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entitled to receive the annual interest of
7th. There is also three years arrears at six per cent and the other third to bear
of interest from January 1788 till January no interest till the year 1800, when an an
1791, on the amount of the continental nual interest of six per cent. will be de
certificates, the property of the state, on mandable thereon also.
which three per cent. will be demandable The question awaits the decision of the
from the United States the next year, if legislature, whether Pennsylvania shall
non-subscribers, and funded at three per thus subscribe, and lose ten years interest
cent. per annum, if subscribers to the new of one-third of the debt, or whether the
loan of the United States, which is equal state shall rely on the fulfilment of the ob.
per annum to
2418 1 1 ligations of the United States. As the in. terest payable in either case will be the
£39,893 8 7 same for the next year, it is here stated, viz. 17,911 11 0 By an act of Congress June 6th 1788, 6th. The interest paid in
authorizing the late board of treasury to cash by the state on the new
dispose of a certain tract of land on Lake loan certificates per act
Erie, the property
the United States, March 1786, is per act March
and an act of this state, by which the dele: 1789 to be settled and re.
gates of Pennsylvania then in Congress paid in indents of interest,
were duly authorized to make the purcommonly called facilities,
chase for the state, on the 7th of July, in the four years interest, see
the year aforesaid, the following terms debts, head VII. is · 465,092 117
were proposed by fhe said delegates, and There was also relinquish
by the board of treasury thus authorized ed by sundry persons on new
accepted on the 28th of August 1788:“TO loan certificates for arrears
pay for the same at the rale of three. of iaterest, which operates
fourths of a dollar per acre, payable in to the credit of the state 329 15 4
gold or silver, or in public securities of
the United States, bearing interest, when 465,422 6 11
the quantity is ascertained by actual sur. There hath been paid to
vey, in the manner prescribed by a resolu. the United in indents, in
tion of Congress of 7th June 1788." The cluding state treasurer's
survey hath been made, and will shortly commissions $220,673 80,
be returned, when, according to the terms equal to 82,677 13 3
of contract, payment must be made. The
directions of the legislature for this pur. Residue, for which an
pose will be necessary. Agreeable to the equal sum in indents are
contract, it may be paid for in gold or sil. either on hand or to be re
ver, in the non-subscribed debt (in which ceived, as the certificates
case three years interest must be given up) are exchanged 382,744 13 8
in subscribec six per cent. stock, (leaving The interest due on the con.
the deferred debt, which is not yet on in. tinental certificates received
terest, non-receivable) or it may be dis. in the land office till 31st De
charged in certificates granted for indents cember 1787, to which time
bearing an annual interest of three per interest is payable in indents
cent. the market price of which is now thereon by the U. States 103,910 16 9
higher than the prices of the non-sub. Ditto on the certificate in
scribed species of certificates were at the favour of Wm. Scott afore.
ti.ne of making the said purchase. The said
quantity is 202,187 acres, which, at 58. Ditto on ditto in favour of
71d. per acre, is £56,865 1 103 at three David Thompson
37 18 4
per cent. if paid therein, to be deducted Ditto on that received of
from the annual interest receivable above, is 1705 19 0 George Woods
2 8 10 The interest due on new
38,187 97 loan certificates redeeemed
The interest of this state, and the secuby the land office, for wliich
rity of the titles of future purchasers un. the state hath an equal
der them, makes the perpetuating the eviamount of the principal and
dence of this purchase a matter of very interest in certificates of
great moment. It appears to consist in the debts of the United States,
proposals made by the state as aforesaid, and are in like manner enti.
which are with the United States, and a tled to receive the indents
letter of the board of treasury accepting till 31st December 1787, 31,392 6 4
the offer, without reciting what that offer
was. If both these originals were duly re518,127 10 5
corded, and such other means as the wis. This amount is, by the act of Congress
dom of the legislature might suggest taken of 4th of August 1790, allowed to be fund
to confirm and perpetuate evidence of the ed on an interest of three per cent. until
sale and the terms, it might save confusion paid, and the subject requires the direction
and trouble hereafter. of the legislature. As they bore no inter
8th. After the first of January 1792, this est at all before, it is hardly to be doubted
state will, according to act of Congress of but that they will be thus funded. Whe.
4th August 1790, be entitled annually to ther they may or may not, so far forth as
receive from the United States the inte. indents have not been drawn thereon, the
rest upon one-third of 220,000 dollars at 3 interest to be received in the next year
per cent. and of the two-thirds of the rewill be the same. Interest at thrce per
maining two-thirds of the sum aforesaid at cent.
15,543 16 6 six per cent. so far as that sum shall not Vol. 11.
hare been subscribed to the new loan of
It must be a governing principle of the legislature of the United States in certificates of debts
a free state, representing fully the people ad partici. of this -tate The part that may be sub
pating of their burthens, to make those burthens as light scr.bed will excnerate the state fiom the
and easy as circumstances will admit. This surplus of interest thereof at sx per cent, which
una propriated revenue, therefore, so near'y agreeing would be a larger demand on the saine ca.
with the amount of the annual direct tax upon the peo. pital. The suin of 5501 81. of the state
ple, will probably be taken to supply the place of the d.bt hat, alieady been subscri ed, yet, as
other, and the law directing the whole of that lax either it is presuitable Ittle more will be added,
repealed or suspended. I set down the sum payable annually by the United States, ifier the year 1791,
XIII. The Balance due from the United States. $81,606 8), equal
30,625 00 Although this might be arranged under the head of The surplus inappropriated of the tax.
unappropriated revenues, yet I close to make a separate es, per head Il. of revenue, after redeem.
one of i', because it will not be so inmediately producing the bills of credit of April 1781 9878 2 1 tive, and will not meet or supply the necessities of the The surplus of the effective supplies of
next year, but, by being added to the aggregate fund, 1781, provincial taxes, and fines in the 2d
may serve as a remainder therein, when other parts class tax, see head IV. of ihe revenues 7800 00 thereof shall have been exhausted. The surplus of the 150,000l. Joan office,
Most of the debts with which the see head VII. of revenues
10,817 10 0 State is now encumbered, and all the The surplus of the principal of the 50,0001
great suis raised and paid, or exloan office, see head vilt of the revenues, 19,917 6 11 pended for the United States here.
tofore, from time to time, since the
$117,225 8 7 year 1775, are chargeable to their These monies being un.
account. The amount of our claims
made are, In Specie, appropriated, are at the fu.
$10,642,403 45 ture disposal of the legisla.
In Continental Money,
47,010,138 00 ture. As the monies aris. ing from the sales of city
When all these payments are reduced to specie, and Jots and State island have
the account charged with advances made to Pennsylva. been applied to the general
nia from time to tine by the United States, to amount of purposes of the state, it will
upwards of two millions of dollars, it is expected a baremain hereout to make
lance of about ten million of dollars specie of principal provision for restoring the
will appear in our favours and that the interest account, anticipation, by paying the
equalizing the dates, will average about ten years backe principal and interest to any
from the 1st of January 1792. holders of the remainder of
By acts of Congress of November 1777, October the bills of credii, (see 3d
1779, February 1782, and others, this interest is at six article of debts, head 1.)
per cent. per annuin, which would yield the sum of who may apply
6000,000 dollars arrears of interest. By the act of Con. The pensions allowed by
gress of August 5th 1799, this clebt may be furled the state, per head IX. of
within one vear after settlement, as the other debts of debts, are also to be pro.
the United States are, by act of August 4th preceding. vided for
Although by t at mode ten years interest would be lost The deficieney of the re
to the state on one liird of the principal, yet the advan. venues for support of go.
tage of receiving an interest of three per cent. on so vernment the present year.
large an arrear of interest will more than counterbalance: owing to the arrears charge
There can be only one bad effect, it fixes a principle, ed on the current fund, will
which in future may open another loan for the debts and require per head V. of re
engagements not more solemnly contracted nor more venues
binding than the present, and afterwards another, and The aggregate fund, into
even others, each still less and less; for if aught can be which will naturally be
taken either from principal or interest, on the same printhrown the residue of the
ciple any other part of either may be taken away. revenues; 1st, because these
The annual interest of two thirds of 10 revenues principally arise
millions, viz: 6666666 dols. 67 at 6 per cent. $400,000 from imposts, which, when
The annual interest of 6 millions at 3 per in the hands of the state,
180,000 were a part of the same fund; and next, because
Dollars per annum,
580,000 from it the debts of the state
These accounts are now adjusting by the commission. are to be discharged, and
ers appointed by the United States for that purpose. other funds are to be kept
The sum of 1.550 0 8 is entered of the ciebts of this up, but more especially as a
state, to be funded by the United States, according to part of these are by the
their act of August 4th 1790. Whatever sums may be United States given en
thus subscribed will be chargeable per said act to this pressly for this purpose.
account, together with the payments to Pennsylvania on This fund being diminished
account of the interest of the 2,200,000 dollars before by the change in the govern.
mentioned. ment of the union, and
The finar.ces of the state are much embarrassed by charg:d with new appro
the remains of the emission of bills of credit of 1785, priations, is deficient, per
none of which have been burned, and little thereof re. head of revenues III. 30,152 11 3
deemed since November 1789. If the Treasurer, in Balance in favour of the
conformity to the engagements of the state, would not revenues 76,188 3 2
re-issue, but keep in his bands for burning the monies £117,225 8 7 which he receives from the general funds, till the l.24,
800 in artears are burnt, and then in the next year, out
of the revenues that first come in for that year in those ton, but may indifferently serve all places adjacent. By bills, keep the sum directed by law to be burnt in the Daniel Leeds Studentin Agriculture. Printed and sold ensuing year, which with the loan office completes the by William Bradfordd, near Philadelphia in Pennsilvania whole suin emitted, the knowledge that these bills were pro Anno 1687." This is a sheet alınanac, in twelve not to be re-issued, would not only induce those who compartments, for the twelve months; the year begins owe the state to be speedy in getting this money, and with March and ends with February, as was ugual in the paying it while obtainable below par, by which means seventeenth century. At the bottom of the sheet is an the collection of the revenues would be promoted, but explanation of the almanac, an account of the eclipses the diminution of the quantity, with concurrent circum- for the year; courts and fairs at Burlington and Philadel. stances, would in a few weeks appreciate its value, to phia, and short rules in husbandry. such a degree, that the payments to the treasury would It appears
that at the time Bradford printed this alma. come in mixed with hard money. The bills of this emis- nac* he lived 'spear Philadelphia," and Chester, as I sion, which should be received on account of the other have said, was near this city.t, revenues for the support of government, might by these In 1689, Bradford lived in the city. I possess a quar. means very shortly be exchanged in the treasury for to pamphlet by George Keith, respecting the New Eng. specie, which would be received in the general reve- land churches, printed by Bradford in Philadelphia that nues, until the whole emission, without any obstruction year. It is the oldest book I have seen, printed in the to government or alteration of the systems or engage city. I have another pamphlet, of seventy four pages ments of the state, should be redeemned. On the first printed by him in 1690, entitled, "A Refutation of Ihree of April next, this state will be entitled to receive up. Opposers of Truth, by plain Evidence of the Holy wards of 1.8500 in specie from the United States, being Scriptures, viz. Pardon Tillinghast, B. Keech, and Cot. one quarter's payment of interest as aforesaid, which ton Mather; and a few Words of a Letter to John Cot. will aid the execution of this measure.
ton. By George Keith.”—Iinprint Philadelphia, Print. I shall have the honor shortly of laying before the le. Sed and Sold by William Bradford Anno 1690.” I have gislature a full state of the taxes in the several counties, another quarto pamphlet, of seventy two pages, written exhibiting where the arrears thereof lie. The deficien- by George Keith, entitled, “A Serious Appeal to all the cy of payment in due time hath been caused, partly, by more Sober, Impartial and Judicious People of New Eng. the exorbitancy of the demand. The sum of 1.420,000 land to whose Hands this may come." It is a vindica. and upwards in direct taxes in one year exceeded the tion of the Quakers from the attack of Cotton Mather, abilities of the good people of Pennsylvania to pay, and &c. "Printed and sold by William Bradford, at Philadel. with other large taxes have been long a heavy loud on phia in Pennsylvania, in the year 1692." inany of the citizens. Another cause was, that until In the year 1692, much contention prevailed among lately the laws were not efficient, nor adequate to the the Quakers, in Philaclelphia, and Bradford took an ac. purpose of compelling payment, where compulsion was tive part in the quarrel. George Keith, by birth a Scotch. requisite. The collectors were only authorised to ask, man, a man of good abilities and well educated; was not empowered to compel payment. As the laws haye surveyor general in New Jersey; and the Society of been amended, these difficulties will not exist in future, Friends in this city employed him in 1689, as the super. and greater collections may consequently be expected. intendent of their schools: Keith, having attended this
Respectfully submitted, JOIN NICHOLSON. duty nearly two years, became a public speaker in their Comptroller-General's Office,
religious assemblies; but being, as the Quakers asserted, December 11th, 1790.5
of a turbulent and overbearing spirit, he gave them
much trouble; they forbade him speaking as a teacher, A SKETCH OF WILLIAM BRADFORD. or minister in their meetings; this, and some other irri. From Thomas's History of Printing.
tating circumstances, caused a division among the WILLIAM BRADFORD, was the first printer who set Friends, and the parties were violently hostile to each tled in this colony, (Pa) He was the son of William other. Bradford was of the party which was attached and Anne Bradford, of Leicester, England, at which to Keith, and supported him; their opponents were the place he was born. He served his apprenticeship in majority. Among them were the Lieutenant Governor London, with Andrew Bowles, printer, in Grace Church Lloyd, and most of the Quaker magistrates. Keith and street, and married his daughter Elizabeth. Sowles was Thomas Budd wrote against the majority, and Bradford intimately acquainted with George Fox, a shoemaker of published their writings. Nottingham; and the founder of the English sect of Keith was condemned in the city meetings, but he Quakers. Sowles was one of this sect, and printed for appealed to the general ineeting of the Friends; and, the society. Bradford adopted the principles of the in order that his case inight be generally known and Quakers, and was among the first emigrants from Eng-understood, he wrote an address to the Quakers, which land to Pennsylvania in 1682, or 1683, and landed at the he caused to be printed, and copies of it to be dispersed spot where Philadelphia was soon after laid out, before among the Friends, previous to their general meeting. a house was built. "The next year his wife arrived. This conduct was highly resented by his opponents; tlie
At what place he first settled is rather uncertain; but, it was, as he expresses it, "near Philadelphia.” The A copy of this almanac is now in the library of Phi. Swedes had begun a colony in Delaware as early as ladelphia. 1626, and made a settlement at Chester, now a part of t it has been suggested that Bradford first settled at Pennsylvania. The Dutch conquered the Swedes and Kensington, about two miles to the eastward of Phila. attached Delaware to the government of New York. delphia, on the banks of the Delaware; at which place By agreement with the Duke of York, Penn, after his there were, at that time, two or three houses, and where arrival, assumed the government of Delaware, and ini. remained the great oak tree, under which Williain Penn ted it, in matters of legislation, with Pennsylvania. The held a treaty with the Indians, until the 5th of March general assembly was holden at Chester, and this bo. 1810, when it was overthrown by a tornado. Proud, in rough became, for a time, a place of consequence. It his history of Pennsylvania, observes in a pote, "The is probable that Bradford resided there until Philadel. Quakers had meetings for religious worship, and for the phia assumed the appearance of a city; he might, how- economy of their society, as early as the fore part of the ever, have set up his press at Burlington, which is but year 1681, at the house of Thomas Fairlamb, at Sbaka. eighteen miles distant from Philadelphia, and was then maxon, near or about the place where Kensington now the capital of New Jersey. The first work printed by stands, nigh Philadelphia.". This fact renders it, in a Bradford, which has reached us with a date, is, “An Al. degree, probable, that Bradford did settle at Kensingmanac for the year
of the Christian account 1687, Parti- ton. The creek at the north end of the city is known calarly respecting the Meridian and Latitude of Burling.' to this day by the Indian name Shakamaxon.
address was denominated seditious, and Bradford was place, to be a seditious person, and an enemy to the arrested and imprisoned for printing it. The sheriff king and queen's government." seized a form containing four quarto pages of the types Bradford and Macomb, who had been imprisoned, apa of the address; he also took into his custody a quantity peared at this court, and requested that they might be of paper, and a number of books, which were in Brad brought to trial; pleading that it was very injurious to ford's shop, with all the copies of the address which he them, and their fainilies, to remain in confinement. They could find. The civil authority took up the business; claimed, as free born English subjects, the rights secure and, as Keith and Bradford state the facts, they who per- ed by Magna Charta, ainong which was the prompt adsecuted them in the religious assemblies, condemned ministration of justice; and Bradford, in particular, de. and imprisoned them by civil process—the judges of sired that his trial might then take place, “because, not the courts, being the leading characters in the meetings. only his person was restrained, but his working tools, Several of Keith's party were apprehended and impri. and the paper and books from his shop, were taken from soned with Bradford; and, among them, Thomas Budd, him, and without these he could not work and maintain and John Macomb. The offence of the latter consisted his family.” in his having two copies of the address, which he gave Soon after this session of the court Bradford was, by to two friends in compliance with their request. some means, released from his confinement. It is said,
The following was the warrant for committing Brad. that in the examination of the 'frame.' the jury not being ford and Macomb.
acquainted with reading backwards, attempted to raise “Whereas William Pradford, printer, and John Ma- it from the plank on which it was placed, and to put it comb, taylor, being brought before us upon an informa- in a more favorable situation for inspection; and that one tion of Publishing, Uttering and Spreading a Malitious of them assisting with his cane, pushed against the botand Seditious paper, intituled, An Appeal from the tom of the types as the form was placed perpendicularly, twen ty eight Judges* to the Spirit of Truth, &c. Tend- when, like magic, this evidence against Bradford instant. ing to the disturbance of the Peace and the Subversion ly vanished, the types fell from the frame, or chase as it of the present government, and the said Persons being is termed by printers, formed a confused hcap, and prerequired to give Securitie to answer it at the next court, vented further investigation. but they refused so to do. These are therefore by the Bradford having incurred the displeasure of the doKing and Queens Authoritie and in our Proprietarys minant party in Pennsylvania, and receiving encourageName, to require you to take into your Custody the Bo- ment to settle in New York, he, in 1693, removed to that dies of William Bradford and John Macomb, and them city; but it is supposed he had a concern in the press, safely keep till they shall be discharged by due Course which was continued in Philadelphia. of Law. Whereof fail not at your Peril; and for your Bradford continued to print for the government of N. so Doing, this shall be your sufficient Warrant. Given York, and during thirty years, was the only printer in under our Hands and Seales this 24th of August, 1692. the province.
“These to John White Sheriff of Philadelphia or his On the 16th of October 1725, he began the publica. Deputies."
tion of the first newspaper printed in that colony. Signed by Arthur Cook, and four others.
He continued his residence in the city, and enjoyed a The day after the imprisonment of Bradford and his long life, without experiencing sickness or the usual in; friends, a "Private Sessions,” as it was called, of the firmities of age. Several years before his death, he re! county court was holden by six justices, all Quakers, \ tired from business, and lived with his son William, in who, to put a better complexion on their proceedings, Hanover square. As early as 1728, he owned a paper requested the attendance of two magistrates, who were
mill at Elizabethtown, N.J. When this mill was built, not Quakers.
I cannot determine; but I believe it was the first that This Court assembled, it seems, for the purpose of was erected in New Jersey; and, it is not altogether convicting Keith, Budd, and their connexions, of sedi. improbable that it was the first built in British America.. tious conduct, and of condemning them without a hearing; but the two magistrates who were not Quakers, if
On the morning of the day which closed his life, he we credit Keith and Bradford, reprobated the measure, walked over a great part of the city. He died May 23, and refused to have any concern in it, declaring, that the 1752, aged ninety-four. The New York Gazette which whole transaction was a mere dispute among the Qua- announced his death on the Monday following, mentions, kers respecting their religion, in which the government that he came to America seventy years ago; was prinhad no concern. They, however, advised that Keith, ter to the government upwards of fifty years; and was and others accused, shoukl be sent for, and allowed to
a man of great sobriety, and industry; a real friend to defend themselves, and affirmed that if any thing like the poor and needy, and kind and affable to all:-His sedition appeared in their practice, they would join temperance was exceedingly conspicuous; and he was heart and hand in their prosecution. To this the Qua. almost a stranger to sickness all his life. He had left ker magistrates would not consent, and the others in off business several years past, and being quite worn consequence left the court. The court, then, as is sta
out with old age and labour, his lamp of life went out ted in a pamphlett "proceeded in their work, and as
for want of oil." they judged George Keith in their spiritual court, with. out all hearing or trial, so in like manner, they prosecu: GENERAL STATEMENT OF THE COMMERCE ted him in their temporal court without all hearing." The pamphlet further states that “one of the judges de
OF PENNSYLVANIA. clared that the court could judge of matter of fact with. out evidence, and therefore without more todo, proclaim.
We have compiled the following table from the difed George Keith by the common cryer, in the market ferent tables, contained in Seybert's and Pitkin's statis
tics, to the year 1815—from that period to the end, we • "Twenty eight,” meaning those who condemned have been favoured with the necessary documents from Keith, in what he called “their Spiritnal Court."
† This pamphlet is entitled, “New England Spirit of the Register's office at Washington. The whole togePersecution, transmitted to Pennsilvania, and the Pre ther, forms probably the most complete view of thc tended Quaker found Persecuting the True Christian commerce of this state from its commencement to the Quaker in the Tryal of Peter Boss, George Keith, Tho present time, that has ever been published. In a future mas Budd and William Bradford, at the Sessyons held at Philadelphia the Ninth, Tenth, and Twelfth days of number we may make some further observations on December 1692. Giving an account of the most Árbi. these tables, which we have not leisure at the present trary Proceedings of that Court."
moment to do.
A COMPREHENSIVE STATEMENT OF THE COMMERCE OF PENNSYLVANIA, EXPORTS Value Drawback | Drawback | Gross duties Expenses
&c. on on MerchanRegistered, Enrolled, Licensed,
Domestic dise, Ton- of
Spirits, Su- nage, Fines,
Imports. Merchandise. gars, &c. &c.