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standing it was thought near three thousand persons our meetings; wherein he hath many times manifested came in the first year, we were providentially provided his great loving kindness, in reaching to, and convincfor, that we could buy a deer for about two shillings, ing many persons of the principles of truth; and those, and a large turkey for about one shilling, and Indian that were already convinced, and continued faithful, corn for about two shillings and six pence per bushel. were not only blessed with plenty of the fruits of the
“And as our worthy Proprietor treated the Indians earth, but also with the dew of Heaven with extraordinary humanity, they became very civil "I am engaged, in my spirit, to supplicate the contiand loving to us, and brought in abundance of venison. nuance thereof, to the present rising generation; that, As in other countries, the Indiuns were exasperated by as God hath blessed their parents, the same blessing hard treatment, which hath been the foundation of much may remain on their offspring to the end of time; that it bloodshed, so the contrary treatment here hath produced may be so is the hearty desire and prayer of their ancient their love and affection.
and loving friend, "About a year after our arrival, there came in about
RICHARD TOWNSEND." twenty families from high and low Germany, of religious,
(Proud's History good people; who settled about six miles from Philadelphia, and called the place Germantown.—The country continually increasing, people began to spread them.
On Saturday the 29th ultimo, agreeably to public noselves further back.
tice, a large concourse of citizens attended at the House "Also a place called North Wales, was settled by of Refuge when John Sergeant Esq. delivered the folmany of the ancient Britons, an honest inclined people, lowing Address, which exhibits a comprehensive view although they had not then made profession of the truth, as held by us, yet, in a little time, a large con- of the nature, design, and progress of this institution vincement was among them, and divers meeting-houses We deem it unnecessary to add any thing in favour of were built.
this establishment, believing that after the perusal of the "About the time, in which Germantown was laid out, address, every one must be convinced of its importance, I settled upon my tract of land, which I had purchased of the Proprietor in England, about a mile from thence; and be disposed to contribute to its support. We unwhere I set up a house and a corn mill;—which was very derstand that the Reluge was opened on the first inst. useful to the country round:-But there not being and has already received under its care, one or more juplenty of horses, people generally brought their cornon venile offenders. their backs many miles;-I remember one man had a bull so gentle, that be used to bring the corn on him, instead of a horse.
AN ADDRESS “Being now settled about six or seven miles f.om Delivered before the citizens of Philadelphia, at the House Philadelphia, where leaving the principal body of friends, together with the chief place of provisions, as
of Refuge, on Saturday, the 29th of November, 1828, before mentioned, flesh meat was very scarce with me, By John SERGEANT, President of the Institution. for some time, of which I found the want. I remember Fellow Citizens, I was once supplied by a particular instance of Proyidence in the following manner:
It is my duty, in obedience to a resolution of the Board "As I was in my meadow, mowing grass, a young the House will be opened on Monday the first day of
of Managers of the House of Refuge, to announce that deer came and looked on me; I continued mowing, and the deer in the same attention to me; upon which I laid December next, for the reception of as many inmates as down my scythe, and went towards him; upon which he their means will at present enable them to provide for. ran off a small distance; I went to my work again, and
In arriving at this stage of their labours, which they the deer continued looking on me, so that several have reached by the aid of your munificence, and the times I left my work, to go towarıls him; but he still liberal patronage of the Legislature of Pennsylvania, kept himself at a distance; at last, as I was going to the Managers have reason to congratulate you that your wards him, and he, looking on me, did not mind his efforts have so far proved successful. A new institusteps, but ran forcibly against the trunk of a tree, and tion of humanity has been established, and this day tastunned himself so much that he fell, upon which I ran
ken its place among the numerous monuments of enforward, and, getting upon him, held bim by the legs. lightened wisdom, and provident charity, which have atAfter a great struggle, in which I bad almost tired hiin tested the carnest and continued efforts of our State and out, and rendered him lifeless, I threw bim on my shoul- her citizens, to improve the condition of society, to al. ders, holding him fast by the legs, and, with some diffi- leviate the sufferings of misfortune, and to mitigate, as culty, from his fresh struggling, carried him home, about far as possible, the evils of error and crime. In this caa quarter of a mile, to my house; where, by the assist reer there is no danger that we shall advance too far.ance of a neighbour, who happened to be there, and The boundaries of empire have often been enlarged by killed him for me; he proved very serviceable to my unjust force, and the conquest has only administered to family. I could relate several other acts of Providence an ungovernable ambition, regardless of every thing of this kind, but omit them for brevity.
but the vain trophies which displayed its indulgence. “As people began to spread, and improve their lands, But the limits of morality, of religion, and of humanity, the country became moro fruitful; so that those, who may be indefinitely extended, and with every extension came after us, were plentifully supplied; and with what
We may be assured that we are enlarging the circle of we abounded we began a small trade abroad. And as
human happiness, and contributing, under Providence, Philadelphia increased, vessels were built and many
to the present and future welfare of man. employed. Both country and trade have been wonder- The good work, which bas been thus far happily adfully increasing to this day; so that, from a wilderness, vanced, is still in its infancy, and, as you will soon perthe Lord, by his good band of Providence, hath made it ceive, stands in need of further support, to give it the a fruitful field:--Ön which to look back, and observe all growth and strength which are necessary to the devethe steps, would exceed my present purpose; yet, being lopment of its beneficent faculties, and which ought to now in the eighty-fourth year of my age, and having characterize the offspring of a powerful and liberal combecn in this country near forty-six years, and my memory munity like that in which it is our lot to be placed. pretty clear, concerning the rise and progress of the province, I can do no less than return praises to the by exhibiting to you some account of the progress and
The Managers deem it their duty to enforce this claim Almighty, when I look back and consider his bountiful present state of the institution, as well as of its future hand, not only in temporals, but in the great increase of prospects.
It will be recollected that at a large and respectable by streets on all sides, is enclosed by a stone wall two meeting of the citizens of Philadelphia, held on the 7th feet thick and twenty feet high. The main building day of February, 1826, it was resolved, with great una fronts to the north, on Howard street, and is 92 feet in nimity, to organize a society for the reformation of ju- length by 30 in depth. This building is intended for venile delinquents. The terms of association were the accommodation of the keeper's family, and contains agreed upon, and committees appointed to solicit sub- rooms for the use of the managers, and for infirmaries for scriptions in aid of the undertaking. Immediately af- the delinquents. Wings on each side extend the whole ter, application was made to the legislature for the requi- length of the front, and contain threc ranges or stories site powers; and, on the 23d of March, 1826, an act of cells, four feet by seven feet each, for separate lodgwas passed to incorporate the subscribers, with a rapi. ing rooms. These cells, of which there are 174, are dity which evinced the entire sanction by the legislative well lighted and ventilated. The main building is covwisdom of Pennsylvania, of the plan of benevolence ered with tin, and the dormitories are slated. It is de. which had been thus devised.
signed, (in case it should be necessary, and the means On the first day of May, in the same year, officers and can be obtained,) to complete the plan by extending managers were elected by the subscribers, and charged these dormitories round the wall of the yard, so as to with the execution of what had been thus resolved and form a hollow square. The expense will be comparasanctioned. They have since been continued, (with tively small, as they will be within the present wall, a some few changes) by successive elections, and have part of the cost of which may be considered as having carnestly endeavoured to fulfil the task assigned to been incurred with a view to such extension. There is, them.
also, within the enclosure, a place of worship, and there In many of the wards, the Committees appointed by are the necessary buildings for kitchens, dining rooms, the meeting, did not perform their duty with the zeal and work shops. and industry expected from them. With the aid of the These buildings, it will be seen, embrace the requisite committees, nevertheless, and with the voluntary exer- provision for security, employment, instruction, and sep. tions of individual members of the Board, who kindly aration from contaminating association. The utmost gave their services, there was collected from this source, economy has been consulted throughout; and the manin the city and districte, the sum of $8,104,41. agers, never forgetting that it was their first duty to ad.
In the same year (1826,) application was made to vance the object committed to their care, have been the Legislature for assistance, and on the 2d of March, careful at the same time neither to incur nor permit any 1827, an act was passed, evincing the same liberal spirit expense which could be spared without detriment to which has always characterized our representatives when the principal design. The buildings are substantial & worthy objects have been presented for their support. plain; the furniture is simple ard cheap; & the arrangeBy this act, there was an immediate appropriation of five ments for the conduct of the House are upon a scale as thousand dollars, an appropriation of twenty-five hun- reduced as was practicable. dred dollars additional before the 1st January, 1828, and With all their efforts, bowever, they have been un. twenty-five hundred dollars before the 1st January, 1829, able to provide for the expenses which were absolutely making a total from the State treasury of ten thousand unavoidable, without incurring debt; and it is not now dollars. By the same act, ten thousand dollars were di- in their power, without further aid, to put the institu: rected to be paid by the county commissioners of the tion into operation upon a scale commensurate with the county of Philadelphia, out of the county funds, in an- public wants. That this would probably be the case, nual instalments, of not less than five thousand dollars ihey early apprehended; and they endeavoured in each, "for the purpose of defraying the expense of a time to obtain the required assistance. In January last, site, and building a House of Refuge thereon;" and after they presented a memorial to the Legislature, setting such payment, they were directed to pay “annually furth at length their proceedings up to that period, and thereafter, for the term of five years, the sum of five the condition and prospects of the work. In February, thousand dollars, for keeping the said House of Refuge they called a meeting of the contributors, published an in good order and repair, and for defraying any inciden- address to their fellow citizens, repeated their request tal and unavoidable expenses which may from time to for aid, and adopted measures for obtaining new sub. time be incurred in conducting the said institution.” scriptions. This call produced little more than four
While these measures were in progress, the managers thousand dollars, which, added to the amount before were anxiously engaged in exertions to bring the insti- received, gives a total for individual subscriptions of tution into active existence at as early a day as possible. $12,585. 27. The want of such an establishment became more obvious as their inquiries were extended. They hoped that Their receipts from all sources have amounted to $42, some building might be found already erected, and cal. 364.76: to wit: culated to afford the required accommodation, at least Private contributions, as before stated, $12,585.27 for a time. But their expectations were disappointed; State Treasury, to wit: and they were soon brought to the conclusion, (with Appropriation for 1827,
5000 which they have now no reason to be dissatisfied,) that
2500 the object of their constituents and the public could
7,500 only be attained by purchasing a lot, and placing upon County Treasury, to wit: it a structure in all respects adapted to the contempla- Appropriation for 1827,
5000 ted purpose.
5000 Accordingly, about the 7th of April, 1827, they pur
10,000 chased a lot of five acres and fifteen perches, at the cor- Anticipated by a note of the Committee of ner of Francis's lane and the Wissahiccon road, in Penn Finance,
2,500 township, in the county of Philadelphia, for the sum of Loans from 13 individuals, to be returned five thousand five hundred dollars. Having arranged in 1829, each $500,
6,500 their plan, and appointed a building committee, (who Loan from Pennsylvania Society for the have devoted themselves with unceasing attention to the Promotion of Public Economy, secured by a work,) the corner stone was laid on the 21st of June, mortgage on the real estate of the House of 1827, and the building urged to a completion with as Refuge, without the walls,
3,000 much despatch as the nature of the case would allow.- Sales of materials, and interest of money The general plan and arrangement will be understood loanerd in 1826-7,
279.49 from the following description. A plot of ground 400 feet in length from east to west,
$42,364.76 and 231 feet in breadth from north to south, bounded
Their expenditures have amounted to 42,289.73 cy: Whatever else may be contemplated—and ce to wit:
tainly extensive public advantages are to be expecte Lot of ground,
5,500 which will deserve the public consideration is only in Buildings and wall, as far as completed, 35,800 cidental. The Refuge is not a place of punishment; it Miscellaneous, including interest of money
is not a provision simply, nor eyen principally, for the borrowed, insurance of buildings, &c. 989.23 security of society against offence, by the confinement
of culprits, nor for inflicting the vengeance of society
$42,289.23 upon offenders as a terror to those who may be inclined Leaving a balance in the hands of the treasurer at the to do evil. It presents no vindictive or reproachful aspresent time of only $75.53.
pect; it threatens no humiliating recollections of the To complete the buildings, and prepare accommoda, past; it holds out no degrading denunciations for the tions for 25 boys and 10 girls, will l'equire at least 1,600 future-but, in the accents of kindness and compassion, Salaries of officers, and maintenance of
invites the children of poverty and ignorance, whose subjects for the present year, will not be less
wandering and unguided steps are leading them to swift than )
600 destruction, to come to a home where they will be shelAdd the present debt of the society, to wit:
tered from temptation, and led into the ways of usefulLoan from individuals,
6,500 ness and virtue. Loans from Society for Promoting Public
That s'ich is the object of the establishment, will be Economy,
3,000 manifest from reading the sixth section of the Act of InWill give for the probable amount of debt
corporation, which provides "That the said managers on the 1st January, 1829,
$11,700 shall at their discretion receive into the said House of If provision could be made for the payment of this Refuge, such children who shall be taken up or comdebt, the prospect miglit be deemed encouraging. The mitted as vagrants, or upon any criminal charge, or duCounty Commissioners are authorized to pay five thou- ly convicted of criminal offences, as may in the judgsand dollars annually out of the county funds, for five ment of the Court of Oyer and Terminer, or of the years, commencing with the year 1929. To this may Court of Quarter Sessions of the peace of the county, be added annual subscriptions, expected to amount to or of the Mayor's Court of the city of Philadelphia, or of from six to eight hundred dollars, which, together, any alderman or justice of the peace, or of the managers would be sufficient to maintain one hundred subjects. of the alms-bouse and house of employment, be deemThe House is calculated to accommodate 174, that is to ed proper objects; and the said managers of the House say, 87 boys and S7 girls. But the managers feel con- of Refuge sball have power to place the said children fident, that it relieved from debt, and put into operation committed to their care, during the minority of the said with the limited number mentioned, its practical ben children, at such employments, and cause them to be inefits would in a short time secure to it the patronage structed in such branches of useful knowledge as may necessary for its extension and support.
be suitable to their years and capacities; and they shall In making this exposition of the result of their labours have power in their discretion to bind out the said chilup to the present time, it is the purpose of the mana dren, with their consent, as apprentices, during their gers, while they give an account of their stewardship, to minority, to such persons, and at such places, to learn show to their fellow citizens the necessity for further aid, such proper trades and employments as in their judgand to appeal to them to afford it. The work is their ment will be most conducive to the reformation and uwn. To them will belong the satisfaction to be deriv- amendment, and will tend to the future benefit and aded from its success, and to them also will belong a con- vantage of such children.” siderable portion of whatever credit may be due to those The value of such a foundation is demonstrable by who have conferred its benefits upon the community.- abundant proofs. Our laws, conforming as far as prace Will they, suffer it to languish for want of the aid that ticable to tlie dictates of nature, regard the period of is now required?
infancy as weak and prone to error, and the infant as of those who have given any consideration to this incapable of governing himself. He may be said, in subject, there are very few, perhaps there are none, general, to be exempt from all civil responsibility. He who have not unbesitatingly yielded their entire appro- can make but few binding contracts, except for mere bation to the plan of a House of Refuge. The simple sug- necessaries. Whatever acts he is permitted to do, gestion, indeed, seemed to carry instant conviction to are guarded by peculiar cautions, all having in view to every mind capable of understanding, and to every heart protect him from the feebleness of his own judgment, susceptible of feeling the nature of the duties we owe to and to place him at maturity upon the stage of life, as if ourselves and to each other. There was and there con he were then born to society, and began first to exist tinues to be, an almost entire unanimity of opinion in for the purpose of civil obligation. favour of the work. But there are many who think that it ought to be altogether a public charge, and on that ac- ing. Whether it be that the faculty of judging between
Our criminal laws are upon an entirely different footcount have declined to give it the support of their names right and wrong is niore early and more distinctly de. or contributions. They say, let it be supported by the veloped, than the capacity to exercise a sound judgtreasury of the State or of the County, and not be ment upon the complicated concerns of property, or thrown upon the charity of individuals.
that the security of society does not allow of the same It cannot be denied, that he who is asked to give, is indulgence when crime is committed as in cases of conat liberty to withhold: he is the exclusive master of the tract, or whether it be from the combined operation of judgment which, in this respect, is to determine his both these causes, the fact is certain, that there is conduct. But it is not inconsistent with the just liber- scarcely an age so tender as to be exempt from criminal ty of our fellow citizens to place before them the mo- responsibility "Under seven years of age, indeed," tives which influence us to ask, and whichi, properly says Blackstone, "an infant connot be guilty of felony, considered, may perlaps induce them to give. "It is for then a felonious discretion is almost an impossibility with this view, and with the hope that our efforts may in nature: but at eight years old he may be guilty of yet open new streams of bounty, as well as enlarge felony. Also, under fourteen, though an infant shall be those which have so far supplied and nourished the es- prima facie adjudged to be doli incapas; yet, if it ap: tablishment, that we now invite your attention to some pear to the court and jury that he was doli capax, and of the considerations which seem to us to justify the ap- could discern between good and evil, he may be convict, peal.
ed and suffer death." 4 B. Com. 22, The learned We would renind you, in the first place, that the author then goes on to state the case of a girl of thir. great end and aim of the House of Refuge is, in the teen who had been burned for killing her mistress, and strictest sense of the terms, a work of charity and mer. of two boys of ten, and one of eight years old, who had suffered the punishment of death by banging.
care, and as far as I recollect, conducted himself pro That the law could in this respect be safely altered, is perly during that period. He came to London with more than I would undertake to affirm. Immunity from his father, and I am assured by a very respectable criminal accountability up to a fixed period of life, and tradesman, who knew him well, that he would not have a consequent freedom from restraint and punishment objected to take him into his service. He is now fouruntil that period arrive, would be repugnant to every teen years old, and a boy of an intelligent countenance. dictate of social prudence and justice. On the other He was apprehended in May last as a vagrant, for sellhand, to seize upon the first dawn of the faculty of dis- ing religious tracts in Bishopgate church-yard, without cerning between right and wrong, when cbillbood is a hawker's license, and sent to the city bridewell for a manifest in the language, the deportment, and in the month. There he passed the day with twenty men very person of the culprit, and throw the offending and four boys committed for various crimes, and he slept child into a mass of ripe and hardened offenders, subject with a prisoner who employed bim to pick pockets ed to the same punishment, and condemned to the same and steal from the other prisoners, and received, as the association, has in it something so revolting to humanity, boy says, the produce of his thefts. The man and five that the spectacle never fails to enlist the feelings against others took a fever, and the boy continued to sleep the law, and judges and juries are often tempied to with him during its progress. He caught it himself, strain their conscience in order to produce an acquittal. brought it home, and communicated it to his father, Either alternative is dangerous to the future welfare of mother, and three brothers, one of whom died. The the unfortunate accused. If by the irresistible impulse father told me, that before his apprehension, he was a of humanity, he is restored to liberty, he returns to his good and dutiful son, and that he had no fault to find former baunts and babits, emboldened by impunity, and with him. His mother said he was a quiet, demure boy, hardened, perhaps ruined, by the base association to fond of reading, and always willing to go with her to a which he has been exposed, even before his trial, by place of worship. Now, he never takes a book into bis confinement with untried prisoners. If he be condemn- hands, except to purloin it; and if she mentions any reed, his fate is almost inevitably sealed. Nothing less ligious service, she is answered by execrations on her than a miracle can save him from destruction.
and her advice. She placed him in a school, but he of all the men we meet with,” says Mr. Locke, sent word to the master, with a desperate oath, that he “nine parts in ten are what they are, good or evil, use
would never go again. She cannot keep any work in ful or not, by their education." What must be the edu. the house. He has stolen and sold her bible, his father's cation of those whom we put to school in a cominon jail! clothes, and the clothes lent by the Raven-crow school F.vidence is not wanting to establish as a melancholy found him at night sleeping in the baskets of Covent
to his brother; he is seldom at home: his father has fact, what we might readily infer from observation as likely to be the case. T. F. Buxton, in his “Inquiry,'
» Garden, with a horde of girls and boys, thieves and states the result of his personal examination in a number prostitutes. I was much struck with the behaviour and of prisons, from which it may not be unprofitable to feeling lamentations of his parents. They spoke to the make some extracts. Speaking of the Borough Compt his unkindness and depravity, as resulting from this con
boy more in sorrow than in anger,' and even excused er, he says, "The jailer told me that in an experience of nine years he had never known an instance of reforma- finement. On the other hand, I was as much struck tion; he thought the prisoners grew worse, and he was
with the hard, careless, scornful manner in which he sure, that if you took the first boy you met with in the replied.” streets, and placed him in his prison, by the end of a in a common jail; and such must always be its destruc
Such were the effects of the imprisonment of a child month he would be as bad as the rest, and up to all the tive effects. Nor are they limited to any grade of ofroguery of London.” At the jail of St. Albans, he asked of the jailer, “Have you ever known persons come fence, nor to those who have been convicted. Those here comparatively innocent, who have gone out quite
who are committed for the slightest misdeeds, (as hapdepraved?” “I have not,” is the answer, “known per- Committed for trial, innocent perhaps of what is imputed
pened in the instance just quoted) and those who are sons come here innocent, because they are sent here for some offence; but I have known several sent here for to them, are alike exposed to the ruinous action of the first offences, whose minds were not wicked, though corrupting mass into which they are thrown. they had been guilty of the one offence. I have known
(To be continued.) a great many, (I can't mention the number,) who coming in thus, have gone out quite depraved; but I have never known one, who coming in wicked, went out bet.
STATE-HOUSE FIRE BELL. ter.” “Many and very grievous,” says Mr. Buxton, Mode of rir.ging the Alarm Bell, so as to show the " are the instances which have come to my knowledge direction of Fires from the State-house. of persons corrupted by prisons. When I first went to When the fire is to the North, the bell will be rung by Newgate, my attention was directed by my coinpanion single strokes—for the South, by double strokes, in rato a boy, whose apparent innocence and artlessness had pid succession-for the East, three-and for the West, attracted his attention. The schoolmaster said he was four strokes. an example to all the rest, so quiet, so reserved, and so
NS E W unwilling to have any intercourse with bis dissolute com
1 2 3 4 panions. At his trial he was acquitted upon evidence which did not leave a shadow of suspicion upon him;
For the intermediate points of the compass thus: North but lately I recognised him again in Newgate; but 2, followed by 3 rapid strokes for East, will show that with a very different character. He confessed to me
the fire is Northeast from the State-house; and so on for that on his release he had associated with the acquaint
all the others. ances he had formed in prison: of his ruin I feel but little The following table exhibits the whole scheme:doubt; and as little of the cause of it. He came to New- N.
N. E. I, 3. gate innocent; he left it corrupted.”
S. E. II, 3. One more instance is related by Mr. Buxton at some
N. W. I, 4. length. It is of a peculiarly affecting nature, and de
S. W. II, 4. serves to be repeated for the solemn lesson it con- The Bell will not be rung before 10 o'clock at night, veys:-“G. M., the son of a journeyman butcher, in re- unless it be known that there actually is a fire; but after duced circumstances, was educated at the endowed that time for every alarm. When the direction of the grammar school at Burnet, under the Rev. Mr. Man, who fire is not known, the bell will be struck five or more writes me word, 'G. M. was for some time under iny times in rapid succession.- Aurora.
TAXABLES OF THE CITY AND COUNTY OF PHILADELPHIA,
votes given at the Ward, General, and Electoral Elections of 1828, in the City.
N. Liberties, unincorp.
16,556 6381 7805
Total, 1821.. 15,196
Add to this Deaf & Dumb
In the City, the following Coloured Taxables are in-
Upper Delaware, 47 Brought forward- 534
DEAF AND DOMB,
Of those in 1828, there are 9 white males, of the fol-
Five white females, aged 10, 17, 19, 23, 37.
Three black males aged 7, 17, (these two are only
Two coloured females, aged 19, and 22.
Colour uncertain, one male, aged 31. One female,
1828 16556 20750 37306
35% per cent.
At the former enumeration, (in 1821,) the Taxables