House of Commons, (Debates House of Commons Feb. The following statement of the sums raised in different 9, 1819,) that, in his own parish, that of West Grinstead,

cars, in England, for the support of the poor, will which consisted of 5000 acres, the rental of which was show a progressive and rapid increase:

40001. the poor-rates of the year 1818–19, amounted to Year.

Sums raised.

45007. And on the 7th of March, 1817, Mr. Calcraft, (2) 1680

also a member of the House of Commons, presented to

£665,260 (3) 1750


that body, petitions signed by individuals for whose re1760


spectability and credibility he vouched, which stated, 1770


that in the parish of Langton Matravers, in Dorsetshire, 1780


containing 575 inhabitants, 419 were receiving parochial 1790*


relief; and that the poor-rate amounted to at least 18 1800+


shillings or 19 shillings in the pound. And that, in the 1810

5,407,000 parish of Swanage, also in Dorsetshire, containing 1500 1812


inhabitants, there was not 1 in 7 able to support himself; 1813


that the poor-rates amounted to 21 shillings in the pound, 1814


and every occupant of land, but one, had given notice (4) 1815


to abandon.

An extract from the report of a select committee of * Including minor rates for highways, &c.

the House of Commons, appointed to consider of the Exclusive of minor rates. It is said by Lowe, that there has been a gradual re

poor laws, will explain the conclusion to which they

were led, after a laborious investigation of the whole duction of the charge since 1819, and that it may now subject, as to the fact of the progressive increase of the be taken at less than 6,000,0001.

burthen, in that country. The following statement, taken from “Lowe's Present “Independent of the pressure of any temporary or State of England,” (p. 193,) will show the increase, in accidental circumstances, and making every allowance two English counties.

for an increased population, the rise in the price of pro(1) Sketches of Man. b. 2, sk. X.

(1) Documents accompanying the report of the Se(2) Mr. Curwen, (House of Commons,) May 28, 1816. cretary of the State of New York, to the Assembly, (3) Lowe's Present State of England, p. 181, &c. February 12, 1824, p. 126. (4) Statement presented to the House of Commons, (2) From the reports of the committees of House of by Mr. Addington, Feb. 26, 1816, adding 1-14th for pa- Commons on the poor laws, 1817 and 1821.- Lowe, rishes not returned. Lowe states it at 5,745,8337.

App. 58.

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visions, and other necessaries of life, and a misapplica- crease of expense in certain Scottish parishes, where the tion of part of the funds, it is apparent, that both the legal assessments have been introduced. number of paupers, and the amount of money levied by |(1) Par. County. Expense Averg. ann. expense assessment, are progressively increasing, while the situ

in 1790. from 1812 to 1815. ation of the poor appears not to have been in a corres. Wilton, Roxburgh, 1.92 18 00 288 17 11 ponding degree improved, and the committee is of opi- Hawick,

311 01 08 836 19 00 nion, that whilst the existing poor laws, and the system Robertson,

61 05 00 142 10 06 under which they are administered, remain unchanged, East Kilbride, 34 06 08 213 02 03 (in 1810) there does not exist any power of arresting the progress Coldstream, 208 00 00 628 00 00 (in 1815) of this increase, till it shall no longer be found possible Linton,

20 00 00 90 00 00 (in 1815) to augment the sums raised by assessment.” (1) Jedburgh,

141 08 05 350 06 04(Av, from The English system of poor rates has never been ge

1811 to 1815.) nerally introduced into Scotland. The mode adopted (2) Into the Barony parish, one of the suburbs of for the relief of the poor in that country, is a peculiar Glasgow, with a population of 43,000, the English asone. In every parish is a fund raised by the voluntary sessments were introduced in 1810—the expenses then contributions of the parishioners, at the kirk door, and amounted to

£600 per annum. devoted to charitable uses. The fund is administered

In 1817, they had swelled to 3,000 do. by the “kirk session,” a body composed of the minister and elders of the parish. When a year of extraordinary

Exhibiting an increase of nearly six-fold, in 7 years; pressure occurs, and the fund proves insufficient for its while in the Gorbals, another suburb of the same city, purposes, the heritors or landholders of the parish hold with a population of 20,000, where the English assess. a meeting, at which they fix for themselves a rate of con- ments have not been introduced, the regular annual er. tribution, to make up the deficiency. (2) It is unneces

penditure is 3501; and the whole sum expended on the sary at this time to discuss the advantages of this ar poor in a year of extraordinary pressure, was 8751. rangement, (which "leaves the object of their charity

(3) In a parish in Dumfrieshire, where the funds for and the measure, to the humanity and discretion” (a) of the maintenance of the poor, amounted to between two the givers,) over the English mode. The actual effects and three thousand pounds per annum, of a population of the two systems, are alone to be inquired about, at supposed to be nearly 800, the greater part, in the year present; and the following statements exhibit their dif- 1817, were in a state of pauperism, dependent on chaferent practical results, in a striking point of view.

rity for their support. While, in an adjoining parish,

with a population of 2,500 souls, there were but two The expense of supporting the poor in certain Scotch paupers.' The number of parochial poor in Scotland, in

parishes where there are no poor-rates, contrasted | 1817, was about one in sixty:—the whole number of poor with certain English parishes, where there are poor- in that country, was then calculated at from thirty to rates.—(From the Edinburg Review for Feb, 1918.) thirty-six thousand, and the total expenditure for their SCOTCH.

support, supposed not to exceed 180,0001. It is stated, Parish. County, Population. Total yearly find. however, (4) that the total poor rate collected in Scot.

£ $. d. land, in 1817, a year of scarcity and distress, was 119,Frazerburgh, Aberdeen, 2,271 100 00 00 0001; of which 49,0001. proceeded from assessments, New Deer do. 3,100 86 10 00 and the rest were voluntary contributions. Lonmay de. 1,627 25 00 00

It is to be observed, that in no country in Europe, has Dunoon Argyle 2,130 46-00 00

the example of England, on this subject, been followed, Irna do. 1,157

6 00 00

"On the continent of Europe, the public institutions Redgerton Perth 2,216 99 00 00

afford protection only against infirmity and extreme peBathgate Linlithgow, 2,919 124 00 00

nury; even Holland, so noted for its hospitals and chari. Reay Sutherland, 2,317 13 00 00

ties, has not a poor-rate on the comprehensive plan of Farr, do. 2,408 18 17 00

England." (5) Assint do. 2,479

5 00 00

In France, before the revolution, the funds appropria-
Pop. .
Poor Rates.

ted for the poor, yielded the same sum annually; that

sum was always pre-occupied; and France, with respect shire, Soar

1,143 1,868 17 00 to all but those on the list, approached the state of a Belgrave

nation that had no fund provided by law for the poor." do. 645 803 7 43 Countesthrope

623 901 07 00

(6) Besides this, there were no doubt certain sums givLileby

1,200 1,764 00 00

en in charity, by the religious establishments of that Hathira do. 1,160 1,015 00 00

country; and in 1791, when the revolution had swept Blaby do. 794 1,391 05 06

away those institutions, there took place in the Assem

blee Legislative, a long discussion on the fittest mode of Your Committec have observed that the English legal providing for the poor; the result was a decided deterassessments, have not been generally introduced into mination to avoid the English plan, but to provide at the Scotand; they have however been adopted in certain public charge, a fund of about 2,000,0001. a year, for parts of that country, and the following examples of the the relief of the aged and infirm throughout the whole expenditures in certain Scottish parishes where they of France.” (7) In addition to the permanent aid affordprevail

, may be advantageously compared with the ex. ed by the government, collections are made "by subpenditures stated above, of Scottish parishes, which are scription, in the depth of winter, or on the occurrence yet free from such assessments.

of extraordinary distress; and finally, in a season of gen(3) Parish.

County. Population. Total funds. eral hardship, occasional issues are made from the public St. Boswell's Roxburgh, 508

63 04 00 treasury.” (8) Galashiels Selkirk


225 10 00 Innerleithen do.


95 00 00 (1) Ed. Rev. Feb. 1818. Selkirk

224 16 00

(2) Id. Ibid.
But this muter will appear in a still more distinct (3) Ed. Rev. Feb. 1818.
fight, from the ensuing table, which exhibits the in- (4) H. of Comm. Deb. May 28, 1816.

(5) Doc. acc. rep. of Sec. of St. N. Y. p. 125--Lowo (1) Rep. Com. H. of C. 1817 p. 10.

187. (2) Sk. of Man. B. 2 Ed. Rev. No. 55.

(6) Lowe, 180. (a) Lord Kaimes.

(7) Sk. of Man. B. 2, sk. X (3) Ed. Rev. Feb. 1818

(8) Lowe, 189.

Sorrow, upon { Lisicester-}


The facts with regard to Scotland, have been already on this account, by the state government, in the several stated. In Ireland, it is well known, that there is no years specified. public provision for the poor whatever. Yet it is said

(1) Expenditure for relief that the poor in that country, are better taken care of, Years.

of paupers not having and the lower orders generally more happy, and more in

any legal settlement, dependent than in England. (1) “The indigent them


$28,100 08 selves view it as a duty, not to refuse their mite. This


52,129 92 affords a proof that when there is no other provision 1812

51,260 00 than that of charity, all are disposed to exercise it." (2) 1813

55,002 37 Table showing the number of paupers, in every hun. 1814

60,357 75 dred souls of the whole population of Scctland, where 1815

57,415 37 the English system of poor rates does not generally ob. 1816

62,971 92 tain, and of England; together with the amount of the 1817

65,796 16 public expense, for the relief of the poor in each coun


66,556 93 try.


72,156 89 Per centage of Expenditure in 1820

72,662 54 paupers.


Population of Mass. No. of Paupers. Expenditure, Scotland, (3) 3 (4)

in 1820.


(estimated) England, (S) 25



7,000 $350,000 With regard to the effects of the system in our sister States, your committee will proceed to state the facts in

The whole annual expense of paupers, in 1820, was their possession.

estimated at 350,000 dollars, and the whole number of The following table exhibits the public pauper ex- paupers at somewhat exceeding 7,000. It was the depense of the State of New York, for the years speci- cided opinion of a committee, who reported to the ge

neral court in 1821, (having been appointed at the preYear.

Expense. (5)

vious session, to consider the pauper laws of the com1815


monwealth,) "that the pernicious consequences of the 1819


system were palpable; that they were increasing, and 1822


that they imperiously called for the interference of the (6) If to this latter sum be added the interest at 6 per legislature, in some inanner equally prompt and efficacent. of monies expended on poor houses and farms,

cious." (2) the result will be a total expense, in the year 1822, of

If we turn to our own State, the proofs of a similar $535,000. From this it appears, that the expense was, augmentation of the burthen will be found as cogent at least, nearly doubled, in the space of seven years.

and alarming. The picture drawn of Pennsylvania by The number of paupers, in the same State, during an able writer of the last century, compared with our the year 1822, is thus stated:

present situation, affords a strong illustration of the efPermanent paupers,


fects of the system which we have adopted. It is in Occasional paupers,


these words: “There is not a single beggar to be seen

in Pennsylvania. Luxury and idleness have got no footTotal number of paupers,

22,111 ing in that happy country; and those who suffer by misa Extract from a report made by a committee to the fortune have their maintenance out of the public treasuHouse of Assembly of New York, in 1820.

ry.” (3) But he goes on: “Luxury and idleness cannot “The committee find that the increase of pauperism, forever be excluded; and when they take place, this in this state, and the consequence expense to the com- regulation will be as pernicious in Pennsylvania as the munity, is truly alarming.” They go on afterwards to poor rates are in Britain.” (4) Your committee believe, state, that this enormous increase of expense is by no from a consideration of even the comparatively few facts means in proportion to the increase of population; nor which they have collected, that there is too much reacan it be attributed to the increase of the expense of son to suppose that the prophecy has been completely

verified. living, but that in their opinion idleness and dissipation are one great cause of the evil.”

The ensuing table shows the number of paupers relieva The ensuing statement shows the whole public ex- ed in the county of Chester, in the respective years pense of the poor in the State of New Hampshire, in the mentioned. years specified; the population of the State in those years, and estimated number of paupers in every 100


No. of paupers. (5) souls of the whole population. (7)


.186 Years. Expnd're. Population. Per centage of paupers.


.219 1800 $17,000 183,858

3-10 of 1 per cent.

.319 1820 80,000 244,161

1821. 1 per cent.


1822.. Showing that the actual expense was very nearly

..306 quintupled, in twenty years, and that the proportion 1823, about.

..300 - which the number of paupers bore to the whole popu. A similar increase will be found in the number of paulation, had, in the same time, increased in the ratio of pers maintained in the Alms House, in the county of more than 3 to 1.

Bucks, during a series of years. In the State of Massachusetts, a similar increase has


No. of Paupers, taken place, though not in so great a degree. (8) Un

Bucks County. (6) der their poor laws, the State supports the expense of 1817.

130 such paupers as have no legal settlement.


163 The following table shows the amount of expenditure 1819.

.183 1820.

210 (1) Deb. H. of C. Feb. 24, 1817-Doc. N. Y. 128. (2) Mr. Curwen, Deb. H. of C. May 28, 1816. (3) Dọc. N. Y.125.

(1) Rep. Comm. Mass. 1821. App. C. (4) Vid, supra.

(2) Rep. Comm. Mass. 1821. p. 3. (5) Doc. N. v. p. 108.

(3) Sk, of Man. pub. in 1774. B, 2, sk. X. (6) Doc. N. Y. 80.

(4) 1d. ibid. (7) Doc. N. Y. 92,

(5) Journals H. R. 1823-6. p. (8) Id. 94.

(6) Id. p. Doc. N. Y. p. 111, *



No. of poor.

The county of Lancaster exhibits the same spectacle And the whole sum levied in this way, in the twentyof a gradual increase.

one years, from 1803 to 1824, amounts to 2,361,941 TABLE,

dollars, 49 cents. Showing the number of poor maintained in the house of Table showing the poor tax in the city, and all the

employment and hospital, for the county of Lancaster, and the whole expenses of the poor in the coun

county taxes assessed on the city, (except the dog ty, during the respective years specified, (ending on

tas,) in the years specified. the 1st of May, in each year.)


Poor tax. All other taxes. (6) Years.

Expenses. (1)

$64916 41

$41464 86 1810

$16,497 53

75445 36

47007 50 1817

16,982 79

75024 29

46735 68 1821

15,351 50

65755 37

46900 05 1824 208 1-3 13,568 39+

76336 88

49333 84 It is stated by the directors of the poor, that in the 5

78795 50

60708 11 years, from 1816, to 1821, the increase of pauperism in

78747 09

60236 74 that county had been in the ratio of 2) to i. (2)

106807 16

110451 82 Your committee come now to the facts, relating to the

95877 07

79761 95 populous district of Philadelphia.

95401 25

79480 68 A Table of the paupers relieved and supported, in and

99457 90

94239 32 out of the Alms House, during the years specified, in the city of Philadelphia and the annexed townships

Totals... .$912564 29 $716320 55 and districts; and of the amount of the poor tax, dur

Your committee observe, moreover, that the poor tax ing the same years.

does not always show the actual public expense of the Years.

Paupers. Poor Tax. (3) poor during each year. A large revenue is derived from 1789 820

$22933 other sources, as will appear from the following state1790 833

21333 ment of the account for the year ending May 26, 1824. 1791 680

Expenses of the alms house,

$53262 06 1797 834 40000 Do. of out door poor, &c.

88976 24 1800 1390


Accommodation notes paid, 54000 00 1801 1220


Interest on borrowed money, 1156 18 1802 1050 60000

55156 10 (4) Table of the number of paupers relieved and supported during the years specified, in Philadelphia and

197394 48 the annexed districts, in and out of the alms house. The tax laid for that year amounted to 114,468 dollars Years. Paupers. Years.

Paupers. | 10 cents, and the whole amount received from taxes of 1789 820 1808

2156 that and former years, during that year, was 108,410 dol1790 833 1809

2640 lars 51 cents. 1791 680 1810

2500 The other sources of receipt may be stated as follows, 1797 834 1811


viz. 1800 1390 1812


Amount received from late treasurer, $1064 02 1801 1220 1813 1500 Do. returned by sundry guardians

5245 50 1802 1050 1814


1227 68 1803 1088

1458 From bastardy cases, bonded,

4034 57 1804 1210 1816 1556 Do. support of married women,

1084 62 1805 1306 1817

Ground rents,

915 24 1806 1526 1818 1868 Commutations in bastardy cases,

883 07 1807 1854 1822 (5) 3090 Sundry incidental receipts,

135 25 Statement of the amount of poor rates, levied in the city and Board af medical students, in steward's family, 1231 33 adjoining districts since the year 1803.

Tickets and certificates sold to medical stu-

1900 00 Years. City.

Ag. districts.

Pay patients, coffins, &c.

3310 88 Manufactured goods sold,

910 29 $53494 02 $21768 61 1803

$75262 63
Money borrowed,

68000 00 1804 49364 53 20774 14 70138 67 1805 63644 90 28111 98 91756 88

89,942 45 1806 69168 13 30531 72 99699 85

Add amount received from taxes as 1807 62181 40 27693 09 89874 49


108410 51 1808 64496 55 26910 36 91406 91 1809 60563 84 25311 91 85875 75

Whole amount of receipts,

$198,352 96 1810 64916 41 27317 54 92233 95 1811 75445 56 27942 28 103387 64 The ensuing table exhibits the number of paupers 1812 75024 29 27648 62 102672 91 maintained in the alms house, the amount of poor tax 1813 65755 37 23875 94 89631 51 assessed, and the average price of wheat flour per 1814 76336 88 30112 79 106449 67 barrel, during the years specified. 1815- 78795 50 31151 51 109947 01

Years No. of pau

Average price 1816 787 17 09 31353 98 110101 07

Poor tax. 1817

of wheat flour 106807 16

ending 43394 38 150201 54

23d May. house. 1818 95877 07 38904 19 134781 26


$103387 64

837 1819

$8 49 0 96401 26 39087 54 134488 80



102672 91 9 33 1 1820 99457 90 41335 99 140793 89



89631 31 7 53 5 1821 90499 64 38237 69 128737 43



106449 67 753 8 1822 74204 13 31736 51 105940 64


778 109947 01 8 63 2 1823 78933 33 35534 77 114468 10


868 110101 07 11 29 4 1824 92464 75 41626 44 134091 19


934 150201 54 9 80 6 The first cight years in the series, give


134781 26 8 48 5 an average of

$87031 14 1820

1095 134488 80 5 52 0 The last eight years, of

130437 84 1821

1109 140793 89 4 10 3

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pero in alms

per barrel.


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Table showing the population of the whole city and Justice Cook. But it is revived again, and is in force,

county, (7) the number of paupers in the alms house, and without any regard to the matter of the book pro-
in the city of Philadelphia, and the amount of the vides that the printer should put his name to the books
poor tax in the city and annexed districts, in the years he prints, which thou hast not done.”

The prisoners continued to press for a trial.
Paupers in Population of

Poor tax

“Justice Cook. A trial thou shalt have, and that to alns house. city and county.

'assessed. your cost, it may be.

Justice Jennings. A trial thou shalt have, but for some 1790 416 54391


reason known to us, the court dcfers it to the next ses 1800 699 81009


sions, and that is the answer we give, and no other you 1810 1294 111210


shall have." 1820 1095 136497


The trial was, accordingly, put over to the next term, In the opinion of your committee, it is unnecessary to The only offence which appeared against Macomb, was comment upon these facts, or to enter upon a more ela- his joining with Keith and his party, and disposing of borate detail of them. After a mature consideration of two copies of Keith's printed address to Iris Quaker the whole subject, your committec are irresistibly led to brethren; for this he was not only imprisoned, but also the conclusion, that in every country in which our sys- deprived, by lieutenant governor Lloyd, of a license to tem of poor laws has prevailed, the number of paupers, keep an ordinary, or, house of public entertainment, for, and the amount of assessments for their relief, have pro- which he had, a few months before this confinement, paid gressively increased, and in a ratio not to be accounted the lieutenant governor twelve pieces of eight, or three for by the increase of population, or a rise of provisions, pounds, twelve shillings of the then currency and other necessaries of life.

At the next sessions of the court on the 6th of the

following December, Bradford was placed at the bar. * Exclusive of 68 paupers, not legally settled in the “The presentment was read;" the substance of which county, who were admitted and entertained sundry pe- was, that the 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th articles of the riods of time.

pamphlet called 'An Appeal,' had a tendency to weak

en the hands of the magistrates, and William Bradford | Not including sundries raised on the farm and manufactured in the house, which, in 1821, amounted to The following proceedings of the court are extracted

was presented as the printer of that seditious paper. 2,482 dollars 63 cents, and, taken at that sum, would from the pamphlet above mentioned. make the whole expenses amount to 16,051 dollars 2

Clerk. What say you William Bradford, are you cents.

guilty as you stand presented, or not guilty? (1) Taken from the annual reports of the directors. Bradford. In the first place, I desire to know whe(2) Answer of directors of poor of Lancaster county, to ther I am clear of the mittimus, which differs from the commissioners on pauperism. July, 9, 1821.

presentment? (3) Doc. N. Y. p. 111.

The clerk and the attorney for the government read

and perused the mittimus and presentment, and finding (4) Doc. N. Y. p. 111.

them to differ, said, that when William Bradford was (5) Including 161 illegitimate children, Journal H. cleared according to law, he was cleared of the mittiR. 1823–24, p. 40.

Bradford insisted on knowing, whether, on the (6) Answer of county commissioners, to commission issue of the presentment, he was clear of the mittimus. ers on pauperism, 1821-2.

After a long debate on the subject, Bradford was told (8) The cure of the "guardians and managers,” in that he was clear of the mittimus, on the issue of the cludes only the city, the old township of the Northern presentment. Liberties, and the district of Southwark. The other Bradford. What law is the presentment founded on? parts of the county are under the direction of distinct Attorney for the government. It is grounded both on officers.

statute and common law. [TO BE CONTINUED.]

Brudford. Pray let me see that statute and common

law, else how shall I make my plea? Justice Cook SINGULAR TRIAL.

told us last court, that one reason why ye deferred our

trial then, was, that we might have time to prepare ourAt the Court before which William Bradford and oth- selves to answer it; but ye never let me have a copy of ers were arraigned, the following conversation took place my presentment, nor will ye now let me know what between the Judges and the prisoners.

law ye prosecute me upon.

Attorney. It's not usual to insert in indictments against “Justice Cook. What bold, impudent and confident what statute the offence is, when it's against several stamen are these to stand thus confidently before the court? | tutes and laws made.

Macomb. You may cause our hats to be taken off if Justice White. If thou wilt not plead guilty, or not you please.

guilty, thou wilt lose thy opportunity of being tried by Bradford. We are here only to desire that which is thy country. the right of every free born English subject, which is The court then ordered the clerk to write down that speedy justice, and it is strange that, that should be ac- William Bradford refused to plead, which he did; but counted impudence, and we impudent fellows therefore, as he was writing it down, Bradford desired they would when we have spoke nothing but words of truth and not take advantage against him, for he refused not to soberness, in requesting that which is our right, and plead, but only requested that which was greatly neces. which we want; it being greatly to our prejudice to be sary,in order to his making his own defence. Several in detained prisoners.

the court requesting on the prisoner's behalf, that the Justice Cook. If thou hadst been in England, thou court would not take advantage against him, they adwould have had thy back lashed before now.

mitted him to plead, and he pleaded, not guilty. Bradford. I do not know wherein I have broke any The jury were then called over, and attested; but law so as to incur any such punishment.

before they were attested, Bradford was asked, if he Justice Jennings. Thou art very ignorant in the law. had any exceptions to make against any of them that Does not thee know that there's a law that every prin- were returned for the jury. ter shall put his name to the books he prints, or his press Bradford. Yes, I have, and particularly against two is forfeited?

of them, Joseph Kirle and James Fox, for at the time Bradford. I know that there was such a law, and I when I was committed to prison, Arthur Cook (one of know when it expired.

the judges) told me, that Joseph Kirle had said, that if


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