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DR. RAMSAY'S ACCOUNT.
the troops pagsed over from New York to Staten Island, Though General Arnold's address to his countrymen and the necessary arrangements were made for moving produced no effect, in detaching the soldiery of Ameri- them into New Jersey, whensoever they might be wantca from the unproductive service of Congress, their stea- ed. The royal commander was not less disappointed diness could not be accounted for, from any melioration than surprised to find that the faithful, though revolting of their circumstances. They still remained without soldiers, disdained his offers. The messengers of Sir pay, and without such clothing as the season required. Henry Clmton were seized and delivered to gen. Wayne. They could not be induced to enter the British service, President Reed and General Potter were appointed, by but their complicated distresses at length broke out into the council of Pennsylvania, to accommodate matters deliberate mutiny. This event which had been long ex. with the revolters
. They met them at Princeton, and pected, made its first threatening appearance in the agreed to dismiss all whose terms of enlistment were Pennsylvania line. The common soldiers enlisted in completed, and admitted the oath of each soldier to be that state, were for the most part natives of Ireland, but evidence in his own case. A board of officers tried and though not bound to America by the accidental tie of condemned the British spies, and they were instantly birth, they were inferior to none in discipline, courage, executed. President Reed offered a purse of 100 guior attachment to the cause of independence. They had neas to the mutineers, as a reward of their fidelity, in been but a few months before, the most active instru- delivering up the spies; but they refused to accept it, ments in quelling a mutiny of the Connecticut troops, saying "That what they had done was only a duty they and had on all occasions done their duty to admiration. owed their country, and that they neither desired nor An ambiguity in the terms of their enlistment, furnished would receive any reward but the approbation of that a pretext for their conduct. A great part of them were country, for which they had so often fought and bled." enlisted for three years or during the war, the three By these healing measures the revolt was completely years were expired, and the men insisted that the choice quelled; but the complaints of the soldiers being found. of staying or going remained with them, while the offi. ed in justice, were first redressed. Those whose time cers contended that the choice was in the state. of service was expired obtained their discharges, and
The mutiny was excited by the non commissioned others had their arrears of pay in a great measure made officers and privates, in the night of the 1st of January up to them. A general amnesty closed the business. 1781, and soon became so universal in the line of that state as to defy all opposition. The whole, except three BIOGRAPHY-WILLIAM BRADFORD), Esq. regiments, upon a signal for the purpose, turned out un.
(FROM THE PORT FOL10.] der arms without their officers, and declared for a re- WILLIAM BRADFORD, an American lawyer of eminence, dress of grievances. The officers in vain endeavoured was born in Philadelphia
, September 14th, 1755, and to quell them. Several were wounded, and a captain was placed early under the particular care of a very re. was killed in attempting it. General Wayne presented spectable and worthy clergyman a few miles from this his pistols, as if about to fire on them; they held their city, from whom he received the rudiments of an edubayonets to his
breast and said, “we love and respect cation which was afterwards improved to the greatest you, but if you fire you are a dead man.”. “We are not advantage, and under the tuition of this excellent pregoing to the enemy, on the contrary, if they were now ceptor he remained, with little interruption, until he to come out, you should see us fight under your orders was fit to enter college. It was at this time that his with as much alacrity as ever; but we will be no longer father had formed
a plan of keeping him
at home, and amused, we are determined on obtaining what is our of bringing him up in the insurance office which he just due.” Deaf to arguments and entreaties, they, to then conducted, but so strong was the love of learning the number of thirteen hundred moved off in a body implanted' in the young mind of his son, that neither per from Morristown, and proceeded in good order with suasion, nor hopes of pecuniary advantage, could pretheir arms and six field pieces to Princeton. They vail with him to abandon the hopes of a liberal educaelected temporary officers from their own body, and ap- tion, and he voluntarily offered to resign every expectapointed a sergeant major, who had formerly deserted tion of the former from his father to obtain the advanfrom the British army, to be their commander. Gen. tages of the latter, by a regular course of studies... AcWayne forwarded provisions after them, to prevent their cordingly in the spring of 1769, he was sent to Princeplundering the country for their subsistence. They in- ton, and entered the college of Nassau Hall, then under vaded no man's property, farther than their immediate the direction of the late learned and pious Dr. John necessities made unavoidable. This was readily sub- Witherspoon, where he continued with great benefit to mitted to by the inhabitants, who had long been used to himself till the fall of 1772, when he received the hon. exactions of the same kind, levied for similar purposes ours of the college by a degree of bachelor of arts, and by their lawful rulers. They professed that they had in 1775 that of A M. During his residence at this se: no object in view, but to obtain what was justly due to minary he was greatly beloved by his fellow students, them, nor were their actions inconsistent with that pro- while he confirmed the expectations of his friends and fession.
the faculty of the college by giving repeated evi. Congress sent a committee of their body, consisting dence of genius and taste, and at the public comof General Sullivan, Mr. Mathews, Mr. Atlee and Dr. mencement had one of the highest honours of the class Witherspoon, to procure an accommodation. The re-conferred upon him. volters were resolute in refusing any terms, of which a He continued at Princeton till the year following, redress of their grievances was not the foundation.- during which time an opportunity was afforded him of Every thing asked of their country, they might at any attending Dr. Witherspoon's excellent lectures on theotime after the 6th of January, have obtained from the logy; and, from this useful teacher he received much inBritish, by passing over into New York. This they re- formation and general knowledge; after which
he returnfused.' Their sufferings had exhausted their patience ed to the scenes of his youth, and spent several months but not their patriotism. Sir Henry Clinton, by confi- under the instruction of his first reverend preceptor, who dential messengers, offered to take them under the pro-strove to prepare him for future usefulness by his piety, tection of the British government-to pardon all their experience, and knowledge of the world. past offences-to have the pay due them from Congress Thus fitted for active life, after consulting his own infaithfully made up, without any expectation of military clinations, and the advice of his friends, be fixed on the service in return, although it would be received if vo- study of the law, which he commenced under the late luntarily offered. It was recommended to them to move honourable Edward Shippen, Esq. then one of the coun. behind the South river, and it was promised, that a decil of the Supreme Court
of Pennsylvania, and late chief tachment of British troops should be in readiness for justice of this state, where he prosecuted his studies their protection as soon as desired. In the mean time, with his usual diligence and unwearied application
In the spring of 1776 he was called upon by the pecu- ble deportment, and pleasing as well as instructing in liar circumstances of the times, to exert himself in de conversation, he had the happy art of conciliating the fence of the dearest rights of human nature, and to join affection and respect of all who knew him. He was a pathe standard of his country, in opposition to the oppres. triot on principle. He loved his country with the sincerest sive exactions of Britain. When the militia were called affection, and preferred her interets to every other conout to form the flying camp, he was chosen major of sideration; and in a particular manner respected the geþrigade to General Roberdeau, and on the expiration of neral liberties of mankind at large, in all his actions. His his term accepted a company in Colonel Hampton's charities were secret, but general; and none in distress regular troops, where he was soon promoted to the sta- were ever known to leave him with discontent. His tion of deputy muster master-general, with the rank of friendships were few, but very sincere; and those who lieutenant-colonel, in which office he continued about aided him in his first setting out in life, were never fortwo years, till his want of health, being of a delicate con- gotten by him; and what added to all his other virtues, stitution, obliged him to resign his commission and re- and gave a polish to all his actions, was his firm belief turn home. Hc now recommenced the study of the in the Christian system, produced by a thorough examilaw, and in 1779 was admitted to the bar of the Su-nation, and full conviction of its divine original, by the preme Court of Pennsylvania, where his rising character incomparable rules of which he regulated his whole soon introduced him into an unusual share of business, conduct, and founded all his hopes of future bliss.* and, in August 1780, only one year after he was licensed, His death was occasioned by a severe attack of the by the recommendations of the bar, and the particular bilious fever. He died on the 23d day of August, 1795, attention of his late excellency Joseph Reed, Esq. then in the 40th year of his age, and was, according to his President of the state, he was appointed Attorney Gene express desire, buried by the side of his parents in the ral of the state of Pennsylvania.
burial ground belonging to the second Presbyterian In 1784 he married the daughter of Elias Boudinot of Church in Philadelphia. New Jersey, counsellor at law, with whom he lived till his death in the exercise of every domestic virtue that of his fever, a few evenings before he died, he expressed
* In a conversation with a friend, during a remission could adorn human nature. On the reformation of the his belief in the doctrines of the gospel in very strong courts of justice under the new constitution of Pennsyl
terms. vania, he was solicited to accept the honourable office of one of the judges of the Supreme Court, which, with
INTERNAL DUTIES. much hesitation, he accepted, and was commissioned by his Excellency Governor Mifflin, August 22, 1791.
By an act of 18th January, 1815, the following rates His indefatigable industry, unshaken integrity, and
of duties were imposed on the articles enumerated, to correct judgment, enabled him
to give general satisfac- commence on the 15th April, viz. tion in this office, as well to the suitors as at the bar.
Upon pig iron $1 per ton—bar 1-rolled and slit 1– Here he had determined to spend a considerable part of nails, brads, and sprigs
, not wrought, 1 cent per pound his life; but, on the Attorney General of the United -candles of white, or part white and other war, 5 cents States being promoted to the office of Secretary of per pound-do. mould, tallow, or wax, not white, or of State, Mr. Bradford was urged, by various public consi, bonnets of wool or fur, if above $2 value 8 eight per ct.
each 3 cents-hats and caps, of leather, wool or fur; derations, to yield to the pressure of the occasion, and ad valorem-do. of chip or wood covered with silk or accept of that office. He accordingly resigned his judge's commission, and was appointed Attorney Gene.
other materials, or not covered, do. do.-umbrellas and ral of the United States on the 28th day of January parasols, above $2 value, 8 per cent. ad valorem-paper 1794. This office he held till his death, when he was
3 per cent.--cards 50 per cent.--saddles and bridles 6 found at his post, in the midst of great usefulness; pos- percent...boots above $5, 5 per cent.-beer &c. 6 per sessing, in a high degree, the confidence of the country cluding therein all hides and skins, whether tanned,
cent.--tobacco manufactured, 20 per cent.-leather, inMr. Bradford's temper was mild and amiable, his man- dressed, or otherwise made, on the original manufacners were genteel, unassuming, modest, and conciliat- ture thereof, 5 per cent. ad valorem. ing. As a public speaker, his eloquence was soft, per
The duties were only laid on articles manufactured suasive, nervous, and convincing. He understood mankind well, and knew how to place his arguments and his for sale, and were paid by the manufacturer. The value reasonings in the most striking point of light. His lan- was regulated by the average of the market wholesale guage was pure, sententious, and pleasing; and he so sively by wholesale, and so in case of retail sales, by
prices, as far as regarded a manufacturer who sold exclumanaged most of his forensic disputes, as scarcely ever market retail prices. The act was repealed in 1816. to displease his opponents; while he gave the utmost The following sums were collected in Pennsylvania. satisfaction to his clients. His close application to the The total amount accruing in the United States under law, and the litigation of the bar, did not prevent him this act was $951,769 84), of which our state paid altogether from indulging now and then his fondness
$267,978 164. for poetry; his taste and talents for which were above the common standard, and several pieces of his compo- Statement of the amount of duties which have accrued on sition have been published. In 1793 he published "An various goods, wares, and merchandize manufactured in Inquiry how far the punishment of death is necessary in
Pennsylvania from 18th of April 1815, to 220 February Pennsylvania.” This was written at the request of his 1816, being the period during which those duties were excellency Governor Mifflin, and intended for the use
in force. of the Legislature, in the nature of a report; they having Iron
$27,941 20 the subject at large under their consideration. This Nails, brads, and sprigs
31,876 873 performance justly gained him great credit, and its Candles
2,486 00 happy effects are manifested wherever it has been read Hats, caps, and bonnets
31,416 41 with attention, especially in the reformation of the penal Paper
11,139 774 codes of several states in the Union, where the interests Playing and visiting cards
8 33 of humanity have, at last, prevailed over ancient and Saddles and bridles
17,144 03 inveterate prejudices.
Boots or bootes
10,484 187 Mr. Bradford possessed great firmness of opinion, yet Beer, ale, and porter,
17,142 64 was as remarkable for his modesty and caution in deli- Tobacco, snuff and segars
61,097 394 vering his sentiments. With an excellent judgment, Leather
42,314 494 and a quick and retentive memory, he enjoyed great Umbrellas and parasols
2,724 007 equanimity of temper, was serious and steady in his gene- Gold, silver and plated wares 12,202 913 ral conduct, and richly endowed with genius. Of amia
AMOUNT OF INTERNAL DUTIES AND DIRECT TAXES, DERIVED FROM PENNSYLVANIA IN THE ENUMERATED YEARS.
Internal duties on-
rials, at 20 cents per gall.
Do. tax on
and silver watches
Do. tax on
Do. tax on
6965 00 52283 63
6155 00 51205 70
6196 21 47949 55
8075 00 61177 11
The Duties on Spirits and Stills amounted in the ten years by the above Table, to $2,284,788 14-or, per annum, $228,478 81. In 1815, according to the above rate of duties on Spirits from'domestic materials, there must have been manufactured 1,945,816 gallons, and in 1816 1,473,611. Since that period there must be an immense increase, as in this city alone there were inspected, per table in vol. I, p.182, upwards of 2,300,000 gallons. N. B. In several of the years not designated, the amount of taxes and duties was assumed by the State, and of course not returned in detail to Congress.
[Compiled from Seybert's Statistics.
DELAWARE AND SCHUYLKILL CANAL. ground is apparently favourable. The average depth
of cutting is 11 ft. 6 inches-amount of cub. yds. to be To the Committee of Citizens of the Northern Liberties, path 8052 included in the total amount of yards—esti
excavated 80644. For the formation of the Towing &c.
mated at 14 cts. per cub. yard-Cost $11290 16. GENTLEMEN -Having made at your request the sur
In order to communicate with the Schuylkill it will vey of a canal line from the Delaware river at Kensing. be necessary to build two lift locks at a cost of $5000 ton, to the Schuylkill below Fair Mount-to be supplied each, and a tide lock at $7000. with water, by an extension of the Delaware Division
The cost of the Bridges if built in a permanent manof the Pennsylvania Canal from Bristol to Kensington, ner will not be less than $75000. according to the location made last year by Mr. Sar
Recapitulation. gent, I have the honour to submit the following Re. Sec. No. 1-amount of cub. yds. port:
22814 cost $2053 26 In order to determine the practicability and cost of No. 2.
18561 1670 49 this project, 1 commenced my level at the bench made No 3.
52787 7390 18 by Mr. Sargent on a bridge near Dyott's Glass Works at No. 4.
157801 36294 23 Kensington, by which I ascertained that the bottom of No.5.
190438 47609 50 the Canal as located by him is 13,383 feet above high No. 6.
80644 11290 16 water of the river Delaware. On this level a line was Locks,
17000 00 run northerly about one quarter of a mile to a point upon Bridges,
75000 00 the line of the proposed canal from Bristol to Kensington, at the intersection of Wood and West streets. At
$198,307 82 this point the canal to which my attention was directed will begin. I shall proceed to describe it by sections of In making out the foregoing estimate I have gone half a mile each, except the last which exceeds that upon the supposition that the Canal will correspond in length by 21 chains.
plan and dimensions with that now constructing on the Sec. No. I. Runs along West street on or nearly a west Delaware. Width of the canal at the water line 40 ft. course, crosses the Frankford road and terminates at the at the bottom 25 feet-depth of water 5 feet. Towing intersection of Master and Front streets. The ground path 12 feet in width—Berm Bank 8 feet in width. through the whole of it is highly favourable for excava
From these estimates it appears that the whole cost of tion. The average depth of cutting is 6 ft. 8 inches the proposed communication including the necessary amount of cub. yds. to be excavated 22,814-estimated Bridges will amount to $198,307 82. I am not aware at 9 cts. per cubic yard—cost of excavation $2053 26. that any difficulty will occur in the execution of this
Sec. No. 2. Commences at the intersection of Master work, beyond what is usually incident to deep excava. and Front streets, and
runs nearly a west course, cross- tions or which money and skill combined will not readily ing the Germantown Turnpike and Second street road overcome. Of the supply of water from above no doubt to the Cohocksink Creek. The ground is favourable for can be entertained if the plans of the Canal Commisexcavation. The average depth of cutting is 5 ft. 8 inc. sioners for the Delaware line, be carried into effect, and amount of cubic yards to be excavated is 18561-esti- that line extended from Bristol to Kensington. mated at 9 cts. per cubic yard-cost of excavation
Respectfully submitted, $1670 49.
EMERSON MCILVAINE, Sec. No. 3. Commences at the Cohocksink creek,
Ass't. Eng. Penn. Canal.
(Ú. S. Gazette. and runs a south west course, crossing the Township line and passing through Weaver's Brick yards to the intersection of Poplar lane and Ninth streets.
Anecdote of General Nash.-General Nash, grievously
The ground is apparently of a nature favourable for excava. by a grape-shot, was carried off the field of Ger
wounded in the thigh, the bone of which was shattered tion. The average depth of cutting is 11 ft. 6 inches; mantown. A gentleman coming up began to condole amount of cub. yds. 52787-estimated at 14 cts. per cu- with his situation, and asked him how he was." It is bic yd. --cost of excavation $7390 18 cts. In the con- unmanly,” said the dying hero to complain, “but it is struction of this section an excavation of 5280 cub. yds. more than human nature can bear.” will be necessary in order to form the Towing path.This is included in the total amount of yards estimated above.
MAMMOTH GRINDER. Sec. No. 4. Commences at the intersection of Poplar mile and a half N. E, of Butler, and thirty miles from
In digging in 1809 the well at the salt works, about a lane and Ninth street, and runs nearly a southwest course Pittsburg, the grinder of a mammoth, weight five pounds, crossing Coates' street to the Ridge road. At this point and seven inches in length, was found four feet below the greatest depth of cutting occurs. The ground is the surface of the rock, among several fragments of apparently favourable. The average depth of cutting bones much decayed is 23 ft. 6 inches—amount of cubic
yards to be excava. ted 157801. Formation of the Towing path 19360 cub. yds. included in the total amount of yards-estimated
THE CHARTER at 23 cts. per cub. yd.-cost $36294 23.
Of Privileges granted by William Penn, Esq. to the InSec. No. 5. Commences at the Ridge road and runs habitants of Pennsylvania and Territories. on a course nearly west, crossing Broad street, Schuyl. William Penn, proprietary and governor of the prokill 8th, 7th and 6th, to Callowhill street. The ground vince of Pennsylvania and Territories thereunto belongis apparently of easy excavation. Average depth of ing, To all to whom these Presents shall come, sendeth cutting is 26 ft. 6 inches-amount cub. yds, to be exca- Greeting: Whereas, King Charles II. by his letters pavated 190438. For the formation of the Towing path tents, under the great seal of England, bearing date the 22880 cub. yds.—included in the total amount of yds.- 4th day of March, in the year one thousand six hundred estimated at 25 cts. per cub. yard. Cost $47609 50. and eighty, was graciously pleased to give and grant
Sec. No. 6. Commences at Callowhill street, and runs unto me, and my heirs and assigns forever, this province nearly a west course, crossing Schuylkill 5th, 4th, 3d, of Pennsylvania, with divers great powers and jurisdic2d and Callowhill street, at its intersection with Schuyl. tions for the well government thereof: kill Front st. down Hamilton st. to the river Schuylkill at And whereas, the king's dearest brother, James Duke a point a short distance below the Water works. The of York and Albany, &c. by his deeds of feoffment, un
der his hand and seal duly perfected, bearing date the
II. twenty-fourth day of August, one thousand six hundred
For the well governing of this province and territoeighty and two, did grant unto me, my heirs and assigns, ries, there shall be an assenubly yearly chosen by the all that tract of land, now called the territories of Penn- freemen thereof, to consist of four persons out of each sylvania, together with powers and jurisdictions for the county, of most note for virtue, wisdom and ability, (or good government thereof.
of a greater number at any time, as the governor and And whereas, for the encouragement of all the free assembly shall agree) upon the first day of October formen and planters, that might be concerned in the said ever; and shall sit on the fourteenth day of the same province and territories, and for the good government month, at Philadelphia, unless the governor and council thereof, I the said William Penn, in the year one thou- for the time being shall see cause to appoint another sand six hundred eighty and three, for me, my heirs place within the said province or territories; which asand assigns, did grant and confirm unto all the freemen, sembly shall have power to choose a speaker and other planters and adventurers therein, divers liberties, fran- of their officers; and shall be judges of the qualificachises and properties, as by the said grant, entitled, The tions of their own members; sit upon their own adjournFrame of the Government of the Province of Pennsyl- ments; appoint committees; prepare bills in order to vania, and Territories thereunto belonging, in America, pass into laws; impeach criminals, and redress grievan. may appear; which charter or frame being found in ces, and shall have all other powers and privileges of some parts of it, not so suitable to the present circum- an assembly, according to the rights of the free born stances of the inhabitants, was in the third month, in subjects of England, and as is usual in any of the king's the year one thousand seven hundred, delivered up to dominions in America. me, by six parts of seven of the freemen of this pro- And if any county or counties, shall refuse or neglect vince and territories, in general assembly met, provision to choose their respective representatives as aforesaid; being made in the said charter, for that end and pur- or if chosen, do not meet to serve in assembly, those pose:
who are so chosen and met, shall have the full power of And whereas, I was then pleased to promise, that I an assembly, in as ample manner as if all the represenwould restore the said charter to them again, with ne- tatives had been chosen and met, provided they are not cessary alterations, or in lieu thereof, give them another less than two thirds of the whole number that ought to better adapted to answer the present circuinstances and meet. conditions of the said inhabitants; which they have now, And that the qualifications of electors and elected, by their representatives in general assembly met at Phi- and all other matters and things relating to elections of ladelphia, requested me to grant:
representatives to serve in assemblies, though not herein Know ye, therefore, that for the further well-being particularly expressed, shall be and remain as by a law and good government of the said province, and territo- of this government, made at New Castle in the year one ries; and in pursuance of the rights and powers before thousand seven hundred, entitled, An act to ascertain mentioned, i the said William Penn, do declare, grant the number of members of assembly, and to regulate and confirm, unto all the freemen, planters
, and adven
the elections. turers, and other inhabitants in this province and territo
III. ries, these following liberties, franchises and privileges,
That the freemen in each respective county, at the so far as in me lieth, to be held, enjoyed and kept, by time and place of meeting for electing their representathe freemen, planters and adventurers, and other inha- tives to serve in assembly, may as often as there shall be bitants of and in the said province and territories there occasion, choose a double number of persons to present unto annexed, forever.
to the governor for sheriffs and coroners, to serve for I.
three years, if so long they behave themselves well; out Because, no people can be truly happy, though un- of which respective elections and presentments, the der the greatest enjoyment of civil liberties, if abridged governor shall nominate and commissionate one for each of the freedom of their consciences, as to their religious of the said offices, the third day after such presentment, profession and worship: and Almighty God being the or else the first named in such presentment, for each of. only Lord of conscience, Father of Lights and Spirits; fice as aforesaid, shall stand and serve in that office for and the author as well as object of all divine knowledge, the time before respectively limited; and in case of death faith and worship, who only doth enlighten the minds, or default, such vacancy shall be supplied by the goverand persuade and convince the understandings of peo- nor, to serve to the end of the said term. ple, I do hereby grant and declare, that no person or Provided always, That if the said freemen shall at persons, inhabiting in this province or territories, who any time neglect or decline to choose a person or per. shall confess and acknowledge One Almighty God, the sons for either or both the aforetaid officers, then and Creator, Upholder and Ruler of the World; and profess in such case, the persons that are or shall be in the res. him or themselves obliged to live quietly under the civil pective offices of sheriffs or coroners at the time of elecgovernment, shall be in any case molested or prejudiced, tion, shall remain therein until they shall be removed in his or their person or estate, because of his or their by another election as aforesaid. And that the justices conscientious persuasion or practice, nor be compelled of the respective countries shall or may nominate and to frequent or maintain any religious worship, place or present to the governor three persons, to serve for clerk ministry, contrary to his or their mind, or to do or suffer of the peace for the said county, when there'is a vacanany other act or thing, contrary to their religious per-cy, one of which the governors sha!l commissionate suasion.
within ten days after such presentment, or else the first And that all persons who also profess to believe in nominated shall serve in the said office during good beJesus Christ, the Saviour of the World, shall be capable haviour. (notwithstanding their other persuasions and practices
IV. in point of conscience and religion) to serve this gov. That the laws of this government shall be in this ernment in any capacity, both legislatively and execu- style, viz. By the Governor, with the consent and approtively, he or they solemnly promising, when lawfully bation of the Freemen in General Assembly met; and required, allegiance to the king as sovereign, and fideli- shall be, after confirmation by the Governor, forth with ty to the proprietary and governor, and taking the at- recorded in the Roll's Office, and kept at Philadelphia, tests as now established by the law made at New Castle, unless the Governor and Assembly shall agree to apin the year one thousand and seven hundred, entitled, point another place. An act directing the attests of several officers and minis
V. ters, as now amended and confirmed this present assem- That all criminals shall have the same privileges of bly.
witnesses and council as their prosecutors,