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talc, it forms the soapstone rock, which is much used in Earthy marl occurs in many places, and in great quanthe city.
tities, in different parts of New Jersey, more particularly Serpentine. Gemeiner Serpentine. W. Roche Serpen- at Woodbury and at Haddonfield, ten miles from the tineuse. H.
city. At Burlington, Allentown, and Emleytown, vaNear Westchester this mineral occurs very abundant- rious organic remains are found imbedded in it. ly, and is used for common building stone. Colour, Phosphate of Lime. Spargelstein. W. Chaux phosphatee. from light to dark green. It also occurs in Montgomery
The crystallized variety of this mineral, is found in Talc. Gemeiner Talc. W. Talc hexagonal et laminaire. II. most of the granite rocks about us, particularly on the Talc forms a considerable portion of the rocks known canal ro:•l and near Hamiltonville,
The massive variety was found by Mr. Vanuxem and by the name of soapstone, on the Schuylkill, about ten miles. It does not occur here crystallized, but lamina- myself
, on the Baltimore turnpike, one mile from the ted and compact, of a greenish grey colour.
Some specimens from this quarry, are of a rich green colour,
Fluate of Lime. Chaux fiuatee. H. Fluor Spar. W. semitransparent, and generally connected with bitter Mr. Vanuxem proved a mineral to be fluate of lime, spar, or the magnesian rhomboidal carbonate of lime. which was given bim by Mr. Hagner, about two years Asbestus. Asbeste. H. Asbest. W.
since, from the quarry of gneiss at the falls of SehuylFibrous asbestus is found in the serpentine rocks about kill. Colour, violet blue. No determinate crystalliza
tion. one mile north of Westchester, and in many other places in Chester and Montgomery counties. It occurs also in Sulphate of Barytes. Baryte. W. Baryte Sulphatee. very delicate fibres on quartz crystallized, in the horn
JI. blende quarry, end of canal road.
This mineral is found in considerable quantities at the
lead mines at Perkiomen, both compact, and crystalliMountain Cork. 'Bergkork. W. Asbeste tresse. H. zed in a crested form, of a white colour, sometimes tar
It occurs at London grove, on the property of John | nished by iron either yellow or black, forming fine speJackson, in granular white limestone. It is white, and cimens. It is associated with lead, quartz and iron. when the pieces are considerably thicker than paper, About three miles west of Newhope, it occurs in consi. spongy.
derable quantities, compact and crystallized, in the old Cyanite, Kyanit. W. Disthene. II. Sappare. Sau. red sandstone formation, with a small quantity of cop
This very beautiful and interesting mineral, occurs per. crystallized in the gneiss rocks on Springfield road,
COMBUSTIBLES. about two hundred yards from Darby bridge. Colour
Amber. Succin. H. varies from a very light to a dark Prussian blue. It is Amber has been found in small quantities at Croswicks generally darkest in a longitudinal line along the middle creek, about one mile from Bordentown; and on the of the crystal, which is for the most part an elongated Delaware, at Whitehill; in both places with pyrites and table. At the eleventh mile stone on the Wilmington carbonised wood. Cleveland says, it also occurs near road, it is found more abundant, but less pure; crystals Woodbury, in large plates in a bed of marl; and at generally detached and almost black. On the road to Camden, opposite the city, where a large piece had the Lazaretto it occurs blue; also about eight miles up been found in a stratum of gravel. the Schuylkill. On the Wichicon, about four miles
Bituminous IV'ood. from its mouth, associated with staurotide and garnets, This substance is sometimes found in the marl of New in micaceous schistus; but in small quantities. It was Jersey. Some specimens have been brought from Woodfirst observed by Mr. S. Elliott in this vicinity.
bury, black, and of a perfectly ligneous texture. It Actynolite. Variety of Amphibole. H. Strahlstein. w. burns rapidly, and gives out a strong, disagreeable On the Wichicon, about ten miles from the city, op
smell. It occurs also at Croswicks creek. posite to a large mill, half a mile below the bridge, ac- I beg leave to add, that there are several minerals tynolite is found in acicular crystals, of a green colour, found lately in this vicinity, the characters of which are imbedded in soapstone rock.' Mr. Conrad found it in not sufficiently determined to be admitted into this palarge masses at Concord, Chester county.
per. Tremolite. Tremolith. W. Variety of Amphibole. H.
I have seen this but in one place in the neighbourhood THE WEST END OF PENNSYLVANIA. of this city, viz: at London grove. It hero exists in considerable quantities, in the limestone quarries of Mr. John
From a gentleman just returned from a tour to the Jackson, both bladed and fibrous, of a beautiful white. West, we have received the following notes on the adIn some instances the fibres are so minute, as to render vantages possessed by that section of country. it almost compact.
No part of the United States possesses so many natural Carbonate of Lime. Chaux Carbonatee. H, Kalkstein. resources
, or combines so many advantages, as the west W.
end of this state; and as soon as the canals and rail roads, The limestone of our vicinity does not present much now constructing, are finished, these resources will be variety. It exists in distinct rhombic crystals at London developed, and this district of country will take the rank grove, and in White's soapstone quarry with talc, afford to which they entitle her. Were I called upon consciing fine specimens. Granular limestone occurs in large entiously to point out a district in the United States prequantities, about twelve miles on the Reading road, eminently calculated to favour mechanical labour and beautifully white, and is much used for the embellish- manufactories, I would set one foot of the compass in ment of the buildings of the city. This variety exists Pittsburgh, and describe a circle around it, whose radius also at London grove, and on the western side of Schuyl. would be 100 miles and point to it with a confidence kill about twelve miles, of a fine black, and clouded. that forbids error. What are the advantages that would Compact limestone occurs in very large quantities, from be so emphatically embraced?. I answer, Coal, Iron, a north to a south west direction, at the distance of ten Salt, Lumber, Fertility, Healthfulness, Climate, facility to twenty miles.
of intercourse with the Atlantic, the Ohio Valley, and Marle. Argile calcarifere. H. Mergel. W. the Lakes, a hardy Population with industrious habits, In New Jersey we have two yarieties of mar). and already in possession of much skill.
Indurated grey marl, with small shining specks, oc- Let us speak of each of these in their turn. curs at Croswick's, near Bordentown, and contains or- No country bas succeeded in the heavy operations of ganic remains.
machinery, and the whole routine of manufactures without coal and iron. I take them together. They are tained, and the fuel at hand, to render it cheap. This. inseparable aids. Without them, England would not | article is also upon the line of the canal above noticed. have half the wealth that so pre-eminently distinguishes Lumber. The most valuable pine forest in the United her. They are the basis of her most lucrative opera- States, and the only one that connects itself with the Ohio tions. Her artists have repaired to these regions and valley, touches this region, (I mean the Allegheney ritaken root, and thence diffused wealth and prosperity. ver.) It supplies all the western country with pine The cotton, woollen, and porcelain, and a thousand building timber, and for many of the mechanic arts; and other branches of manufacture, owe their unrivalled cheap on account of its contiguity. Other timber, such growth to these invaluable materials, and have planted as oak, maple, cherry, and poplar, abound in this disthemselves along side of them in many large and trict. wealthy cities. In England, the coal and iron were in Fertility. This is the only hilly or waving country of the barren and mountainous districts, and it cost her its extent in the United States, that is uniformly fertile. much time and wealth to make good canals and rail. There is no waste land; 1100 more rock or stone than is. ways to them, and to introduce an agriculture around necessary for domestic uses, and for the arts. Every them adequate to their supply. In east Pennsylvania hill rests on its coal, but without disturbing the fertility we boast much of our anthracite coal, but it also is inac- above; the grain grows, the orchard thrives, the cattle cessible except at great cost, and the region around it graze over the coal, unconscious of its existence. In too sterile to afford a cheap and ready supply of provi- other countries, hills so high and boldly relieved as sions for large operations: hence the effort is to bring these, are covered with the debris of rock, or are down the coal to the more fertile plains of the Schuyl. washed bare by the retreating waters, and left with scrub. kill and Delaware, and there employ it. The cost, how- or stunted growth. These are not so. The forests are ever, becomes so increased, from five to cight dollars a tall and majestic on the hills, ithe fertility continuous, ton, that it enters too deeply into the cost of the articles and all either suited for grain, orchard, or grass. based upon it. Now look to the district we speak of, Healthfulness. No swamp is found in this region. the reverse is the fact. As soon as you descend from the There are no malaria-no intermittent, or any other disa Allegheny mountain on the route of the Pennsylvania ease, incident to a bad climate. All is healtlıy. The Canal within the Connemaugh valley, you disturb coal population stout and active, and will be more intelligent in every hill. Every half mile section of canal unco- and enterprising, for disease not only checks the labour vers this valuable article; the same is true of the route of a country, but renders its population inefficient and of the Baltimore Rail Road. This is the case as far stupid. down the Ohio river as Wheeling, and up the Beaver Climate. This is good-equally removed from the line of the canal. The whole area above described extremes of the Canadian and Gulph latitudes. The abounds in it; every hill rests upon horizontal strata of mild, genial, healthy latitude of Philadelphia-with just coal—the mouths of the pits above the valleys—no deep winter enough to brace, and heat enough in summer to mining, choak damps, or gaseous explosions--the cart ripen the finest fruits, and mature the greatest variety drives into the hill and brings out the coal-if you own of the grain and root crops. the land the quarrying is 14 cents a ton, and 28 cents if Provisions. These are literally under foot; produced you do not own the mine, unless you are near some town, in the greatest quantity, of the best quality, and with litwhen you will give from 3 to 4 cents a bushel, or one tle labour; hence they are cheap, and the wages of the dollar a ton. So universal is the coal, that in buying day or monthly labourer take pitch from this circumBand you do not ask the question, “has it coal," nor stance, and altogether enable the operator to produce his. does the value enter at all into the price of the land. You article at the minimum prices. This will secure his. get good land at 5 or 8 dollars an acre, with plenty of market. coal on it; one hand quarries and wheels out 180 bushels Wool. No part of the United States by actual expea a day at 50 cents wages. The Pennsylvania Canal will rience, suits the growth of sheep so well as this. The present a line of 200 miles within this district-the Bal- hills of Washington, Allegheney, and Fayette counties, timore Rail Road 100 miles—and the Ohio river 100 are already covered with sheep, of an excellent breed. miles—in all 400 miles; which may be literally lined in two years, wool would meet any demand in that diswith manufacturing villages, each leaning against its trict, and could be furnished cheap. The land is cheap own coal mine-sleriving iron, lumber, and other mate--they graze, and procure such good pasturage, that it rials from the canal, road, or river-and drawing provi- is said eight sheep can be supported on one acre. sions and subsistence from the fertility that is around Flax can be growed with great perfection on the fera every point. When coal and provisions become in any tile hills of this region; and the Ohio river brings them degree advanced at Pittsburgh, or any other condensed the hemp of Kentucky so cheap, that it may be said to. point-others, where coal is less monopolized, may be belong almost to this district. resorted to, and where the provisions would be more Market. In its relation to a market and consumption, plentifully supplied along the lines of these communica- this district is very happily situated. Connected directly tions; and thus the nucleus of new villages be every day with the Atlantic cities by the Pennsylvania Canal and formed. This coal is of an excellent quality, and can Baltimore Rail Road, and at the same time so far removbe coked for operations of iron manufacturing. The ed from the Atlantic as to be a little out of the sphere of anthracite of the Schuylkill never can from its compact foreign competition. This is the most desirable sort of nature.
connexion with the maritime cities; just near enough to Iron not only abounds within the above district, but derive through them every thing necessary for the perit leans upon the great and inexhaustible region of the fection of the artsmand just far enough from them to be Allegheny mountains, the Juniata, the Upper Mononga- out of the sphere of foreign importation. Besides the hela, and the Allegheney rivers, whence never ending dense population around it, and offering great consumpsupplies of the best iron can be derived; embracing all tion, it rests upon the vast and unlimited market which the qualities from the tough Swedes' iron to the coal the valley of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers furnish-is short of England. The Juniata iron is very similar to connected directly with it by the longest and best line of the Swedish iron. The Allegheney iron is harder, and interior navigation on earth. A line already covered makes the best grey pig iron for fine casting. Already with steam boats-one hundred and sixty-six rest upon the iron of this region is much developed, and could ra- its stream, ready to bear cotton, iron, lumber, hemp, and pidly, with the start they have, supply any state of the every other raw material essential to a manufacturing arts and manufactures.
district, and on the cheapest terms. Threc-fourths of a Salt, an article of the first necessity in domestic eco- cent a pound is the cost up this great line, from New Ornomny, and much used in the arts, abounds in this dis- leans to Pittsburgh. And in sending off the manufactrict; already much is developed, the capacity ascer-I tured articles still less, for the stream is in favour of this
operation, and carries them to the consumer with scarce December 29. Some driving ice, but not so as to ly any increase of cost. Again, this is the district whence prevent vessels going up or down. the easy connexion with the great lakes is about to take 1725. March 3. Snow fell near two feet deep last night, place; opening thence a market almost equal in extent and yesterday, which has not been known for some to the Mississippi valley, and connecting you, if your in- years. terest should require it, with N. York, through her canals. December 21. River is very full of ice, though seThus we see this is the identical district where the great veral vessels came up with it; no arrivals or clearlines of intercommunication cross and meet, from New ances mentioned till 18th July. York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, New Orleans, and the 1726. January 18. Entries and clearances. great lakes. Any shifting of your position throws you February 1. No vessels in or out since our last, out of the focus of the great radii of commerce. Come river being blocked up by ice. more east, you not only change your supplies, and in
15. River driving with ice. crease the cost of them, but you are drawn into the vor. December. Entries and clearances through the tex of foreign commerce. Go further west, and you lose month. the vantage ground; you enter the swamps of the lower 1727. February 14. Very cold weather for four days Ohio; have no coal, iron, or other materials, and you which has filled our river full of ice. will have to push up the streams to market.
March 30, Weather and floods prevented the leThis district need have no timber reserved for fuel. gislature from meeting at the time to which they Every acre can almost support its soul. There is no stood adjourned. limit to the population in such a country,
1728. January 23. We have had very hard weather
here for nearly two weeks; so that it has frozen our EFFECTS OF CLIMATE ON THE NAVIGATION. river up to such a degree that people go over daily,
and they have set up two booths on the ice about The following investigation was commenced last win
the middle of the river. ter with a view to ascertain the periods at which the navi
30. River still fast. gation of the Delaware, has usually been obstructed by
February 7. Some say the ice is driving near ice, and when it became frced from such obstruction.
Bombay Hook. River here still fast. No clear
ances mentioned till March 5. For this purpose we have consulted the news papers for December 31. 36 vessels, besides small craft, frothe different periods, confining our attention principally zen up at docks, viz. large ships 14; snows 3; brigs. to December, January, February and March, although
8; sloops 9; schooners 2. occasionally notice is taken of some other months. The 1729. January 29. Our river still frozen up.
February 17. Entries and clearances. early Gazettes have generally noticed the occurrence of December Entries and clearances through the ice. Some of the late papers have omitted it. During month. the revolution, we find but few remarks on the subjeet, 1730. January 13. A large panther killed near Cónes
toga; also one last weck near Shrewsbury, N. J. and in some years none at all.
20. We had here such a deep snow, 1681. Decem ber 11. The river froze over that night. the like not known these several years. River full
The Bristol Factor, Roger Drew, arrived at Chester of ice; no vessels can pass. from England, with settlers for Pennsylvania, where
27. A vessel cleared. they lay all winter.
December 21. Vessels attempting to go were 1692.6. The great flood at Delaware falls, owing to the forced back by ice. sudden melting of the snows, the water reached
29. Entries and clearances. the upper stories of some of the houses, which 1731. January 26. River still full of ice. were built on the low lands.
February 2. No vessels since our last; river lock1704. Snow fell one yard deep. Mease.
ed up with ice. 1714. February. Flowers seen in the woods.
9. Entries and clearances. 1720. February 23. The river is now clear of ice.
16. Last week we had the greatest November 11. "My ink freezes, which obliges fresh in the Delaware ever known since the great me to conclude.” Close of a merchants letter, duted flood at Delaware falls 39 years ago. Philadelphia.”
December 14. Our river is now full of ice.
21. River a little opened; vessels deship Prince of Orange, which is going with a flag sign going of truce and Spanish prisoners to St. Augustine, is 1732. January 4. Vessels at Hoarkill cannot come up in great danger.
for ice. Decr. 27. The river being now clear of ice, ves
25. River still fast, sels are falling down.
February 22. Entries and clearances. 1721. Decr. 19. No vessels arrived since our last, the December. do.
do. river being full of ice.
1733. January 18. Great snow at Lewes; ice driven Decr. 26. Do do
locked up. ashore by a N. E. storm. 1722. Jany. 2. River still locked up.
February 1. River still fast. 6. Vessels get up to New Castle.
15. Ice grows rotten; expected to drive 9. 16. 22. River still locked up.
in a few days. Feby. 6. Vessels cleared and entered.
22. Sunday last; ice in Schuylkill broke 1723. January 1. Weather is yet very moderate and up, though prodigious thick, with a fresh; water our river open.
two and a half feet high on the ground floor of Jo6. Weather is yet very moderate, and river seph Gray's house at Middle ferry; higher than any free from ice.
known fresh before. December. Vessels enter and clear through the March 8. River open; vessels come up from month.
Lewes. 1724. January 18. River very free from ice.
April 19. Monday last two whales appeared beDecember 15. On Thursday last a violent storm fore the city. of wind and rain; tide overflowed the wharves. December. Entries and clearances. Two outward bound vessels returned for fear of 1734. January. 1. River continues open, and weather jce, of which our river is very full.
very moderate; winter hitherto as moderate as for December 22, River full of ice.
many years past.
December 21. Our river is now free from ice; wea
19. Arrivals. A comet has been visible for ther fine and open.
six weeks; appears to have increased in size. 1735. January 16. Our river continues open and the Dec. Entries and clearances. weather very moderate.
1745. January, February, March. Entries and clearMarch 4. Saturday last quantities of codfish taken ances; find no mention of ice. just off the capes.
March 26. Friday last, a violent gust-houses December. Entries and clearances.
damaged and trees uprooted. 1736. Junuary 6. River is fast, and full of ice.
Dec. Entries and clearances.
1746. January. No arrivals nor clearances this month; 25. Two whales killed at Cape May. no ice is mentioned. April 22. Hail storm near the city; stones as December 28. River frozen up for a week past. large as pidgeons' eggs.
1747. February 24. First arrivals since 230 December. December. Arrivals and clearances through the April 30. A violent N. E. storm did much damonth.
mage. 1737. January 20. Weather very cold; persons frozen December 15. No entries this week, river being
to death; a vessel below cannot come up on account full of ice. of the ice.
1748. January 12. Entries and clearances. February 3. Sunday night last the ice in the
26. A vessel ashore on Reedy Island, Schuylkill, though exceedingly thick and strong, cut through with the ice-no entries or clearances broke up with the fresh occasioned by the rains and --severe weather-a man frozen to death on a flat melting of the snow. The water rose near six feet in Mantua Creek. on the ground floor of Joseph Gray's house at the February 2. Entries and clearances. middle forry, which is three feet higher than it
9. River again full of ice; no entries or was in the fresh in 1733, and that was said to be clearances till March 1, when there are some. the highest ever recollected.
April 21. A comet visible for 8 or 10 night's past March 17. On Wednesday and Thursday last a December. Entries and clearances through the S. E. storm raised the tide higher than known for month. many years, and which did great damage.
1749. January 31. A vesse' reaches “Elsingburgh." May 7. An aurora borealis.
The river, by bard S. E. gale almost freed from ice. December 8. Earthquake last night about eleven February 7. River again full of ice. o'clock; lasted half a minute. Entries and clear
14. Arrivals. ances through the month.
June 1. Great quantities of locusts. 1738. January and February. Entries and clearances December. No arrivals from 12 to 26; ice not menthrough the month,
tioned. April 6. A great storm at E. and N. E.; damaged 1750. Junuary 22. Our river is now broke up; and yes, wharves; creeks very much raised.
terday a vessel went down. This morning a violent December. Entries and clearances till 18th.
N. E. storm, wlich has done considerable damage 1739. January 25. River now entirely clear of ice; ves- to the vessels and wharves. sels gone down; fast since 18th December.
February 6. River free from ice; vessels going December. Entries and clearances.
up and down. 1740. January 10. No entries or clearances from this February 16. A very bright aurora borealis. date till
May 30. It is said this has been the coldest May February 21. When arrivals are mentioned.
in the memory of man; last week there were frosts March 15. Ice broke up in the Delaware.
in several places, which have done considerable da. December 19. River unnavigable from this to 13th
mage, and in some places snow. March.
December 25. A violent N. E. storm last Thurs
day; it damaged our wharves considerably, and 1741. January 8. Our river has been fast some time,
sunk some small craft. and we heard from Lewes that 'tis all ice towards the sea as far as the eye can reach. Tuesday and 1751. January 1. River full of ice.
22. River so open that a shallop came up Wednesday are thought to have been the coldest
from Marcus Hook. This morning a violent S. E. days for many years.
storm which damaged wharves and vessels. March 5. The severity of the winter complained of throughout the country. Cattle dying for
October 3. Monday night last the streets of this
city began to be illuminated with lamps in pursuwant of fodder; many deer found dead in the woods,
ance of an act of Assembly. and some came tamely to the plantations, and fed
December 24. For a week past our navigation has on hay with other creatures. March 13. River navigable. The winter es. 1752. February 18. Our river has been driving for some
been stopped, the river being very full of ice. tremely long and severe.
days past, and is now so clear of ice, that if the 19. River now quite open; vessels daily come up.
weather continues moderate in a few days vessels April 19. We hear from Lancaster county that
will fall down. during the great snow, which in general was more
February 25. River entirely clear; 12 sea vessels than three feet deep, the back inbabitants suffered
arrived in one tide. much for want of bread; that many families of new
1753. Jan. 2. Our navigation is stopped; river full of settlers had little else to subsist upon but the car.
ice. cases of deer they found dead or dying in the
9. Vessels entered. swamps or runs about their houses. The Indians
23. Navigation quite clear. fear a scarcity of deer and Turkies, &c.
November 14. A violent gale from E.; wharves December. Entries and clearances.
overflowed, and water in most of the stores. 1742. January. do.
December 29. River full of ice. Navigatiori 22. Comet visible for some time.
stopped. On Monday last a violent S. E. storm February and March. Entries and clearances- drove several vessels ashore. no mention of ice.
1754. January 15. Our river is now and has been for Dec. Entries and clearances-no mention of ice.
several days quite clear of ice. 1743. Jan.
January 22. Unusually low tide owing to a gale Dec. 8. A comet visible.
from N. W. 1744. Jan. 3. No entries this week--river full of ice. June 6. On Tuesday afternoon a shower of ex
ceeding large hail; a water-spout appeared on the gious freshes and the tides to rise higher than has Delaware opposite Kensington, which was carried been known for some years past, our river is now up Cooper's creek, and supposed to break on the so clear of ice that we expect vessels up. shore, where considerable damage was done.
21. Arrivals. December. Entries and clearances through the December. Entries and clearances during the month..
month. 1755. January 14. There is so much ice at present in 1763. January 13. Our navigation now is and has for the river that our navigation is stopped.
some days been stopped--river full of ice. January 21. Clearances from this date forward.
27. A vessel reaches Marcus Hook. December do. through month.
February 24. A moderate thaw for some days 1756. January and February. Clearances through the ice in river greatly diminished-on Tuesday a brig month.
came up: March 18. On Friday night we had a violent N. December. Entries, &c. during month. E. snow storm, which did considerable damage to 1764. January do
do the vessels at the wharves, and probably on the December 27. Our navigation was at a stand for a coast. This is the first mention of snow. Arrivals few days, the river being full of ice; but on Tues. and clearances continue through the month. There day night we had a violent N. E. storm for some is no intimation that the navigation was interrupted hours, which ended in rain-and the wind blowing this winter.
prodigiously hard at the same time destroyed the December. Entries and clearances.
ice, so that some vessels ventured down yesterday. 30. “People surprised at the appear
31. Delaware frozen over in one nightance of two Parhelia, or mock suns, one on each passable next morning. side of the true one, and a large white circle passing 1765. January 3. Our navigation has been quite at a through all three, and a crown or small rainbow in stand for a week past. the zenith, which appearance lasted nearly an hour, February 7. On Tuesday last an os was roasted
between ten and eleven o'clock in the morning." whole on the river Delaware, which from the no1757. January. Clearances and arrivals throughout the velty of the thing, drew together a great number month, although the managers of the New Castle
of people. Lottery advertised that they have been prevented by February 14. The weather is now so moderate the severity of the weather, from riding about to and our bay so clear of ice, that the vessels at the sell their tickets, and the country people from Capes are come up to Recdy Island. coming in to purchase; no mention of the naviga
28. Our navigation is now quite clear tion being interrupted, and entries and clearances and several vessels have came up. published every week through the winter.
A letter from Fort Pitt dated January 31, 1765, December. Entries and clearances through the says "the weather has been so uncommonly severe month.
at this post, that both rivers have been passable on 1758. February 2. Navigation has been stopped some the ice for six weeks."
days, and is still, there being a good deal of ice in March 28. On Saturday night last came on here the river.
a very severe snow storm which continued all night 16. River alınost clear of ice; some and next day, when it is believed the greatest vessels have fallen down.
quantity of snow, that has been considering the Marvh 22. A smart shock of an carthquake felt adianced state of the scason) for many years past, between ten and eleven o'clock P. M.
it being said to be about 2 or 2 feet on a level, and December 28. For a few days past our river has in some places deeper. A great number of trees been full of ice, but is now likely to be soon clear are destroyed; some torn up by the roots, others again.
broke off' and the roads so bad that there is scarcely 1759. January 4. Our river is so full of ice that no ves- any travelling: sel can stir.
December. Entries, &c. all the month. 11. Arrivals and clearances.
1766. January 9. River quite fast since Friday last25. River has for some days been in- weather very severe. terrupted with ice.
30. No arrivals &c. since 9th-ice most. February 1. Clearances.
ly dissolved. December 28. Navigation stopped for a week past. February 6. Arrivals. River full of ice.
16. A sloop drove up to New Castle in 1760. January 3. Clearances.
a cake of ice. 17. Thursday last our river was so free December. Arrivals and clearances throughout. from ice that a vessel came up; but it is now fast 1767. January 1. Our liver is so full of ice that navi. again.
gation is at a stand. Thermometer 6° on 21, 5° February 7. For three days past have had a fine
8. From the very gieat unespected thaw thaw by which the ice is greatly dissolved, and we since Saturday last, our river is now pretty clear of hope the navigation will be open in a few days. ice. On Monday night at the middle feuy, Schuyl. 14. Arrivals and clearances.
kill, the ice carried away all the boats, broke the March 20. On Sunday last, we had a violent N. ropes, tore the wharf and d d other considerable E. snow storm, when considering the season of the damage; some of the out houses, being washed year and the time it lasted (18 hours) there was away by the water overflowing the banks. the greatest fall of snow that has been known, it is December 24. The cold weather of Saturday said, since the settlement of the province.
night, filled the river so full of ice that vessels December. Arrivals, &c. through the month.
could not depart; but on Tuesday there was a fine 1761. No arrivals or clearances from January 15 to 5th thaw accompanied with rain and the weather is now February.
moderate, and we hope the navigation will soon December 17. Our river is and has been interrupt. open again.
ed by ice for some days past. 1768. February 11. Our river is now so clear of ice,
24. Navigation quite stopped-mea. that vessels get up and down. sures for relief of the poor.
March 24. On Saturday night last, we had a most 1762. January 14. On Saturday and Sunday last we violent snow storm from N. E.
had a violent N. E. storm here, which, with the sud- December. Arrivals and clearances through the den thaw for some days before, occasioned prodi- month.