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to the care of the gentlemen who conduct the institu- The constant influx of settlers from the eastern states tion:
is also a considerable object. Being stopped, for the WM. WHITE; present, by the Indian disturbances from swarming into
President of the Board of Trustees. the western territory, many of them may be encouraged Jos. REED, Secretary.
to make a halt or settlement in this state, if they find Philadelphia, August 30, 1828.
good roads and communications in the different parts thereof.
It may be proper, therefore, before we proceed farINTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS.
ther, to subjoin a general statement of the various comIn 1789, “The Society for promoting the improve-munications and improvements of which Pennsylvania ment of ROAD AND INLAND Navigation," was formed, is capable in this way; so far as relates to navigation. having in a short time about one hundred members re
DELAWARE NAVIGATION siding in various parts of the State, whose meeting was From the tide water at Trenton falls to lake Otsego, the to be held on every Monday evening during the session head of the north east branch of Susquehanna. of the legislature, in order to suggest information,
Miles. Ch. schemes and proposals for promoting internal trade ma- From Trenton falls to the mouth of Lehigh at nufactures and population, by facilitating every possi- Easton,
50 15 ble communication between the different parts of the To Lechewacksin branch of Delaware,
94 12 state. !n 1791, that Society in the following memorial Thence to Stockport on Delaware, a little be
low the junction of the Mohock and Popachpresented to the legislature a comprehensive view of
66 24 the various routes for canals and roads, with estimates of Portage from Stockport to Harmony, at the the expenses; which they conceived, best calculated to Great Bend,
20 00 promote the great end for which the Society was estab. Thence up the north east branch of Susque
hanna to Otsego lake,
70 00 lished. It may be curious to compare their ideas, and views, and estimates with those entertained at the pre
300 51 sent day, so far as the same routes have been pursued.
No. II. To the Honourable the Senate & House of Representatives From the tide water on Delaware to Oswego on Lake Oni of the Freemen of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania,
tario. in General Assembly met:
To Harmony, at the Great Bend of Susque. The memorial of "The Society for promoting the im- banna, as above,
230 51 provement of roads and inland navigation,” Down Susquehanna to the mouth of Tioga, 65 00 Respectfully Sheweth,
Up Tioga to Newtown,
18 00 That your memorialists, residing in various parts of Portage to Conedessago lake, which may be this state, with a view to contribute their best endeavors turned wholly into lock navigation hy Newto promote the internal trade, manufactures and popu- town creek,
18 00 lation of their country, by facilitating every possible Down Connedessago lake,
36 00 communication between the different parts of the state, Down Sencca or Onandago river to Oswego,
86 00 have lately formed themselves into a society, by the name above mentioned. And knowing that the legis
453 51 lature, with the laudable intention of advancing the
best Estimate of the expense of opening this navigation, from interests of this commonwealth, and availing themselves of the extensive information, which they have obtained
Trenton falls to Stockport, near the state line. of the geography and situation of the country, have now From Trenton falls to the mouth of under their consideration the important subject of roads
£1005 and inland navigation; we, therefore, beg leave, with From Lehigh or Easton, to Stockall possible deference, to suggest some important con
1243 siderations which have occurred to us in our enquiries Portage from Stockport to Harmony into this subject.
at £20 per mile,
400 Pennsylvania, from her situation, and extent of terri.
£2648 tory, is a respectable commonwealth in the Union. Her "Boil is fertile, her products various, and her rivers, by the bountiful Author of Nature, have been made to flow
SUSQUEHANNA NAVIGATION, in every direction, as if on purpose to bear from all | As connected with Schuylkill on the east, and Ohio and the parts the wealth and produce of the land, in an easy,
great lakes on the west. cheap and expeditious manner, to her principal mart
No. I. and part in the city of Philadelphia. To combine the From Philadelphia, or the tide waters of Schuylkill, to interests of all the parts of the state, and to cement them in a perpetual commercial and political union, by the
Pittsburg on the Ohio. improvement of those natural advantages, is one of the Up Schuylkill to the mouth of the Tulpehockgreatest works which can be submitted to legislative
61 00 wisdom; and the present moment is particularly auspi- Thence up Tulpehocken to the end of the cious for the undertaking, and if neglected, the loss proposed canal,
37 09 may never be retrieved.
Length of the canal,
4 15 When once our trade hath forced its way, even thro' Down Quitipahilla to Swatara,
15 20 a less advantageous channel, it is difficult to alter its Down Swatara to Susquehanna,
23 00 course; and a little expense, judiciously and seasonably Up Susquehanna to Juniata,
23 28 applied, may retain a stream in its channel, which with Up Juniata to Huntingdon,
86 12 immense sums cannot be restored, if once diverted from From Huntingdon, on Juniata, to the mouth of it. Large emigrations from Europe are now directing Poplar run,
42 00 their course to this country, and will be encouraged by Portage to the Canoe Place on Conemaugh, 18 00 every improvement we make, by means of roads and Down Conemaugh to Old Town at the mouth water communications with the distant parts of the state. of Stoney Creek,
Miles. Ch. Down Conemaugh and Kiskeminetas to Alle- Portage to Little Toby's creek,
14 00 gheny river,
69 00 Down Little Toby's creek to the main branch, 10 00 Down Allegheny river to Pittsburg on the Ohio, 29 00 Down the main branch of Toby's creek to the
70 00 426 04 Up the Allegheny to French creek,
35 00 Estimate of the expense of clearing this navigation from Up French creek and the Portage to Presque Isle, 81 00
Philadelphia to Pittsburg. Schuylkill from the tide water to
560 64 Reading, by David Rütenhouse
No. v. and others,
From the tide waters of Susquehanna to Pittsburg. By Benjamin Rittenhouse and John
From Thomas's near Susquehanna ferry, to the
54 00 Clearing the Tulpehocken, by do 1419 9
From the mouth of Swatara, as above, to' PittsThe canal from Tulpehocken to
285 40 Quitipahilla, 20 feet wide and 7 feet on an average, *
339 40 The Quitipahilla and Swatara, 18900 00
No. VI. Susquehanna from Swatara to Juni
From tide waters of Potomac, at Georgetown, to Pittsata, 300 00
burgh. The Juniata to Frank's Town, 2320 00
From Georgetown to Williams port, at the Canal or lock navigation to Poplar
mouth of Conecocheague
98 15 run (if found necessary, which
From Williamsport to Fort Cumberland 93 66 probably will not be the case,) 7000 00
From Fort Cumberland to the mouth of Savage Portage of 18 miles to Connemaugh
30 44 at 7.20 per mile,
Portage from mouth of Savage river on PotoConemaugh and Kiskeminetas to
mac, to Dunkerbottom, on Cheat river 37 20 Allegheny,
25 00 Total expense from Philadelphia to
From thence to Pittsburgh
102 00 Pittsburg, being four hundred and twenty-six miles,
386 35 From Philadelphia to Presque Isle on Lake Erie, by the
From Connedessago Lake to New York.
From Geneva at the outlet of the Coonedessa. route as above,
397 04 .go Lake, by Seneca river to the three RiUp the Allegheny to French creek, 83 43
62 00 Up French creek to Le Bæuf, 65 40 To the Oneida Lake
28 00 Portage from Le Bauf to Presque Isle, 15 40 Up the Oneida Lake to Wood creek
18 00 By Wood creek, very crooked, 25 miles but 561 47 supposed longer
30 00 N. B. The sum of 1.500 for French creek, and 1.400 Portage to the Mohawk river
1 00 for the portage, is all the additional expense in the na. To the Rapid, or Falls of the Mohawk River 60 00 vigation from Kiskeminetas to Presque Isle, or the lakes. Portage
1 00 No. III. Down the Mohawk river to Shenectady
55 00 From Philadelphia to Presque Isle, by the west branch of Portage to Albany
15 00 Susquehanna, Sinnemahoning and Conewango. By lludson's river to New York
165 00 From Philadelphia to Swatara, as above, 140 44 Up Susquehanna to the west branch, at Sun
435 00 bury,
No. VIII. Up the west branch to the mouth of Sinnema
From the middle of the Genesee Country to New York. honing, 106 00 Down Genesee river to Lake Ontario
30 00 Up Sinnemahoning to the Forks, 15 20 Along Lake Ontario to Oswego
60 00 Up the north branch of Sinnemahoning, 19 40 From Oswego to the Three Rivers
24 00 By the portage to the head of Allegheny river, 23 00 From thence to New York as above
373 00 Down Allegheny river (partly through N.York state) to the mouth of Conewango, 76 00
487 00 Up Conewango to New York line 11 miles,
17 00 Portage to Lake Erie at the mouth of Chatua
To the mouth of the Swatara
260 00 ghque creek, 9 20 Thence to Philadelphia, as above
141 00 Along Lake Erie to Presque Isle,
401 00 524 44
From Canadasegn by Tioga and Susquehanne.
101 00 Susquehanna, Sinnemahoning and Toby's creek.
The portage to Stockport and down Delaware From Philadelphia to the forks of Sinnemaho
to tide water
230 51 ning, as before, 326 64 To Philadelphia
34 00 Up the west branch of Sinnemahoning, 24 00
365 51 * N. B. The Society have left a blank for the esti- On the inspection of the map which accompanies this mate of the canal, as they mean to enquire further whe- memorial, compared with the foregoing statement of disther it cannot be done cheaper upon a plan of lock na- tances and water communications, as they may be imvigation
proved to connect the western waters of the Susque
hanna, the Ohio, and the great lakes, with the port of and Popaughton branches, are cach navigable for boats, Philadelpbia, an almost unbounded prospect of future of fifteen tons, for more than 50 miles above their juncwealth and importance opens to the citizens of this tion, and considerably higher still for rafts. commonwealth.
That this subject may be better com- The Lehigh and Lackawaxen likewise cffer them prehended in detail, give us leave to consider it under selves as very important branches of this navigation, ly. two great heads:
ing in the interior parts of the state; but nothing need. First, the Delaware Navigation, as stated in No. 1 and be added to the report of the commissioners, on this No. 2, by which the countries on the waters of the N. E. head. We proceed, therefore, to the second great and branch of the Susquehanna up to its head at iake Otsego, most important head, viz. and all the countries lying from the mouth of Tioga to lake Second. The Susquehanna navigation, as it may be Ontario, may be connected with the city of Philadel-connected with the Schuylkill waters on the one hand, phia, having only 20 miles portage from Stockport on and the Ohio waters and the great lakes on the other. Delaware to Harmony, at the great bend of Susque. Here is a navigation which we may properly call our hanna, in the whole distance of 300 miles from the tide own, passing through the most inhabited and central water of Delaware to Lake Otsego, and only 18 miles parts of the state; in which we can have no rivals, if duly more in the much larger distance of 453} miles from the improved, and opening such numerous sources and same tide waters to Oswego on Lake Ontario. The channels of inland trade, all leading to the port of Philaexpense of this whole navigation, by the estimate annex- delphia, as perhaps no other nation or seaport on the ed, is only
whole globe can boast of. For the river Delaware
£2248 0 0 For, in the first place, if we turn our view to the imThe portage of 20 miles
400 0 0 mense territories connected with the Ohio and Mississip And the Tioga waters and portage about
pi waters, it will appear from the tables of distances But as the Tioga waters, and the communications from that our communication with those vast countries, thence to Lake Ontario lie within the state of N. York, (considering Fort Pitt as the port of entrance upon and it is probable that they will not be improved by that them) is as easy and may be rendered as cheap, as to state, unless it can be done with a view to draw the any other port on the Atlantic tide waters The distance trade of that country, by the Oneida Lake, Wood from Philadelphia to the Allegheny at the mouth of creek, &c. into Hudson's river; and even when that shall Kiskeminetas, is nearly the same, as from the mouth of happen, by a happy rivalship between the cities of Phi. Monongahelato Georgetown on the Potomac, and supposé ladelphia and New York, to draw the trade of those vast ing the computed distances from Pittsburg to the Duncountries to their respective ports; a great part of it will kard Bottom, to be just, and the navigation of Cheat come with more ease to the former than to the latter; and river on the one hand, and the Potomac at the mouth while the waters are left in their present unimproved of Savage river on the other, to be at all seasons of the state, every advantage is on the side of Pennsylvania, by year, equal to the navigation of the Kiskeminetas, Çomeans of the navigation down the Tioga, and then either nemaugh, and Juniata; yet as the portage from Dundown the Susquehanna to the mouth of the Swatara, kard Bottom to the Potomae at the mouth of the Savage and hence to Philadelphia by the waters of Swatara, river is 373 miles, and the portage from Conemaugh to Quitapahilla, Tulpehocken, and Schuylkill; or from Juniata is 18 miles (may be considerably shortened by the mouth of the Tioga up the Susquehanna to Great locks) there can be no doubt but that the transportation Bend, and thence by the portage to Stockport, and by of all kinds of goods and merchandize from Philadelphia the Delaware to Philadelphia. Taking Conedessago to Pittsburg, may be at a much cheaper rate than from Lake, as a central place of embarkation for the settlers any other seaport on the Atlantic waters. in the Genessee Country, the distance to the city of New This is not mentioned with a view to disparage the in: York, (see No. VII.) will be 435 miles, whereof 17 ternal, navigation of our sister states, more especially miles are land carriage; and the distance to Philadelphia Maryland and Virginia. We admire their noble exer. by the Delaware, (see No. II.) will be 331 miles; or by tions to improve the natural advantages of their country, Swatara and Schuylkill (Sec No. IX.) will be 401 miles and desire to imitate and to emulate them. Every im-or if the middle of the Genesee settlement, on the provement, and every new communication with the west Genessee river, be taken as the place of beginning, ern territories, promoted by any of the United States the distance to New York will be 487 miles, whereof* by which the trade of the lakes, the Ohio and the Mis17 miles are land carriage, (see No. VIII.) and the dis- sissippi waters, can be drawn to our sea ports, is a be. tance to Philadelphia 3654 miles, (see No. X.) whereof nefit to the whole union. By no other methods than by 38 miles are land carriage.
opening easy communications, both by good roads, and There is another route to Philadelphia from the Ge- safe water carriage, can the settlers in these vast westResee Country by the Conasteo branch of Tioga, a fine ern countries be made useful to the Atlantic states, and boatable stream, with only six miles portage, viz. comfortable in their own situation. Nor can we expect
Miles. by any other means than by inviting their trade, and From the middle of the Genesee settlement up making it their interest to be connected with us, that we the river to the portage
30 can long secure such connexion. The portage to the Conasteo
6 But although a considerable part of the settlers on the Down the Conasteo to the painted post, at its Ohio waters may be acommodated by the Potomac najunction with the main branch of Tioga
36 vigation, and the state of Pennsylvania may only have a Down Tioga to Newton
18 share in the'trade of these waters; yet there remains to
us the immense trade of the Lakes, taking Presque Isle,
90 which is within our own state, as the great mart or place Thence to the mouth of Tioga, and either down Sus- of embarkation. Here there can be no competition, in quehanna to Swatara, &c. or up Susquehanna to the respect to the distances or the eage of water carriage, Great Bend--the distances as above, to Philadelphia. between the port of Philadelphia and any other port on
Connected with the Delaware navigation, we beg the Atlantic tide waters, whichsoever of the three como. leave further to add, that above Stockport, the Mohawk munications between Presque Isle and Philadelphia, we
may choose to pursue. In this route to New York, there are the same port- of those three communications, it is of importance ages, viz. 17 miles, as in the other from Conedessága to choose the best in the first instance, and not to neLake, supposing Genesee river could be made naviga- glect the improvement of it; nor to entertain doubts ble, but it is doubtful whether it can be made useful in and delays, till the opportunity of receiving benefit froon navigation, having many falls, and one of them about 60 it be entirely lost, and the trade of those vast countrios feet.
drawn into other channels. VOL. II.
We shall speak first of the communication with immediate attention of the legislature. Among these Presque Isle, by the Chadaghque lake, the Conewango are the different portages mentioned in the respective river, part of Allegheny, the Sinnemahoning, Susque- water communications stated above; and, particularly, hanna, Swatara and Schuylkill (No. III.) which ap. that between Stockport on Delaware, and Harmony, at pears to be the shortest, being about five hundred and the Great Bend of Susquehanna, and between the mouth twenty-four miles and an half. The navigation of the of the Poplar Run on Juniata and the Canoe Place on Conewango and north branch of Sinnemahoning, ac- Conemaugh. Another most important road, as connectcording to the report of the commissioners, may be ed with the navigation scheme, will be from the highest made very good, and is, on that account, as well as the boatable waters of Yohiogeny, near the Turkey Foot, shortness of the distance, preferable to that by the way to the junction of the Ray's town branch of Jumata and of Toby's creek and the west branch of Sinnemahon. Dunning's creek near Bedford; or even to the mouth of ing. But a considerable part of this communication Poplar run on the Frankstown branch. By this road, all lies through the state of New York, in a yet unsettled the inhabitants of the upper parts of Washington and country; and although it leads, in the most direct way Fayette counties, and part of Bedford county, would to Presque Isle and the great lakes, it cannot be of any have access to the great water communication by the great use in the main communication with the Ohio and Juniata, or to the great state road from Bedford to PhiMississippi by the way of Pittsburg, which is the great ladelphia; avoiding the mountainous and circuitous course object of present consideration.
they are now obliged to pursue; and a great part of their The second route from Philadelphia to Presque Isle, trade, which would otherwise go to Potomac, would be by the west branch of Susquehanna, as connected with thereby secured to Pennsylvania. Swatara and Schuylkill, and by the Sinnemahoning and In this view, also, the state road, through Lancaster, Toby's creek, being five hundred and sixty miles and a Carlisle and Bedford to Pittsburg, is an object of priquarter (see No. IV.), passes indeed wholly through mary consideration, and may be undertaken without deour own state; but besides what has been already men. lay or injury to the plan of western navigation. This tioned concerning the waters of Toby's creek, compa- commonwealth, we are happy to believe, is now, in its red with the Conewango and Chadaghque lake, this na- resources, equal to the accomplishment of all necessary vigation could be of no farther use than the former, in improvement, both of roads and navigation. respect to the main communication with Pittsburg, as We would beg leave, before we conclude, to point the mouth of Toby's creek lies fifty miles higher on the out some other roads as worthy of attention, viz: Allegheny than the mouth of Kiskeminetas; and even 1. The road through Reading and Sunbury, and thence with respect to Presque Isle, the navigation from Phila- to be continued by the best and most practicable route delphia, by the way of Juniata and Kiskeminetas, is as to Presque Isle, or the lands on French creek. short as by the way of Toby's creek, the latter being II. The road through Bethlehem to the northern five hundred and sixty miles and three quarters, as men. boundary of the state, at some point between Delaware tioned above, and the former five hundred and sixty-one and the Great Bend of Susquehanna. miles and an half.
III. A road leading from Hudson's river, in the state Third, This third communication, then, is that which of New York, to be continued from Stockport on Delaembraces all present interests. It connects Philadelphia ware, across towards the west branch of Susquehanna, with Pittsburgh and all the Ohio waters, by the Schuyl- between Munsey and the Great Island, and to join the kill, the Swatara and Juniata branches of Susquehanna, road, mentioned above, as leading to French creek and and the Kiskeminetas branch of Allegheny, with the Presque Isle. distance of five hundred and sixty-one miles and an half But, in every view, we humbly conceive, that the lay(No. II.) and also Philadelphia and Presque Isle, using ing out and improving those roads ought not to interthe same waters, as above, to the mouth of Kiskemine- fere with, or delay the improvement of our inland navitas, and then by the easy waters of Allegheny and gation. The ease and cheapness of water carriage, comFrench creek. In this whole communication to Pitts- pared with every other, furnish sufficient arguments, on burg, there are only eighteen miles portage between the this subject, if there were none else. Juniata and Conemaugh (which may be considerably Tbe annexed comparative view, of the expenses of reduced as is said before) and only the addition of fif- both, is submitted to the consideration of the legislateen miles and an half more at the portage from Le Bauf ture, as a conclusion to this memorial. to Presque Isle, which portage is, likewise, included in Signed on behalf, and by order of the Society, both the other communications. In this statement of
ROBERT MORRIS, President. portages, it is supposed that the canal or lock naviga. Feb. 7th, 1791. tion between the heads of Tulpehocken and Quitipahilla, is to be completed; but if that work should bc Remarks and Calculations respecting the Communications thought too great to begin with, it will be only the ad
between Schuylkill and Susquehanna. dition of four miles portage, by an excellent and level In the present year 1790, by the best estimates that road.
can be obtained, ihe quantity of one hundred and fifty The navigation, by this route, we beg leave to re- I thousand bushels of grain has been brought down the commend to the legislature, as one of the first and Susquehanna, and passed through Middletown, on its greatest works which they can undertake for the honor way to Philadelphia market. Juniata has afforded a very and advantage of their country. It is a work within considerable part of this quantity; and here it must be their reach-a work in which not only the citizens of observed, that the lands on this river are but in an infant this state, but of the United States in general, are deep- state of cultivation, and suppose them to be ever so well ly interested. The expense, even including the canal, improved, the proportion they bear to the lands on the has been estimated, and doth not exceed the sum which other branches of the Susquehanna is not more than would be requisite to complete a good road of fifty or one-fifth part. sixty miles in some of the interior parts of the state, and In the year 1788, large quantities of wheat and flour which, after all, would only be of partial benefit, con were carried up the river for the use of the settlers in tributing but little to unite the remote parts of the same, Northumberland county: since last March, about thirty in one easy central chain of communication, with the thousand bushels of wheat returned down the stream to capital.
market from said county. It may also be reasonably exThe improvement of roads is, however, one great pected, that should an easy inland communication be efpart of the design of our association, and we mean to fected between the Susquehanna and the Schuylkil.. make it our endeavour to bring forward and to encou. the whole produce of Cumberland, and part of York rage useful plans for this purpose. Some roads, as con- county, would cross the Susquehanna to the PhiladelTiected with the plan of inland navigation, require the lphia market. From these principles it is evident, that
there will be an annual increase of the country produce Carriage by land in eight years, £368,935 that will descend the Susquehanna, although, from so
220,561 short an experience, certainty in our estimates cannot be expected; but, in order to reduce the subject more to
Balance, £148,374 view, let the annual increase be put at one eig:ith, which A number of observations naturally present them. I expect will be allowed, on all hands, to be guarded by selves as consequences of this water communication: moderation and justified by strong probability. First, The difference between the carriage by land and
I said one hundred and fifty thousand bushels of grain that by water, during the aforesaid period, is one hunare allowed to have passed to Middletown in the present dred and forty eight thousand three hundred and seventy year, which, augmented by an annual increase of one- four pounds, which will be a clear gain to the country, eighth, will, in 1793, amount to two hundred and six and the stock now vested in horses, wagons, &c. coulí thousand two hundred and fifty bushels, which, at two be employed to other useful purposes; the so general shillings and six pence per bushel, (the carriage, on the use of horses might be abated and oxen used in their present principles, to the Philadelphia market) amounts stead by the farmers, whose principal reason for giving to twenty five thousand seven hundred and eighty one so decided a preference to horses is their being suppopounds, five shillings; then, ky adding one eighth, the sed better for draught on the roads: more general use annual increase, it will stand thus:
of oxen would not only be attended with immediate
profit to the husbandman, but would tend to increase £25,781 5 O for the year 1793
the article of beef as an export. The lands in the old 28,125 0
counties, below the mountains, are known to have aba30,468 15
ted in that virgin fertility which attends all new cultiva. 32,812 100
tion; they must now be manured. Added to this, the 35,156 50
population is increasing very rapidly; the operation of 37,500 0 0
these causes, in a few years more, will make the con39,843 15 0
sumption equal to the produce in the old counties. If 42,187 100..
the staple of the port of Philadelphia is to be support. £271,875 0 0 Whole amount of carriage. commerce, in the article of grain, from the Susquehanna
ed, it can be best done by conducting the streams of
(to market. to this city. The above mentioned quantity of grain is equal to The late information obtained from the commissionfive thousand five hundred and twenty four tons and a
ers who have viewed the communications with the Allekalf; and suppose one third of the weight is carried gheny and Lake Erie, make it highly probable, that an back, in salt, liquors and other merchandize, at five immense trade will one day be carried on from Philashillings per hundred or five pounds per ton, there will delphia with the great lakes and fur countries, and with be one thousand eight hundred and forty-two tons, with the settlements on the Ohio, &c. The proposed com. an annual increase of one hundred and sixty-seven tons. munication between Schuylkill and Susquehanna, will It will then stand thus:
serve as a basis to this traffic, whether the route be by £9,210 0 0 for the year 1793
the Juniata or the other branches of the Susquehanna. 10,045 0 0 ....1794
The Expense attending the transportation of two hundred 10,880 0 0
and six thousand two hundred and fifty bushels of 11,715 0 0 ...1796
grain to market.
The above quantity of grain is equal to five thousand 14,220 00
five hundred and twenty-four tons and an half, and, a
...1799 15,055 0 0
boat to carry six tons, will be equal to nine hundred and
twenty one boat loads, and each boat to pass and repass £97,060 0 0 Whole amount of back car
eight times, annually, it will take one hundred and fif(riage in eight years.
teen boats to transport the quantity above mentioned in
a season;—the expense of hands and provisions attendThe whole amount of carriage to and from Middle ing each load will be fifteen pounds-consequently, nine town in eight years:
hundred and twenty-one loads will cost thirteenthouTo Philadelphia, £271,875
sand eight hundred and fifteen pounds, and the annual To Middletown, 97,060
increase of expenses for an additional number of boats,
hands, &c. to transport the increase of produce, will be £368,935
one thousand five hundred and twenty thousand pounds
a year, and then it will stand thus:Suppose the quantities before mentioned to be car- For the year 1793 £13,815 0 0 ried by water, the wheat at one shilling and sixpence per
1794 15,335 0 0 bushel, and the back loads at three shillings per hun.
1795 16,855 0 0 dred or three pounds per ton, it will then stand thus:
18,375 0 0 1797
19,895 0 0 20 this Market, From this Market,
1798 21,415 0 0 £15,468 15 0 for 1793 £5,426 0 0
1799 22,935 00 16,875 00 1794 5,927 00
1800 24,455 0 0 18,281 50
1795 6,428 0 0 19,687 10 0 1796 6,929 0 0
£153,080 0 0 The whole ex, 21,093 15 0
1797 7,430 0 0 pense of carriage, and for seventy seven additional boats, 22,500 00
1798 7,931 0 0 some of which will be seven-eighths worn, and so on to 23,906 50
1799 8,432 0 0 one eighth, allowing a boat to last eight years. 25,312 10 O 1800 8,993 0 0 Amount of carriage by water in 8 years, £220,561 Expense attending the same,
158,080 £163,125 0 0 £57,436 0 0
Balance, £67,481 57,436 0 0
It is supposed, by these calculations, that the boats £220,561 0 0 Whole amount of carriage by water. for the beginning of the carriage, will be taken in the
estimate with the cana),