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THE

REGISTER OF PENNSYLVANIA.

DEVOTED TO THE PRESERVATION OF EVERY KIND OF USEVOL INFORMATION RESPECTING THE STATE.

EDITED BY SAMUEL HAZARD, NO. 51, FILBERT STREET.

VOL. II.-NO. 4.

PHILADELPHIA, AUGUST 9, 1828.

NO. 32.

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ANNALS OF PAUPERISM.

forms a part of our plan, and as it can only be correctly Under this title we purpose occasionally to furnish furnished by such societies themselves, we would be such documents and facts as we may obtain, on a subject, glad to receive a regular series of the reports they have which, notwithstanding pauperism has existed from the severally published; or, where they have published earliest ages, and the time and talents of philanthropists none, such written information, as will enable us to ac. and statesmen have been devoted to it, appears to be complish our purpose. The annual statements of the still involved in mystery and doubt. It has always ap

directors of the different poor houses throughout the peared to us that before arty correct theory can be form- state, would be acceptable for as long a series of years ed with regard to the cause of pauperism, or to the pro

as can be farnished. per remedies to be applied to its prevention, removal,

PENNSYLVANIA LEGISLATURE. or mitigation, we must be possessed of more facts on the

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. subject; and these facts are to be derived only from the Report of the Committee appointed to inquire into the opepoor themselves. It is, therefore, a cause of regret,

ration of the Poor Laws. Read, January 29th, 1825. that more attention has not been paid to this investiga- The Committee appointed to inquire into the operation

Mr. MEREDITH, Chairman. tion by the different institutions established for the sup- of the Poor Laws in this Commonwealth, and to deport or employment of the poor. Had a register been vise means for remedying the evils of which the prekept by each institution from its commencement, in sent system is productive, and to whom was also re. which were noted the principal circumstances attending

ferred the petition of the Society for the promotion of

public economy, the history of every applicant at the time of his admis

REPORT: sion upon the funds, it is easy to conceive, that in the That they have considered the subject with that sés course of a few years, an immense amount of informa- riousness and deliberation which its importance demands, tion might have been collected, from which correct meditae reach, has not been so full and minute as to

and have to láment that the information within their imtheories could be established, as to the cause and reme- justify them in the belief that it is possible, at this time, dies of an evil, which has rather increased than diminish. to make a thorough and complete reform in the system. ed under all the benevolent exertions which have been at the same time, they think that something may be safe. made for its extermination. Therefore, though late, we may he put in such a train, as to insure, at no distant

ly done at once, and that the necessary future inquiries would call the attention of benevolent institutions to day, the consummation of those wishes which all enlight: this subject, and recommend to them immediately to ened men must entertain on the subject. commence the work of registering all their present and

The system of poor laws which prevails in his com future poor, obtaining from each, every information principles, from that which was adopted in England, in

monwealth, was borrowed, in its leading features and which may throw any light upon the subject. Some the reign of Elizabeth. It provides for raising, by a little trouble would attend this operation at first; but if, compulsory tax, a fund for the support of the indigent, after the present number on the list is taken, each who are disabled from labour, by age, sickness, or in future applicant were examined, and the circum- such of the poor as are able to work. It has been said

firmity, and for providing labour and sustenance, for stances recorded at the time of his application, the labour in England, (and the argument appears to be well would be light, and the advantages of it important. founded,) that it was not originally intended to provide

In 1821, the attention of the legislature was directed to for the latter class, more than an occasional relief; but it the subject; and commissioners were appointed to col- of the law, both in England and in this state, has been,

must be admitted that the uniform practical construction lect information; and in 1825 the interesting report of a to place the relief granted to the able bodied poor, on committee of the house, which we now publish, was pre- the same permanent footing with that which is extended sented. As it imbodies much information, we presume to the old, the sick, infirm, and disabled. The system it will be read with considerable interest at the present act of Assembly, passed in the year 1771, and it is not

thus understood, was introduced into this State, by an time.

to be doubted that the intentions of the framers of The late radical change in the poor system forms an that act, were most humane and charitable. The mode important cra in the history of this state; and is, we con- then adopted was considered at the time as the best

which could be devised, for the purposes of relieving ceive, a favourable period for presenting to view what the poor, and diminishing the mass of human misery. has already been accomplished-so that after the new Under this system, we have gone on, for more than fifty system may have been in operation a sufficient length of years, and it is found that the burtheris upon the commutime to test its effects, a comparison may be made of the nity have been increased, that the number of paupers operations and advantages of both. As a history of the rity have acccumulated, and under these circumstances,

has been augmented, that the calls upon private chadifferent charitable institutions of our city and state | t becomes necessary seriously to inqnire, whether thers Voi.. JI.

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be not some fault in the system itself, or some imperfec- In the third place it is asserted, that the most operation in its details, which renders it injurious to the com- tive stimulus to exertion, among the labouring classes, inunity at large, without being beneficial to the particu- is the fear of want. That the ambition of a labouring lar class, for whose relief it was intended.

man is, by his exertions during the more vigorous period With regard to the question of radical defect in the of his life, to lay up something for his own future supsystem itself, it is not the intention of your committee port, and to provide a fund for the maintenance of his to enter at large into a speculative argument upon it, in family when death shall have taken him from them, or this report. it has, however, been the subject of keen age or infirmity shall have rendered him incompetent to and voluminous discussion in England, for many years contribute to their sustenance, by his own industry. past, and a very succinct summary of a few of the lead- That this desire, so long as he is conscious that its fuláling arguments which have been there used, may not ment depends entirely upon himself, renders him indus perhaps be unacceptable.

trious, frugal and provident. But that if it be proclaimThe opponents of the system have alleged, that while cd to such a man, that he shall be supported whenever it must always be admitted that charity is the first of our he shall choose to relinquish a laborious employmentduties, and most grateful to our feelings as men, and that his wife, his family, shall be provided for, whenever consonant with our sentiments as Christians, yet it has he shall cease to provide for them, he is deprived by the been wisely ordained by Providence to be a duty of im- assurance thus given, of his sole or principat motive for perfect obligation, and left to be enforced by the opera- exertion; he soon falls into habits of idleness-idleness tion of religious motives, and that sympathy for the dis- leads to profligacy-profligacy is sure to end in disease, tressed which is natural to the human heart. That cha. and he becomes a wretched being, useless to himself, rity, no more than gratitude, or any other duty of a simi- useless to his family and to society; and for the remainlar nature, is the proper object of human laws, or to be der of his miserable existence, au incumbrance-a dead enforced by human sanctions. That, left unrestrained weight upon the public bounty. Or that at least, the and uncompelled, while on the one hand the constitution temptations thus held out to him will operate gradually of our nature and the dictates of religion, render any to relax his frugal and industrious habits; that he wis general failure of charity extremely improbable, there learn to indulge in unnecessary expenses; that he will is on the other hand such an uncertainty attending the imperceptibly become improvident and careless of the relief, which may be required in any particular case, that future, and at last end his days in the poor bouse. That no individual is tempted to rely upon others, while he the natural tendency of the system (supposing those can find a support in his own industry or resources. That who are affected by it, to be actuated by the ordinary an individual too, who is about to make a voluntary gift motives which operate on human nature, will always be at his own expense, will generally take reasonable care to swell the number of paupers to an unlimited degree, that it is bestowed upon a proper object-upon the de- and to destroy or diminish the virtue and industry of the serving and unfortunate; and that those who have con

labouring classes. And that moreover, as the temptatributed, by their own abandoned and dissolute habits, tion held out will be indefinite and universal, while the to reduce themselves to penury, will then, and ought al fund itself must always be limited within some bounds, ways, to find the access to relief hard and difficult. And the public provision will never be found adequate to the that moreover, there is always a feeling of humiliation, relief of the paupers, which it has contributed to create; attendant upon alms taking, which is unpleasant and that the needy surplus must fall at last upon the private degrading, and which affords a pledge, that this mode charity of the citizens, and that in proportion as the of subsistence will generally not be resorted to, while number is increased of those who depend upon public any other remains open.

bounty, will also be augmented the number of those,

whose sole resource must be in the individual sympaThen, upon the effects of a system of relief by a thies of their fellow men,-sympathies already weakencompulsory public provision for the poor, it has been ed, by the circumstance that the public have undertasaid, that there is, in the first place, no feeling of huma, ken, however inefficiently, to do away the necessity for nity, of kindness, of tenderness, on the one side, and their exertion. no sense of humiliation or gratitude, on the other, and that a great obstacle to the increase of pauperism is thus impair the social affections of the poor. That the sense

Fourthly, it is alleged, that the system tends also to removed; that the relief, which the law awards to the of dependence in the members, upon the head of a fa. necessitois, is unblushingly demanded as a right, and is mily, the consciousness, on his part, that to him, and ungraciously granted, because it cannot be refused; that him alone, must those who are most dear to him, look the givers and receivers, the rich and the poor, are alike for protection and support--that these feelings on the dissatisfied and exasperated; the former, by the sense, one side and the other, form strong and indissoluble links that if they have already given much, more is still to be links, at least, which would be indissoluble, if the required from them; and the latter, by the conscious- poor laws did not destroy them all

, by removing all ness, that all they have received has not been enough, and that they are still uncomfortable, needy and deperl- indispensable protection on the other.

sense of necessary dependence on the one hand, and of ent.

And lastly, it is insisted that the poor laws encourage It is observed, in the next place, that the relief can improvident marriages, among those who are entirely not be, and in point of fact, never is in practice, restrict- unable by their own exertions to support a family, and ed to deserving objects. That it is plainly impossible thus tend to breed generation after generation, of here for a few officers, to whom the administration of the ditary paupers, who, through their whole lives, never funds is entrusted, to investigate with any minuteness, know any other mode of subsistence than that which is the former habits and conduct of the individual appli- ; afforded to them by the public bounty. cants, and that they are palpably without all motive for Upon the whole, it has been concluded that the sysattempting to do so, since they have themselves no inter- tem of a compulsory public provision for the poor, will est in practising even ordinary economy, in the distribu- always increase and aggravate the evil which it is intendtion of supplies which are raised from the resources of ed to remove; create an acerbity of feeling between the others. That it is therefore to be expected, that the different classes of society; demoralize, to a greater or system in question will always raise a competition, on less extent, the labouring classes; promote idleness and the part of the improvident, the dissolute, and the un- licentiousness among the poor; destroy their frugal and worthy, against the claims of those who have been re- industrious habits; impair their social affections, and duced to want by unavoidable misfortune or calarity; throw upon the diligent and provident, the burden of and that the relief which ought to be granted to the lat. maintaining the idle and profligate. That the necessity ter alone, will often be yielded to the more clamorous for private charity will be increased, while the sentiment and importunate demands of the former.

of charity itself will be weakened--that the number of

pers relieved.

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Wheat per

8.

paupers will swell rapidly; the pressure upon the com

1776. 1783-4-5. 1803. 1815. munity proportionably accumulate, the abuses 'grow Herefordshire, 10,592. 16,728 48,067 59,256 more and more inveterate, and finally, all other burthens Bedfordshire, 16,663 20,977 38,070 50,371

become as nothing, when compared with this one para- The following table extracted in part from the same 'mount oppression.

work, exhibits the whole population of England and Your committee do not intend to enter further into the argument upon this subject. If the system were to

Wales, and the number of paupers relieved at differbe introduced now for the first time, it would be neces

ent periods. sary to resort to speculation, in the absence of facts; but Year.

Population of England Number of pausince it has prevailed in England for more than two cen

and Wales, about turies, in this commonwealth for above fifty years, and

1688
5,300,000

563,964 in some of the other States in the Union, for a still long

1766
7,728,000

695,177 er period, your committee will take experience alone as

17832
1785 S
8,016,000

818,851
their guide, and direct their enquiries towards ascertain.
ing, not what might have been expected, but what has

1792
8,675,000

955,326 actually taken place.

1803
9,168,000

1,040,716 To avoid confusion, your committee will point the (1) 1813 10,747,280

2,601,456 most striking facts which they have collected, as far as

1815
estimated at

3,050,000 may be, to the following heads:

(2) Table of the amount of expenditures on the poor in
i. Whether under a system of poor laws, such as England in each tenth year, since the middle of the last
ours, the number of paupers and the amount of the century, together with the price of wheat.
public expense have uniformly been augmented?

Years.
Expenditure. Whcat

per

bush. 2. Whether the necessity for private charity, has been

£ done away by the operation of the public provision for

1750
713,000

4 2 the poor?

1760
965,000

4 10 3. of those who are relieved by the public bounty,

1770
1,306,000

6 5 whether the greater portion be not composed of such

1780
1,774,000

5 11 as have been reduced to penury by their own vice or

1790
2,567,000

6 4 improvidence?

1800
3,861,000

10 2 4. Whether any expedient has been found, by any

1810
5,407,000

12 4
modification of the system, to prevent the evils which it The following are given in successive years.
produces?
1. Under a system of poor laws, such as ours, have the

Expenditure.

bushel. number of paupers and the amount of the public expense Year ending

d. uniformly been augmented?

25th March, 1813 6,656,105 16 8 Your committee will take, in the first place, the case

1814

6,294,584 12 3 of England, into which this system was first introduced,

1815

5,418,846 8 10 and where it has prevailed for a longer time than in any

1816

5,724,507 7 9 of our own states. An enlightened writer, of the last

1817 6,918,247 10 11 century, bears the following emphatic testimony. (1)

1818

7,890,148 11 3 “Under the operation of the poor laws, it is a sad truth,

1819

7,531,651 10 4 that the disease of poverty, instead of being eradicated,

1820

7,329,594 8 8 has become more and more inveterate. England in par

1821

6,947,666 7 10 ticular overflows with beggars, though in no other coun- It was stated by Mr. Walter Burrell, a member of the tay are the indigent so amply provided for."

House of Commons, (Debates House of Commons Feb. The following statement of the sums raised in different 9, 1819,) that, in his own parish, that of West Grinstead,

years, in England, for the support of the poor, will which consisted of 5000 acres, the rental of which was show a progressive and rapid increase:

40002. the poor-rates of the year 1818–19, amounted to Year.

Sums raised.

45002 And on the 7th of March, 1817, Mr. Calcraft, (2) 1680

also a member of the House of Commons, presented to

£665,260 (3) 1750

700,000

that body, petitions signed by individuals for whose re1760

965,000

spectability and credibility he vouched, which stated, 1770

that in the parish of Langton Matravers, in Dorsetshire,

1,306,000 1780

1,774,000

containing 575 inhabitants, 419 were receiving parochial 1790*

2,567,000

relief; and that the poor-rate amounted to at least 18 18001

3,867,000

shillings or 19 shillings in the pound. And that, in the 1810

5,407,000

parish of Swanage, also in Dorsetshire, containing 1500 1812

6,680,000

inhabitants, there was not 1 in 7 able to support himself; 1813

7,004,765

that the poor-rates amounted to 21 shillings in the pound, 1814

6,630,297

and every occupant of land, but one, had given notice (4) 1815

to abandon. 7,525,057

An extract from the report of a select committee of * Including minor rates for highways, &c.

the House of Commons, appointed to consider of the | Exclusive of minor rates. It is said by Lowe, that there has been a gradual re

poor laws, will explain the conclusion to which they

were led, after a laborious investigation of the whole duction of the charge since 1819, and that it may now subject, as to the fact of the progressive increase of the be taken at less than 6,000,0001.

burthen, in that country. The following statement, taken from "Lowe's Present “ Independent of the pressure of any temporary or State of England,” (p. 193,) will show the increase, in accidental circumstances, and making every allowance two English counties.

for an increased population, the rise in the price of pro(1) Sketches of Man. b. 2, sk. X.

(1) Documents accompanying the report of the Se. (2) Mr. Curwen, (House of Commons,) May 28, 1816. cretary of the State of New York, to the Assembly, (3) Lowe's Present State of England, p. 181, &c. February 12, 1824, p. 126.

(4) Statement presented to the House of Commons, (2) From the reports of the committees of House of by Mr. Addington, Feb. 26, 1816, adding 1-14th for pa- Commons on the poor laws, 1817 and 1821.- Lowe, rishes not returned. Lowe states it at 5,745,8331.

App. 58.

visions, and other necessaries of life, and a misapplica.crease of expense in certain Scottish parishes, where the tion of part of the funds, it is apparent, that both the legal assessments have been introduced. number of paupers, and the amount of money levied by (1) Par. County. Expense Averg. ann. expense assessment, are progressively increasing, while the situ

in 1790. from 1812 to 1815. ation of the poor appears not to have been in a corres- Wilton, Roxburgh, 1.92 18 00 288 17 11 ponding degree improved, and the committee is of opi- Ilawick,

311 01 08 836 19 00 nion, that whilst the existing poor laws, and the system Robertson,

61 05 00 142 10 06 under which they are administered, remain unchanged, East Kilbride, 34 06 08 213 02 03 (in 1810) there does not exist any power of arresting the progress Coldstream, 208 00 00 628 00 00 (in 1815) of this increase, till it shall no longer be found possible Linton,

20 00 00 90 00 00 (in 1815) to augment the sums raised by assessment.” (1) Jedburgh,

141 08 05 350 06 04(Av, from The English system of poor rates has never been ge

1811 to 1815.) nerally introduced into Scotland. The mode adopted (2) Into the Barony parish, one of the suburbs of for the relief of the poor in that country, is a peculiar Glasgow, with a population of 43,000, the English asone. In every parish is a fund raised by the voluntary sessments were introduced in 1810-the expenses then .contributions of the parishioners, at the kirk door, and amounted to

£600 per annum. devoted to charitable uses. The fund is administered

In 1817, they had swelled to . 3,000 do. by the “kirk session," a body composed of the minister and elders of the parish. When a year of extraordinary

Exhibiting an increase of nearly six-fold, in 7 years; pressure occurs, and the fund proves insufficient for its while in the Gorbals, another suburb of the same city, purposes, the heritors or landholders of the parish hold with a population of 20,000, where the English assess, a meeting, at which they fix for themselves a rate of con- ments have not been introduced, the regular annual ex, tribution, to make up the deficiency. (2) It is unneces- penditure is 3501; and the whole sum expended on the sary at this time to discuss the advantages of this ar poor in a year of extraordinary pressure, was 8751. rangement, (which " leaves the object of their charity

(3) In a parish in Dumfrieshire, where the funds for and the measure, to the humanity and discretion” (a) of the maintenance of the poor, amounted to between two the givers,) over the English mode. The actual effects and three thousand pounds per annum, of a population of the two systems, are alone to be inquired about, at supposed to be nearly 800, the greater part, in the year present; and the following statements exhibit their dif- 1817, were in a state of pauperism, dependent on 'chaferent practical results, in a striking point of view.

rity for their support. While, in an adjoining parish,

with a population of 2,500 souls, there were but two The expense of supporting the poor in certain Scotch paupers.' The number of parochial poor in Scotland, in

parishes where there are no poor-rates, contrasted | 1817, was about one in sixty;--the whole number of poor with certain English parishes, where there are poor- in that country, was then calculated at from thirty to rates.-(Prom the Edinburg Review for Feb. 1818.) thirty-six thousand, and the total expenditure for their SCOTCH.

support, supposed not to exceed 180,000l. It is stated, Parish. County, Population. Total yearly fund. however, (4) that the total poor rate collected in Scot,

£ s. d.

land, in 1817, a year of scarcity and distress, was 119,Frazerburgh, Aberdeen, 2,271 100 00 00 0001; of which 49,0001. proceeded from assessments, New Deer do. 3,100 86 10 00 and the rest were voluntary contributions. Lonmay 1,627 25 00 00

It is to be observed, that in no country in Europe, has Dunoon Argyle 2,130 46-00 00

the example of England, on this subject, been followed, Irna do. 1,157

6 00 00

"On the continent of Europe, the public institutions Redgerton Perth 2,216 99 00 00

afford protection only against infirmity and extreme peBathgate Linlithgow, 2,919 124 00 00

nury; even Holland, so noted for its hospitals and chari. Reay Sutherland, 2,317 13 00 00

ties, has not a poor-rate on the comprehensive plan of Farr, do. 2,408 18 17 00

England.” (5) Assint do. 2,479

5 00 00 ENGLISH.

In France, before the revolution, the funds appropria, Pop. Poor Rates,

ted for the poor, yielded the same sum annually; "that Barrow, upon { screester-}1,143

sum was always pre-occupied; and France, with respect

1,868 17 00 Soar

to all but those on the list, approached the state of a Belgrave do. 645 8037 43

nation that had no fund provided by law for the poor." Countesthrope do. 623 901 07 00

(6) Besides this, there were no doubt certain sums giv, Lileby clo. 1,200 1,764 00 00

en in charity, by the religious establishments of thąt Hathira do. 1,160 1,015 00 00

country; and in 1791, when the revolution had swept Blaby do. 794 1,391 05 06

away those institutions, “there took place in the AssenYour Committec have observed that the English legal providing for the poor; the result was a decided deter

blee Legislative, a long discussion on the fittest mode of assessments, have not been generally introduced into mination to avoid the English plan, but to provide at the Scotiand; they have however been adopted in certain public charge, a fund of about 2,000,000. a year, for parts of that country, and the following examples of the the relief of the aged and infirm throughout the wholo expenditures in certain Scottish parishes where they of France.(7) In addition to the permanent aid affordprevail

, may be advantageously compared with the ex-ed by the government, collections are made "by subpenditures stated above, of Scottish parishes, which are scription, in the depth of winter, or on the occurrence yet free from such assessments.

of extraordinary distress; and finally, in a season of gen(3) Parish.

County. Population. Total funds. eral hardship, occasional issues are made from the public St. Boswell's Roxburgh, 508

63 04 00 treasury.” (8) Galashiels Selkirk 986

225 10 00 Inperleithen do.

672

95 00 00 (1) Ed. Rev. Feb. 1818. Selkirk

do.
2,466

224 16 00 (2) Id. Ibid.
But this matter will appear in a still more distinct (3) Ed. Rev. Feb. 1818.
light, from the ensuing, table, which exhibits the in- (4) H. of Comm. Deb. May 28, 1816.

(5) Doc. acc. rep. of Sec. of St. N. Y. p. 125--Lowe (1) Rep. Com. H. of C. 1817 p. 10.

187. (2) Sk. of Man. B. 2 Ed. Rev. No. 55,

(6) Lowe, 180. (a) Lord Kaimes.

(7) Sk. of Man. B. 2, sk. X (3) Ed. Rev. Feb. 1818.

(8) Lowe, 189.

dc.

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The facts with regard to Scotland, have been already on this account, by the state government, in the several stated. In Ireland, it is well known, that there is no years specified. public provision for the poor whatever. Yet it is said

(1) Expenditure for relief that the poor in that country, are better taken care of, Years.

of paupers not having and the lower orders generally more happy, and more in

any legal settlement, dependent than in England. (1) “The indigent them

1801

$28,100 08 selves view it as a duty, not to refuse their mite. This 1811

52,129 92 affords a proof that when there is no other provision 1812

51,260 00 than that of charity, all are disposed to exercise it.” (2) -1813

55,002 37 Table showing the number of paupers, in every hun- 1814

60,357 75 dred souls of the whole population of Scotland, where 1815

57,415 37 the English system of poor rates does not generally ob

1816

62,971 92 tain, and of England; together with the amount of the 1817

65,796 16 public expense, for the relief of the poor in each coun- 1818

66,556 93 try.

1819

72,156 89 Per centage of Expenditure in

1820

72,662 54 paupers.

1817.

Population of Mass. No. of Paupers. Expenditure, Scotland, (3) 3 (4) 119,0001.

in 1820. 6,918,247

(estimated England, (s) 25

restimated) 523,287

7,000 $350,000 With regard to the effects of the system in our sister States, your committee will proceed to state the facts in

The whole annual expense of paupers, in 1820, was their possession.

estimated at 350,000 dollars, and the whole number of The following table exhibits the public pauper ex- paupers at somewhat exceeding 7,000. It was the depense of the State of New York, for the years speci- cided opinion of a committee, who reported to the gefied.

neral court in 1821, (having been appointed at the preYear.

Expense. (5)

vious session, to consider the pauper laws of the com1815

$245,000

monwealth,) “hat the pernicious consequences of the 1819

368,645

system were palpable; that they were increasing, and 1822

470,000

that they imperiously called for the interference of the (6) if to this latter sum be added the interest at 6 per legislature, in some manner equally prompt and efficacent. of monies expended on poor houses and farms,

cious." (2) the result will be a total expense, in the year 1822, of

If we turn to our own State, the proofs of a similar $535,000. From this it appears, that the expense was, augmentation of the burthen will be found as cogent at least, nearly doubled, in the space of seven years.

and alarming. The picture drawn of Pennsylvania by The number of paupers, in the same State, during an able writer of the last century, compared with our the year 1822, is thus stated:

present situation, affords a strong illustration of the efPermanent paupers,

6,896

fects of the system which we have adopted. It is in Occasional paupers,

15,215

these words: “There is not a single beggar to be seen

in Pennsylvania. Luxury and idleness have got no footTotal number of paupers,

22,111

ing in that happy country; and those who suffer by misa Extract from a report made by a committee to the fortune bave their maintenance out of the public treasuHouse of Assembly of New York, in 1820.

ry.” (3) But he goes on: “Luxury and idleness cannot “The committee find that the increase of pauperism, forever be excluded; and when they take place, this in this state, and the consequence expense to the com- regulation will be as pernicious in Pennsylvania as the munity, is truly alarming." They go on afterwards to poor rates are in Britain.” (4) Your committee believe, state, “that this enormous increase of expense is by no from a consideration of even the comparatively few facts means in proportion to the increase of population; nor which they have collected, that there is too much reacan it be attributed to the increase of the expense of son to suppose that the prophecy has been completely living, but that in their opinion idleness and dissipation verified. are one great cause of the evil.”

The ensuing table shows the number of paupers relieva The ensuing statement shows the whole public ex. ed in the county of Chester, in the respective years pense of the poor in the State of New Hampshire, in the

mentioned. years specified; the population of the State in those years, and estimated number of paupers in every 100

Year.

No. of paupers. (5) souls of the whole population. (7)

1818.

.186 Years. Expnd're. Population. Per centage of paupers.

1819.

.219 1800 $17,000 183,858

3-10 of 1 per cent.
1820.

.319 1820 80,000 244,161 1 per cent.

1821..

..292 Showing that the actual expense was very nearly

1822..

..306 quintupled, in twenty years, and that the proportion 1823, about,

..300 which the number of paupers bore to the whole popu. A similar increase will be found in the number of paulation, had, in the same time, increased in the ratio of pers maintained in the Alms House, in the county of more than 3 to 1.

Bucks, during a series of years. In the State of Massachusetts, a similar increase has Years.

No. of Paupers, taken place, though not in so great a degree. (8) Un

Bucks County. (6) der their poor laws, the State supports the expense of 1817.

.130 such paupers as have no legal settlement.

1818.

163 The following table shows the amount of expenditure 1819.

.183 1820.

210 (1) Deb. H. of C. Feb. 24, 1817-Doc. N. Y. 128.

1821.

...206 (2) Mr. Curwen, Deb. H. of C. May 28, 1816, (3) Dọc. N. 1.125.

(1) Rep. Comm. Mass. 1821. App. C.

(2) Rep. Comm. Mass. 1821. p. 3. (5) Doc. N. Y. p. 108.

(3) Sk. of Man. pub. in 1774. B, 2, sk. X. (6) Doc. N. Y. 80.

(4) 1d. ibid. (7) Doc. N. Y. 92.

(5) Journals H. R. 1823-6. p. (8) Id. 94.

(6) Id. p. Doc. N. Y.p. 111,

(4) Vid. supra

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