« PreviousContinue »
give them possession of the lands; and arms water and shoot him; and Cressap told him he were accordingly prepared for that scheme,
would not be a faithful servant unless he did and Cressap showed the persons who were to
it. Another of Cressap's men present, offered have those lands, the Germans houses, mills,
to go over with Jacob, and wait in the canoe settlements, and improvements.
while he committed the murder, and take him The two Justices of the Superior Court of safely back; and Cressap added a promise of Pennsylvania issued out a warrant to the She
his freedom if he did it, and a discharge, with riff of Lancaster county, reciting complaints
a pass to travel into Maryland, where (he said) made to them, that Cressap had murdered
the Pennsylvania men durst not follow him. Daunt, and that Cressap stood charged with di- Nov. 22. On this day Cressap sent down two men vers other high crimes and misdemeanours;
with four horses to Colonel Rigby's, for the therefore commanding in his majesty's name,
arms and ammunition, and declared that he (as they had divers times before commanded)
daily expected up about 150 men, who were the Sheriff to apprehend Cressap, and bring
to be by him conducted to the Dutch settlehim before them, to be dealt with according to
ments, to take the people out of their houses law.
in the night by force of arms, and carry them Cressap gave out, that in the winter next to Maryland, and that these people were to coming, when the ice was in the river, a great
hold the said places by force of arms, as tenumber of armed men would come up from
nants to Lord Baltimore. Maryland, and lie in the woods, near the
In all the foregoing instances the people of Dutch inhabitants, and he the said Cressap,
Pennsylvania have been passive, and have most with ten armed men, would go from house to peaceably submitted to these treatments; the house, and take the masters of the families
only instance charged against them, wherein prisoners, and, when they had as many as they
they are said to be active, is the apprehending could manage, they would carry them to the
Cressap upon a legal warrant, to answer for the armed force in the woods, and return again,
murder he had committed, and for the other till he had taken all who would not submit to
many disorders he had been guilty of; some Maryland. And if any other inhabitants of only of which are before related, as nearly as Pennsylvania should come to their relief, the
possible in the very words of the proofs. armed force who lay in the woods, would pur
And it is most humbly submitted, whether sue, take, and carry them all prisoners to Ma- in duty to his Majesty, and to themselves, they ryland. And if any of the men fled from their were not only justified in apprehending him, houses, he would turn the women and child. but bound to do it, and culpable if they had ren out of doors, and bring up other people
omitted so seize bim. from Maryland and place in their possessions; Nov. 24. Cressap was apprehended by the Sheriff of who should hold the same by force of arms for Lancaster county. And the circumstances of Lord Baltimore.
the taking him, are deposed by many witnesses Cressap declared that he himself had advis
to be as follows: ed the Sheriff, when the 300 men came up be
The sheriff was attended by 23 men; he fore, to fire on the people in the boats cross
went to Cressap's house early in the morning; ing the river, but said that they were fools and
he himself and others read the warrant for murcowards, and had done no good in coming up.
der to Cressap, and in his hearing several times Cressap declared that the governor of Mary. over. He several times required him to surland had now sent up a great number of small
render peaceably. In answer thereto, Cressap arms, cannon, and ammunition, to Colonel Rig
swore he would never surrender till be was by's, to be conveyed to Cressap's, and that the
dead. He called for a dram of rum, and sheriffs and officers were to be sent up in a lit
drank “Damnation to himself and all with tle time, to dispossess and confine all the
him, if ever they surrendered. He swore he Dutch people on the West side of the river,
would kill all the Pennsylvanians before he south-westerly from John Hendricks, who
would be taken. He would shoot the first of would not submit to the Maryland government,
his own men who refused to fire at his comand that the governor of Maryland had sent to mand, or who offered to capitulate. Before Newcastle and Chester county for Irish people,
any force or violence was offered, two blunderwho were to come up and be put in possession
busses with shot were fired from Cressap's by the sheriff and officers of the Dutch peo
bouse, upon the sheriff and his asssistants. ple's possessions.
Some of the sheriff's assistants were wounded Cressap listed one man in his service at £15
thereby. The sheriff desired and entreated . a year, as his drummer, and to exercise his
him to let his wife go out of the house, and the men, and promised to recommend him to the
sheriff and his assistants would retire, but he governor to make it worth 25 or £30 a year;
refused. Cressap declared he had sent down and promised him to give him one of the Dutch to Maryland for arms, and expected 300 men people's plantation if he would help to dis
by that time it should be night. Thereupon
night coming on, some of the people, without Nov. 18. Cressap listed another man at £12 a year, to the sheriff's consent, set fire to a shed near to and 20. defend him, and to go on such enterprises
the house, which was only round rough logs against the Pennsylvanians, as Cressap should
of wood, piled upon each other, and was very think proper.-Cressap's wife brought him
low, the roof being within reach; the sheriff news that Munday and Leet, two of the heads
endeavoured to put it out. And then Cressap of those people, who petitioned for the Dutch
and his men rushed out, and fired upon the people's lands, were taken with their papers, sheriff and his assistants, and wounded seveand with Governor Ogle's orders; and she
ral. And his own man, Michael Risner by proposed that if Cressap and Jacob would go
name, shot another of his own men, Laughlan over the river, one Mary Emerson should en
Malone by name, and killed him, mistaking gage John Ross at a game at cards, and in the
him for a Pennsylvanian. mean time Cressap should go in and seize and
Note-In the Lord Baltimore's answer to the carry him away, and Jacob swore he would be original petition, he insists, here, that the revenged of Mr. Ross, and would go over the Pennsylvanians killed the man, but his own de
puty-governor and Council, on the spot, do
world, and may be determined by those single not pretend any thing like it; they themselves
points, which the Lord Baitimore so much inonly say, that a firing of guns ensued, whereby
sists on in his answer, viz. That his bounds are a man was killed, and the proofs say it was
those of his own charter, and those only, and done in the manner, and by Cressap's own
that his people have never, in any one instance, man, the person above related.
exceeded those bounds; but that the people Immediately after Cressap's being seized,
in Pennsylvania have, in many instances, and with Risner, he declared that if he was a pri
in a great degree, encroached on his said soner in Lancaster town, they could not keep
bounds. him long, for he would soon be relieved, and
Because his bounds end low, according to the town set on fire; and again declared that a
his charter, within the Peninsula, and these body of men would soon be sent from Mary
disturbances have all been committed very land, and burn Lancaster town to ashes, and
high and far up, within the main continent. that it was the Sheriff's best way to remove
For the charter for Maryland grants only (as bim from thence as soon as possible.
to this purpose) a part of a peninsula, and supNov. 29. The two provincial judges, by their warrant,
posing that was to have been the very bighest committed Cressap to the goal of Pennsylvania
part of all the peninsula (which it is not) even county, till delivered by due course of law.
in that case, every one of these disturbances Dec. 11. Immediately thereupon, the President of bave happened in no part at all of the peninsuPennsylvania called the Council and Assembly,
la, but far up within the main continent, and and they together signed the present original
so far within it, as twenty-five miles above, and petition to his Majesty, humbly informing him
more north than, the whole and every part of these matters.
whatsoever of the peninsula, and many of them Three days afterwards, they informed a cou
a great many miles more north even than the ple of agents, who were sent up from Mary
city of Philadelpbia. land, that they had applied to his Majesty in
These matters therefore would be twentythis affair
five miles at least out of his bounds, if the The two cross petitions from the deputy.
whole and every part of the Peninsula, had governor and council, and from the commissary
been granted to him; which removes his and clergy of Maryland, were for the first
bounds from the scene of these disturbances time, lodged in the Council Office, and were
made by his deputy-governor and Cressap, some time afterwards referred to the Lords of
full fifty-seven miles, over and above the twen the Committee.
ty-five miles. For such part of the peninsula 1737. The original petitioners beg leave to offer,
as is granted to him, is such part of the peninJune 1. that had one single attack been made upon
sula as lies between the ocean, on the east, and July 12. them, though it had been ever so clearly
the bay of Chesapeake on the west; and that within Pennsylvania-Or had many attacks
is the middle part only of the peninsula, and been made upon them, but in such places as
removes his bounds at least eighty-two miles by any possibility there could have been any below the place where these disturbances shadow for doubt which province they had been
were committed. in; in either of those cases, they would not have
It is also to be observed, that the place given his majesty and the lords this trouble. where the very lowest of these disturbances But when these attacks are, for the first
was committed by Maryland, is so far north, as time, begun, after Lord Baltimore by his own
to be nineteen miles and a half above the line agreement in 1732, had, for a most valuable
claimed by the Lord Baltimore himself in 1683, consideration, precisely fixed his own bounds,
and above seventeen miles and a half upon an and those much higher than were ever before
exact measurement, above the line, which the claimed, and daily and frequently made, and present Lord Baltimore demanded, and which in places beyond all possibility of doubt, in Messts. Penn conveyed to him by the agreewhich province they were, are carried on by
ment in May 1732. an army, and by fire and sword, and with such 1737. With regard 10 the quieting order made on outrages, as if the Marylanders thought them. Aug. 18. 18th August 1737, it appears to have been inselves at war in an enemy's country;
tended to preserye peace,not to affect the right It then became the duty of the President,
of either proprietor, and it also appears to have Council, and Assembly of Pennsylvania, to
been as a provisional order, until his Majesty's represent the matters to his majesty.
pleasure should be further signified. Their original petition contains also their
That order consists of two parts; the first, fears and apprehensions, that these violences
an order to keep the peace; the second, an orwould be still continued from Maryland, and,
der to grant out no lands, as a means also, for notwithstanding notice was given them on the
preserving the peace. fourteenth of December, 1736, that the Penn
And, as this is the first opportunity the Pennsylvanians had petitioned his majesty; yet on sylvania proprietors have had of offering any the twenty-ninth of December, 1736, and in
matter for consideration on that head, they beg June and October, 1737, they have been car
leave to submit, in the first place, that they ried on to a greater degree (if possible) than
dutifully do contend to have peace and tran. before. But as those matters are subsequent
quility established, being unable to support to the date of the first Pennsylvania petition,
themselves against these cruel attacks and hosthey are not stated at present.
tilities: They hope they shall be believed to It may be very necessary to observe as to
be very much in earnest, when they desire to the places where every one of these disturb. have peace established; and their behaviour, ances has been committed: and in domestic or
under all these, and many more cruel and bar. foreign transactions, it would be scarcely prac
barous attacks, may be offered, as the strongticable to give clear and satisfactory evidence,
est proof of such their desire. at this distance from the spot; of those facts;
It is for peace sake, and for that only, that but it is particularly fortunate that this case they are at this time sueing by bis Majesty's does not labour under any uncertainty in that order, to enforce Lord Baltimore's agreement respect, but is the most clear one in the whole
of 1732, by which, so very far from their gaining any territory, they lose a vast tract and
so fully answered the ends of his charter, as to territory, which they conveyed to him, purely
invite foreigners, in very great numbers, from and for no other end in the world, but that
every part of Europe, who find themselves opthey might have somewhat, that inight be at
pressed at home, to seek shelter in Pennsylva. peace and free from interruption.
nia, and become useful and additional new Wherefore they earnestly hope that both
subjects to his most sacred Majesty, and who Governors shall be most strictly enjoined to
would be utterly disappointed, and that good keep the peace, but with this addition, that
end defeated, if lands could not be granted the limits of their respective jurisdictions may
out to them, or, which is all one, if no lands be precisely and respectively determined, for
but such as lay a great way back, in the uninthe present only, and without the least view or
habited part of the country could be granted intention to prejudice the right of one, or ad.
out to thein. vance the right of the other, Proprietor.
Wherefore, they humbly hope his Majesty For, as it at present stands, to keep the peace
will not see cause that so great a check should amongst the people inbabiting the said bor
be put to settling this most flourishing province ders, it will be utterly impossible to know
of Pennsylvania, and the rather, since the other what or where, those borders are. The bor
matter of settling the jurisdiction, may fully ders of Lord Baltimore's charter are incontes
answer his Majesty's royal intentions, and fully tably in the middle of the peninsula, above
preserve peace to all his subjects. fourscore miles below these disturbances, but
But the last part of the direction at present as Cressap has first propagated it, it may now subsisting, not to grant any part of the lower be pretended, for Lord Baltimore, that his bor
counties, is appreliended to bear hard on Mr. ders reach above fourscore miles higher than
Penns, and on them only, and they submit that, and even more north than the city of Phi.
whether there may appear occasion for the delphia itself, which space contains by far the
same, since none of the forementioned matters greatest number of settlements in the whole
are pretended to have happened there, or withprovince; wherefore, if all that country may
in very many miles of the same. be called borders, or contested bounds, that
And Mr. Penns humbly hope there is the will open a door for all imaginable inconve
less reason now, for laying any restraint whatniences and contests about jurisdiction between
ever, on their granting out land in the lower the two provinces, and will leave, in effect, the
counties, in regard not only that those counties whole province without any jurisdiction at all,
lie very remote from the scene where the Ma. or under an uncertainty which jurisdiction they
rylanders have committed all the foregoing belong to, which would be attended with the
disturbances, but also that, in August 1737, most fatal consequences.
when the quieting order was made, Lord BalNay, indeed, to leave one single mile, with
timore had then two petitions depending, to out a certain jurisdiction, would be an oppor
oppose Mr. Penns nomination of a new gortunity for debtors, for criminals, and all lawless
ernur of the three lower counties, which his persons, to establish and shelter themselves
Lordship.called an assertion of his right to there, without control, to the annoyance of
those counties; but, within a few days now every body in both provinces, which the pro
past, when those petitions were brought on prietors are very certain was never intended.
and appointed to be heard, his Lordship moved, The Pennsylvania proprietors do most hum.
by the advice of his council, as declared, to bly offer, that they already have, and will in
withdraw those petitions. the most positive and effectual manner, give
Mr. Penns hereby offer, That they already directions to their deputy governor and offi
have, and will further give the most effectual cers, not to pretend, till the dispute is ended,
and positive orders to their governors and offito claim the least jurisdiction whatever, be
cers, not to grant any lands whatever pending yond the lines settled by Lord Baltimore's own
the suit, beyond the lines settled by Lord Balagreement in 1732, on condition only that
timore's own agreement, and humbly hope bis Lord Baltimore will give the like directions to
Lordship shall be directed to confine himself his governor and officers—and the Pennsylva
(during the continuance of the suit) to the nia proprietors humbly pray that such direc
lines so fixed and settled by himself, and not tions may be, in the most effectual manner, en
to set up a pretence, that the whole province forced by his Majesty's royal orders.
of Pennsylvania is in contest; and that upon And thus, a certain temporary limit may be
the injuries complained of by the original petiestablished for the exercise of jurisdiction,
tion, your Lordships will make such order as which may preserve peace and good order shall to your Lordships seem just. amongst all his Majesty's subjects, and thereby
W. MURRAY. answer the whole of his Majesty's most gracious and good intentions.
EMIGRATION.. But with respect to the not granting out any A daily statement of the number of waggons, teams, lands in contest, nor any part of the three low- &c. which passed through Easton Pennsylvania from er counties, the Pennsylvania proprietors do 19th Sept. to 24th Oct. 1817; emigrating to the westward most dutifully submit to their Lordships, that principally to Ohio-average 6 souls each, 3066. such a restraint would prevent both the pro
Waggons. 53 Oct. 1 prietors from answering the declared ends and
2 6 purposes for which the charters were granted
3 16 to them. As the lands in contest may be said
15 and pretended to be the whole country, if
25 Lord Baltimore thinks proper to depart from
6 16 the former claim and settlement of the bounds;
7 13 and any such restraint would be more particu
8 15 larly hurtful to Mr. Penns, who though they
9 30 suffer in their loss of their fortune by it, have
10 26 yet the pleasure to observe, that that constitu
11 +24 85 tion which was established by their father has
REVOLT OF THE PENNSYLVANIA LINE. to any other reward but the love of our country, and do
jointly agree that we shall accept of no other. DOCUMENTS Concluded from p. 206.
Signed in conjunction, Answer to Governor Reed's note demanding the spies,
WM. BOUZAR, Sec'y. agreeable to promise. January 10, 1781.
Bloomsbury, Jan'y. 12, 1781. As it was a misunderstanding in regard to sending the Dear Sir-Mr. Smith arrived this afternoon, and his prisoners to your quarters, we hope you'l excuse-how- presence will be useful. I hoped he would have brought ever they are gone under a proper guard to the commit- the money, as I fear there will be much confusion till the tee of Congress's quarters over the river--however if you discharged are separated from the retained. The comare desirous now to see them, we shall bring them to missioners began to day as the troops are clamorous, and your quarters.
disagreeable things expected if any delay was attempt. We are Yr. Uble. Seryts.
ed. At the same time it must be observed, that we Signed, WM. BOUZAR. have not yet had the necessary papers. They therefore Excellency Gov. Reed,
proceeded no further than one company-and the dis& Genl. Wayne, &c.
charged of that are still here for want of a little
money to bear their expenses. If therefore it is not alA court of inquiry to set this afternoon at 4 o'clock at ready done, I'persuade myself it will be sent immediate. Somerset, state of Pennsylvania, to hear and report their ly. "Farmer came last evening and to-day I formed his opinion, whether John Mason late of N. York, and James arrangements, so that he will begin to-morrow. Mr. Ogden, of South River, state of New Jersey, were found Deane will take care of money matters. The officers at within the lines of the American army in the character Pennington were in so deplorable a plight that I was of spiesAnd if the said court find the charge, then to obliged to borrow £270 specie in this town on my owo give their determitation thereon. General Wayne will credit to relieve them. The people of the country are preside. Genl. Il vine, Col. Butler, Col. Stewart, and prejudiced against them, and callous to their necessities, Major Fishbourne, members.
Mr. Deane has just returned, having paid them the Given at Head quarters 10th Jany. 1781.
above sum on account of their depreciation. I expect Signed, STIRLING, M. G. we must send them £500 more. By a little address we
have saved the 100 guineas, and our credit as you will In pursuance of the above order the Court met and see by the enclosed. Genl. Wayne was gone up to proceeded to hear the evidences and allegations of the Pennington, and as I apprehended some mistake in the parties concerned, and after maturely considering the matter, I did not like to give up so much money without saine, are decidedly of opinion, that the said John Ma. farther light. I have not yet been able to settle the moson and James Ogden came clearly within the descrip- ney sent up by Nicola. There is a justice necessary to tion of spies, and that according to the rules and customs be observed with soldiers in money matters, which we of nations at war, they ought to be hung by the neck must in future attend to. I shall be much obliged to until they are dead.
you for one or more of the laws for making up the de Signed, ANT'Y WAYNE, B. G.
preciation, the soldiers have not been properly made WM. IRVINE, B. G.
acquainted with it. I wish they had known it sooner, I RICH’D. BUTLER, Col. 5. V. A. think it would have had a good effect. The commisWALTER STEWART, Col. 2d A. sioners and some of the principal officers had some little
BEN. FISHBOURN, Aid du camp. warmth to-day as I am informed. The former proceedMajor Genl. Lord Sterling confirms the within sen- ed in their own way, and I believe it was the right one. tence of the court of inquiry, whereof Brigadier Genl. Great indulgences must and ought to be shown to the Wayne was President, and that the said John Mason and feelings of the officers in this new and unexpected James Ogden to be executed to-morrow morning at nine scene--it is a sore trial, and requires no small degree of o'clock.
patience and good sense to submit to it. The men cer Given at head quarters this 10th day of January 1781. tainly had not those attachments which the officers supSigned, STIRLING, M. G. posed, and their fears being now at an end, they give
loose to many indecencies, wbich are very provoking Lieut. Col. Harmer and Inspector Genl. of the Penns’a. to those who have been long accustomed to receive un
line, in his absence to the next officer in rotation, conditional submission. The mutineers are in all cases
The prisoners are to be executed at the Cross roads to be condemned; there are sometimes in armies just from the upper ferry from Trenton to Philadelphia at causes of discontent. The people of this state are unithe four lanes' ends. In case of the absence of the versally in sentiment with the men. The officers reabove officers Major Fishbourne will see this order car- maining with them have not been able to make the ried into execution.
smallest party on whom to depend even for information. Signed, STIRLING, M. G. I shall set out early on Sunday morning for Philadelphia,
nothing happening to prevent, which I will let you In obedience to the above order, the two above men- know. And am with much regard to yourself and countioned prisoners were executed at the time and placecil, Dear Sir, above mentioned Jan'y. 11. 1781.
Your obed. Hbble. Serv't.
January 11, 1781. town to distribute the cloathing, &c.] His Excellency Gov. Need,
Sir-You will be pleased to proceed to Bordentown and Genl. Potter, &c.
as soon as convenient, where you will first direct the Agreeable to the information of two serjeants of our issue of the cloathing to such troops as shall be sent hoard, who waited on your Excellency, that in conside- down by the commissioners, and who will be under the ration of the two spies they informed the remainder of care of some officer or officers. 2dly. Pay each man the board that your Excellency has been ploased to of- one month's pay, taking a receipt therefor-viz. fifty fer a sum of gold as a compensation for our fidelity—but shillings or the equivalent in continental, at 75 for as it has not been for the sake, or through any expecta-one. 3dly. Pay each recruit, who shall be certified by tion of receiving a reward, but for the zeal and love of any justice of peace as enlisted, for the war freely and our country, that we sent them immediately to Genl. voluntarily, and attested 10 serve the United States, sis Wayne, we therefore do not consider ourselves e ntitled pounds state money, or the value in old continental,