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cess, in this respect, will be obvious, from the high price difficulties of rendering this river navigable are great; that has been obtained. Considering, indeed, that the and some objections, in point of policy, might be urged authority to dispose of stock, was intended merely as against the principle of the undertaking. But the coman auxiliary to our specie funds, and desiring, as far as bined strength and opulence of the states that are immepossible, to avoid the climinution of a productive capital, diately interested, would undoubtedly be competent to i have thought it expedient to charge as many objects overcome the former; and the effect of the measures upon the money actually in the treasury, as was consist- which have been taken, and which might be taken, to ent with the regard which the law prescribes for pre- preserve the balance of improvements in favour of Pennvious appropriations. Under these considerations, there- sylvania, would, perhaps, sufficiently remove the latter. fore, you will find, that the quantity of deferred stock The equal accommodation of our constituents, however, which has been sold, amounts to one hundred and seven- and the advancement of every part of the state to the iy-nine thousand five hundred and thirty dollars; that enjoyment of the greatest advantage to which it is sus

the quantity of three per cent. stock which has been ceptible, are duties that will entitle this subject to your *sold, amounts to three hundred and four thousand five consideration; and I am inclined to believe, that whenhundred dollars; that the proceeds of the sales of both ever you shall deem it proper to enter into a negociaamount to one hundred and sixteen thousand one hun- tion, the states of Maryland and Delaware will not hesidred and sixty-nine pounds seventeen shillings and two- tate to sacrifice some local interests, in order to accompence; and that this sum is to be applied to the payment plish that extensive plan of public convenience, which of all the interest due, or which must become due, on contemplates a new avenue to the ocean, and the union the first day of January next, upon the funded and de- of the bays of Chesapeake and Delaware. preciation debt; to the payment of the arrears of inter- Should the magnitude of the work, however, and the est on the new loan debt; and to the repayment of the natural or political obstacles which are suggested, enloan of sixty thousand pounds, which was borrowed from force a temporary suspension, we may, nevertheless, the Bank of North America." To relieve the state from view the opening and clearing of the Susquehanna, the accumulation of interest, to redeem the valuable from its northern entrance into Pennsylvania, as far at property that was pledged as a collateral security to the least as Wright's ferry, not only with respect to the be bank, and to employ the favourable opportunity pre- nefits which the circumjacent country will immediately sented by the advanced price of stock, were the induce experience, but with respect to the resulting influence ments for anticipating the period, which the terms of in rendering more easy, and more desirable, the ultithe contract allowed, for liquidating the last of these mate point of improvement in the navigation of the riengagements.

I regret, therefore, that satisfactory overtures The improvement of our roads and inland navigation, have not hitherto been made for executing this part of will, I am persuaded, continue to be a favourite object the plan, upon the terms proposed in the act of Assemwith the legislature: I have, indeed, received such ac- bly; and as its practicability cannot be doubted, allow counts from the Agents of Information (whose report me to refer it to your discretion to determine, whether will be laid before you) and through various other chan- the disappointment has not arisen from the insufficiency nels, respecting the progress in executing the contracts of the sum appropriated, and, consequently, whether a which have been formed, as promise full compensation more adequate provision ought not to be made. for the expense that has been incurred, and afford am. While I offer these remarks, I am aware, gentlemen, ple encouragement for future enterprises of a similar that the want of a good and permanent road is, at prenature. In addition to the contracts that were mention-sent, the principal defect in the communication between ed in a former address, I have concluded others for open the middle counties and the metropolis. The steps ing and improving a road leading from Harrisburg, thro' which are taking, however, in pursuance of the legislathe Narrows, at the end of the Kittatiny mountain and tive resolution of the 30th day of September last, to rePeter's mountain, and thence the nearest and best course medy this inconveniency, have met with universal approto the place where it will intersect the road leading from bation; and, I hope, the commissioners who were apHarrisburg to Sunbury, at or near Halifax; for opening pointed to make the proper surveys between Philadeland improving a road leading from Stockport, on the phia and Lancaster, will enable me, previously to the river Delaware, to Harmony, at the Great Bend of the adjournment of the session, to lay a plan before you, river Susquehanna; for improving the navigation of the which, corresponding in its execution with your views river Juniata from its mouth to Water street, and thence and the wishes of our fellow citizens, may lead to the to Frankstown; and for opening and improving a road establishment of a general system of well constructed and from Yorktown to Cooper's-ferry. I shall take this op well regulated roads. You must readily perceive, in portunity of transmitting the report of Agents of Infor- deed, that it will be in vain either to open roads, or to mation, who, having recently explored the Juniata and clear rivers, without a vigilant attention to keep the forConemaugh, and surveyed the roads corresponding with mer in repair, and to prevent encroachments upon the those rivers, recommend that a deviation should be made latter: And the existing laws being extremely inadein that quarter from the plan which is prescribed in the quate to these essential purposes, you will, I am confiact of assembly, upon principles that certainly merits a dent, revise and amend them, with all the diligence and serious consideration. If their opinion is sanctioned by energy, which the occasion shall be thought to require. your approbation, the proposed roads to Pittsburg, to Among the many considerations that will occur in the Poplar Run, and to the Little Conemaugh, being blend course of the investigation thus introduced, the circumed and formed into one great road, leading from Frank-stances of our inland trade, will probably suggest the town to Pittsburg, the projected canal between the Qui- idea of making a reasonable compensation to the holders tapahilla and Tulpehoccon being opened, and a few ea- of certain ferries on the Susquehanna and other rivers, sy' portages established in proper situations, a certain in order to give a free passage to wagons transporting foundation will be laid for connecting the western wa- produce to the

market, and returning with the merchan. ters of the Ohio and the great lakes with the eastern dize of Philadelphia. This, it has been conceived, streams, flowing into the Atlantic, particularly with the would be the means of preventing the trade of several tide-waters of the Delaware, in the neighbourhood of counties from centering in other states, as experience Philadelphia.

has shown, that when the Susquehanna is frozen over, But, gentlemen, while we trace the progress of this many western farmers convey their produce to this city, communication, with a just estimate of its importance, which, in other seasons, they dispose of in Maryland. permit me to advert to another object, which, in the Some latitudc should, likewise, be allowed, in laying impartial exercise of the powers of government, ought out the roads that are described in the late act of assemnot to be forgotten-I mean the navigation of the lower bly; and such of them as may remain incomplete, should, waters of the Susquehanna. It is true, that the natural perhaps, be made subject to the same jurisdiction and

regulations as are established in the case of county roads. stacles to the completion of the contract for the Lako

Under the authority of an act of Assembly, I have ob- Erie purchase are removed; the comptroller of tho trestained a loan of twenty thousand pounds from the Bank sury of the United States, and the comptroller general of North America, upon a mortgage of the revenues of Pennsylvania, having concurred in stating the amount arising from vendues, in order to repay the money ex- of the consideration money to be one hundred and fiftypended by the corporation of the city, and the commis- one thousand, six hundred and forty dollars and twentysioners of the county of Philadelphia, for the accommo- five cents, and the medium of payment to be loan-office dation of Congress; and to provide a suitable dwelling certificates of the United States, at their specie value for the President of the United States. The first part reduced by the continental scale of depreciation; cerof this appropriation, amounting to two thousand nine tificates of final settlements issued by the commissionhundred and one pounds nine shillings and four-pence, ers of the states, or departments; or certificates comand the price of the lot of ground (which has been ob- monly called registered deht, with the interest which Cained on the west side of Ninth street, between Market may be due upon them until the tenth day of June 1791. and Chesnut streets) amounting to five thousand four The necessary sum, in public securities of these various hundred and ninety-one pounds; there only remains the descriptions, is prepared at the treasury, and will be de sum of eleven thousand six hundred and seven pounds livered as soon as the mode of conveyance (which I ten shillings and eight-pence, to purchase the materials have referred to the consideration of the attorney-gene and complete the structure of the building. As soon as ral) shall be settled. From some doubts, indeed, that an eligible plan can be procured, and a satisfactory esti- have been entertained, whether there exists in any offimate of the expense can be formed, I will lay them becer of the federal government, a competent authority to fore you; and you may be assured, gentlemen, that I will execute an instrument of this nature, it may eventually endeavour, with the strictest economy and diligence, to be necessary to call in the aid of congress; but, as the do all the justice to the hospitable intention of the legis- terms of the contract have received a definitive con. lature, which the limitation of the fund will permit. struction, it will not, I presume, occasion much delay, to

In discharging other duties that were assigned to me designate the mere formalities of transfer. by laws passed at the last session of the general assem- In leading your attention, gentlemen, to those objects bly, I have appointed one set of commissioners to lay which are particularly interesting to the public welfare, out a town at the mouth of Beayer creek, and another the election of a senator, to represent the commonwealth set to run the boundary line between the counties of in the senate of the United States; appears first in order Mifflin and Huntingdon. The former have not yet had and importance. During the present session of the fetime to execute their trust; and the latter have found so deral legislature, the ratio of representation, in the po. much difficulty in ascertaining the point of departure pular branch of the government, will be fixed for the intended by the act, that they have made a special re-ensuing period of ten years; our commercial intercourse port (which will be communicated for your information) with foreign nations will probably be settled on a new suggesting that a straight line from the Water-gap in basis; and there is great reason to expect, that a system Tuscarora to the Blue Rock on Juniata, is the only course for establishing and regulating the militia

of the United that can give satisfaction; and this they accordingly re- States will be introduced and adopted. The jurisdiction commend to be expressly sanctioned by the legislature. of congress cannot, I think, be exercised upon subjects It may be proper to observe, that an early decision on more critical in their origin, or mcie extensive in their the subject is requisite to preserve peace and order: but, operation; on which a greater civersity of opinion is at the same time, I am happy to add, that the disturban- likely to arise; or in the decision of which a free people ces, which had arisen from another cause in the county ought to be more anxious to give the full expression of of Mifflin, have entirely subsided; and I have received their feelings and their sentiments. Recollecting, thereinformation, that the principal rioters have given the fore, the weight of one member in the small body of the best evidence of their contrition, by readily submitting senate, you will excuse me if I am solicitous, that conto those measures, which it was thought necessary to siderations respecting the magnitude of the end should pursue, in order to vindicate the dignity and energy of suppress every doubt and reconcile every variance 'res the government.

pecting the forms of the proceeding; so that PennsylIn obedience to the directions of the legislature, I en-vania may, at this juncture, enjoy the whole force of her tered into a contract with the commissioners of the city, legitimate influence in the councils of the Union.. To by which they engaged, at a reasonable rate, to pave you, gentlemen, no argument can be offered, which a the foot way of the state house square, from Chesnut to sense of public duty, and an ardent attachment to the Walnut street, in Fifth street; and the undertaking being honour and prosperity of your country, will not sponexecuted, I have paid the consideration money by å taneously suggest: You feel, and I am confident you warrant upon the treasurer, for the sum of one hundred will act, as becomes the importance of the occasion; and, and fifty-thrce pounds fifteen shillings and eleven-pence. under this impression, I cheerfully dismiss the subject The forms prescribed in the law, respecting an indemni- with informing you, that, by the returns from the sevety for those lots of the donation land, which have been ral districts, it appears, that Thomas Fitsimons, Fred'k found to lie within the jurisdiction of New York, have, Augustus Muhlenberg, Thomas Hartley, Daniel Heister, likewise, been pursued; but as it is probable that many Israel Jacobs, John Wilkes Kittera, Andrew Gregg and of the claimants were too remote to receive an account William Findley, are duly elected representatives of of the arrangement, in season to take advantage of it, this state in the house of representatives of the United (some of them being actually employed in the western States, for the next term of two years. army of the United States) and as, in fact, from a mis- If the supplement to the judiciary bill, which was par construction of the law, none of them appeared on the ticularly recommended to your consideration by the late proper day to draw their lots, you will, no doubt, per- house of representatives, should introduce an enquiry ceive the propriety of extending the time for presenting into the general state of the department, you will find, these claims, as well as for deciding the priority in chus- that, although the foundation is admirably laid, som ing an equivalent: and it will be expedient to announce additions are necessary to complete the strength and your indulgence, in these respects, as soon as possible. beauty of the superstructure. Besides pursuing the

The commissioner for stating the claims of this state objects of the supplementary bill, to which I have adagainst the United States reports to me, that, although verted, the enlargement of the equitable powers of our nothing has yet appeared to warrant a material change courts of law seems to be expedient; not only as it of the opinion, which was formerly expressed upon the would promote the ordinary administration of justice, probable result of the settlement of those claims, con- but as the means of placing the scene of domestic liti. siderable progress has been made in arranging and stat- tation upon an equal footing with controversies arising ing the accounts

: and, I trust that at length all the ob. I between the citizens of Pennsylvania and the citizens VOL. II.


other states, or foreigners, which, giving immediate ju the public money; and with the latter kind may be risdiction to the federal courts, may be conducted by classed, the settlement of the accounts of the commonrules less rigid, and decided upon principles more libe- wealth at different places, and by different persons; and, ral. I have, on a former occasion, observed, that the generally speaking, all the consequences of an undilaws, respecting bankruptcy, are, likewise, defective in gested distribution of duties between the Comptroller. several points; and I cannot avoid repeating, that the General and Register-General. want of an appeal from the mere doubt of the commis- As I am, persuaded, gentlemen, that this subject will sioners (which doubt is all the act requires to justify the soon engage your attention, I am induced to add a few refusal of a certificate) may hereafter be the source of hints, from the statement which the officers have preextreme oppression, and apparently, indeed, militates sented to me, in order to facilitate your investigation, against the constitutional right of trial by jury. What. It would, I think, be a radical improvement in the de ever may be the objections, therefore, to the introduc-partment, if all the accounts which are rendered and tion of a system of bankrupt laws, I am persuaded, that, settled were deposited in one office, and the books of when introduced, you will think it proper in this, as well entry in the other. This separation would not only add as in every other respect, while you guard against frau- to the security of the public documents, as, in case of dulent practices, to protect and countenance the honest, accidental destruction of the accounts, the books might though unfortunate, trader. In reviewing

the laws for remain; but it would likewise enable each officer, from the relief of insolvent debtors, and those which regulate the materials in his own possession, to collect and furattachments, many opportunities of making amend- nish, upon all occasions, the necessary information; and ments will occur; and a provision in the act respecting a chain of connexion often blending public transactions, juries, which shall, on the one hand, render à fairer each would have it in his power, without difficulty or compensation for the juror's service, and, on the other delay, to unravel and check the accounts under examihand, impose a heavier fine on his neglect or refusal to nation, by comparing them with the corresponding perform it

, would, in effect, diminish the burthen of this vouchers. Several advantages, likewise, concur to jus. indispensable duty, by giving certainty and despatch to tify a proposal, that books should be opened in the Rethe business of our courts. I will only further remind gister's office, in which accounts shall be kept with such you, as matter for deliberation naturally connected with of the public creditors, as may choose to give op the the subject, that the institution of a general fee bill, and certificates which they at present hold, for others in all the declaration of the forms, in which actions may be respects similar, except that the new certificates shall brought and prosecuted against the commonwealth, will not be transferable, although the debts, of which they be considerably useful in discharging the various offices are the evidences, may still be assigned, in the same of government: And, while I refer you to a report from manner, and with the same effect, as the debt of the U. the inspectors of the prison of Philadelphia, for a pleas- States. This measure would prevent the necessity of ing proof of the salutary consequences which the re- cutting up eertificatates to accommodate purchasers at formation of the penal code has produced, I am per- the Land office; it would be convenient to the indivisuaded you will pay a proper attention to the opinion dual creditor, by enabling him to divide his claim into any that the Board has expressed, upon the expediency of sums that his wants might require; rendering the proabolishing what are termed the jail fees.

perty more safe from fire and other accidents; it would In the executive departments some points will like relieve the legislature from frequent applications for the wise claim your regard. Since the establishment of the renewal of lost certificates; and, if it had not the effect present constitution, temporary laws have been passed of immediately appreciating the state debt, it would, at to transfer, in the aggregate, all the powers of the late least, render all the business respecting it more uniform Supreme Executive Council to the Governor of the and stable. commonwealth: but, as many of those powers could be A provision for cancelling those certificates of the more conveniently, and more advantageously, exercised state debt, which, being redeemed, are deposited in the in other offices, I should be happy, if an opportunity possession of the Comptroller-General are directed to be occurs, to see them analysed and properly distributed. cancelled, would, I believe be useful; and it might, For the incidental and contingent expenses of the de- perhaps, with propriety, be extended to such certifipartment, I conceive that a general provision should be cates as shall in future be paid to the Receiver-General made, in order to meet the section of the Constitution of the Land Office, allowing that officer to produce an which declares, that no money shall be drawn from the authenticated document of the amount, which may from treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by time to time be cancelled, as a voucher in the settlement law; and, if a permanent authority were given to super- of his accounts. In addition to these regulations, I am intend the publication of the Acts of Assembly, that bu- prompted by a desire of preserving uniformity in pece siness would be facilitated, and the information of your niary transactions and statements, as well as by the proceedings with greater expedition communicated to greater conveniency of the method which has been our constituents. You will indulge me, gentlemen, in adopted at the Treasury of the Union, and at the several adding one wish of a more personal nature, that, as far Banks, to recommend that the Legislature should preas your conveniency will permit, bills may be delivered scribe a period, after which all accounts between the for the consideration of the executive, some time before state and her officers shall be kept in dollars and cents the day fixed for the adjournment of the legislature: For, You will receive by the Secretary, gentlemen, a copy hitherto most of the laws have been transmitted at so of the joint report which the Comptroller-General, the late a period of the session, that there was hardly time Register-General, and the Treasurer, have made upon to peruse them, much less to deliberate on their con- the state of the finances of the commonwealth; intro tents.

duced by a recapitulation of the receipts and expend. The improved state of our finances, the rapid progress tures of the last year; and particular representations of that has been made in the settlement and liquidation of the receipts and payments in the bills of credit of March ald transactions and engagements, and the consequent 1785, in the state money and in the dollar money, to decrease of business in the respective offices, must ren- gether with a view of the real estate of the commos der this period favourable for reviewing and reforming wealth; of the situation of the fund appropriated for the the department of accounts. The present system is, improvement of roads and navigable waters; and of the indeed, defective even in its foundation; in some in- operation of the sinking fund, during the same period. stances furnishing no adequate check; and, in others, The estimate of the productive revenues for the current producing confusion and embarrassment by the compli

. year, amounts to seventy-one thousand three hundred cation of its forms of the former kind, is that provi- and twenty-three pounds three shillings and eight sion, by which the Treasurer is authorised to settle the pence; and the various demands for the public service, nocounts of the revenue officers, from whom he receives I will require a sum of sixty-seven thousand three hur: dred and seventy-two pounds. But, gentlemen, it will expediency of raising a small contribution from the es. be prudent always to remember, that although the ar- tates of our constituents, in aid of the general revenues rearages of taxes on the present, as on every former of the commonwealth. By this measure, seasonably occasion, constitute a considerable item in the calcula- adopted, you will prevent the inconveniency of impostion of our resources, yet, as the extent of the exonera ing taxes upon every occasion; which must, otherwise, tions, which have been sanctioned by law, has not been as I have observed, unavoidably take place, when our completely ascertained, and as the difficulty of colleetion property in the funds of the Union shall be exhausted; naturally increases with the delay, our expectations on and if such a contribution were expressly and exclusivethis ground have been, and, probably will continue to ly applied to the support of government, the expense of be, greatly disappointed.

the administration of public affairs, being always known The property which the state possesses in the stock and felt by the people, would excite that vigilance of the United States, will require, and merits, particular which is the best preservative of a free and republican attention. It appears from the report, to which I have constiiution. just referred, that the subscription of the state debt to In addition to the ordinary objects of revenue, permit the funding system amounts at this time to two hundred me to remind you, that no fund is appropriated to pay and fifty-two thousand six hundred and ninety-seven the promised interest, on that part of the funded and depounds fourteen shillings and a penny; but the propor-preciation debt, which is assumable, but not subscribed tion of the assumed debt, allotted to Pennsylvania, to the loan proposed by Congress; and the faith of the being two million two hundred thousand dollars, she state being pledged to redeem, in the course of the next will be entitled to receive an annual surplus of interest, year, the bills of credit, which were issued in the year equal to the sum of twenty thousand nine hundred and 1785, you will be pleased to consider, whether, for that eighty-four pounds eight shillings and five pence. This purpose, some special step ought not to be taken at however, is subject to a deduction for the interest that this session, as well as for destroying the sum which is the state has engaged to pay to the subscribers in order now accumulated at the treasury. I shall also be under to make up the rate of six per cent upon their respec- the necessity of requesting the aid of a supplementary tive claims; to an allowance for that part of the state appropriation, to discharge the expenses which have debt which was assumable, and is not subscribed; and to been recently incurred for the defence of the frontiers. a charge for that part which shall be deemed not to be As the lieutenant of the county of Allegheney, however, within the assumption. The product of the subscrip- has not yet made his return upon the subject, I am unation which was made immediately on behalf of the com- ble to furnish an accurate statement of the deficiency; monwealth before the loan was closed, amounts in six but an account of the sums, that have been disbursed, per cent. stock to the sum of two hundred and seventy- will be laid before you. eight thousand and forty-nine pounds eighteen shillings and four pence; in the three per cent. stock to the sum

Gentlemen of the Senate, and of the

House of Representatires. of five hundred and fifty-seven thousand five hundred and sixty-eight pounds fifteen shillings and two pence; Among the records of thc General Assembly you will and in the deferred stock to the sum of one hundred find a variety of papers, which point out the necessity and thirty-nine thousand and twenty-four pounds nine- of establishing a more effectual mode to enforce the colteen shillings and a penny. But the first article being lection of the arrearages of taxes; and there are diffi. allotted to discharge the proprietary claim, affords an culties in carrying certain assessments into effect, for unappropriated balance of only forty-two thousand six the removal of which the assistance of the Legislature hundred and twenty-seven pounds sixteen shillings and has already been requested. Some regulations for five pence; the second article, being liable to various rendering the revenue, arising from the several kinds of demands, leaves a balance of foar hundred and fifty-five licenses, more productive and more equal, seem to be thousand four hundred and thirty-six pounds nineteen necessary; and it may be proper to renew the provisions shillings and two pence; and in the third article, after which were formerly made for disposing of the barracks deducting the recent sales to pay the interest on the in the borough of Lancaster, and to authorise further profunded and depreciation debt, the state is still entitled ceedings with respect to the forfeited, or unsold, part to the suón of ninety-seven thousand nine hundred and of the barrack.ground in the neighbourhood of Phila. fifty-one pounds four shillings and a penny.

delphia. An act for the inspection of gunpowder, and The fund arising from the aggregate of these credits, some improvements in the institution of the Health Ofhas, gentlemen, been hitherto properly employed in fice, will be suggested, as well by the documents which discharging the debts of the commonwealth: but I am de- have formerly been transmitted, as by those which I sirous that you should now take it into serious conside- shall direct to be presented to you; and, you will please ration, whether, if the public honour does not require, to observe, that the appropriation for defraying the exthe public interest will permit any further diminution of penses of the wardens of the port, extending no farther the capital. The many other sources from which sup- than October last, your interposition will again be replies may be advantageously drawn for the support of quired in behalf of the board. You will deem it proper, government, will leave even the interest disengaged for perhaps, during your present session, to prescribe the purposes of public enterprise and utility: And when we manner of making the enumeration of the taxable inhareflect, that a similar opportunity of accumulating wealth bitants of the state, agreeably to the fourth section of the will never probably occur; or that , when this is expend- first article of the

Constitution; and the bill to authorise ed, all the public wants and exigencies must be satisfied the sale of the public islands, having been published by and relieved by a direct and constant pressure of taxa-order of the preceding House of Representatives, will tion on the people, you will, I am persuaded, agree now, I presume, be passed into a law. with me, that in future every act which trespasses upon The limitations of several acts of Assembly will likethe principal of the stock, ought to be the result of ma- wise claim your attention, previous to an adjournment. ture deliberation.

The act transferring the powers of the late Supreme Gentlemen of the House of Representatives.

Executive Council to the Governor, and the act for in. The sentiment which I have just advanced, applies stituting the Board of Property, will expire with the particularly to your jurisdiction in matters of finance. I present session. The suspension of the act for the inam confident that you will make an ample provision, in spection of shingles, and the law to enable aliens to purthe most eligible manner, to defray the necessary ex-chase and hold real estates within this commonwealth, penses of the government, and to preserve the honour- will terminate on the first day of January 1792; the ble system that has been introduced for discharging our continuance of the provision for regulating the exportapublic engagements. But while you are doing this, I tion of pot-ash, and pearl-ash, is limited to the twentyhink it my duty to submit to your consideration, the second day of February; the necessity of obtaining a license for the exhibition of theatrical amusements, will detached under General Thompson into Canada. In the Lease on the second day of March; and the time allowed defeat which followed, in which General Thompson was for patenting lands, which were located before the de- made a prisoner, Colonel Wayne, though wounded disclaration of independence, will elapse on the tenth day played great gallantry and good conduct in collecting of April in the same year.

and bringing off, the scattered and broker bodies of It affords me great satisfaction, gentlemen, to be able troops, to close these communications, in mentioning, that, upon In the campaign of 1776 he served under General the report of the commissioners appointed by law, Gates at Ticonderoga, and was highly esteemed by that which report states, that the subscriptions to the capital officer for both his bravery and skill as an engineer. At stock, for opening the canal between the creeks of Qui- the close of that campaign he was created a Brigadier. tapabilla and Tulpehoccon, exceeds five hundred General. shares, a patent of incorporation has been granted to At the battle of Brandywine he behaved with his usual the subscribers; and by informing you, that the union of bravery, and for a long time opposed the progress of the the College of Philadelphia and the University of Penn-enemy at Chad's Ford. In this action the inferiority of sylvania has been effected, according to the provisions the Americans in numbers, discipline, and arms, gave of the act of Assembly, From the great encouragement them little chance of success; but the peculiar situation which has been given to the undertaking, the most flat. of the public mind was supposed to require a battle to tering presage of success, in establishing the canal, may be risked; the ground was bravely disputed, and the acbe drawn, and the institution of the associated semina- tion was not considered as decisive. The spirits of the ries of learning, upon a foundation so enlarged and so troo were preserved by a belief that the loss of the enlightened, must, under your auspices, prove an ho enemy had equalled their own. As it was the intention nour to the state, and a blessing to inankind.

of the American commander in chief to hazard another THOMAS MIFFLIN. action on the first favourable opportunity that should Philadetphia, December 9, 1791:

offer, General Wayne was detached with his division, to harass the enemy by every means in his power. The

British troops were encamped at Tryduffin, and General A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Wayne was stationed about three miles in the rear of OF THE LATE MAJOR GENERAL ANTHONY WAYNE. their left wing, near the Paoli tavern, and from the pre

cautions he had taken, he considered himself secure; but Fashioned much to honour from his cradle,

about eleven o'clock, on the night of the 17th SeptemHe was a soldier, and a ripe and good one;

ber, Major General Gray, having driven in his pickets, Exceeding wise, fair spoken, and persuading;

suddenly attacked him with fixed bayonets. Wayne, Lofty and sour to those that loved him not; But to those men that sought him sweet as summer.

unable to withstand the superior number of his assailants, Heard ye him talk of Commonwealths,

was obliged to retreat; but formed again at a small disa You'd say it had been all in all his study;

tance, having lost one hundred and fifty killed and List his discourse of war, and you would hear

wounded. As blame was attached, by some of the offiA fearful battle rendered you in music.

cers of the army, to General Wayne, for allowing himself

to be surprised in this manner, he demanded a court Now to his ashes honour!--Peace be with him!

martial, which, after examining the necessary evidence, And choirs of angels sing him to his rest.

declared that he had done every thing to be expected SÆAKSPEARE.

from an active, brave, and vigilant officer; and acquitted

him with honour. General Anthony Wayne occupies a conspicuous sta- Shortly after was fought the battle of Germantown, in tion among the heroes and patriots of the American Re- which he greatly signalized himself by his spirlted manvolution. That eventful epoch was calculated to call ner of leading his men into action. into exertion the talents and virtues of our citizens, and In all councils of war, General Wayne was distinguishthe page of history can offer to our view, no country in ed for supporting the most energetic and decisive meathe maturity of its age, with which the infancy of onr sures. In the one previous to the battle of Monmouth, own may not be proudly compared. Never has a war he and General Cadwalader were the only officers debeen conducted with such purity of intention, such in- cidedly in favour of attacking the British army. The tegrity of principle, as the one which separated the American officers are said to have been influenced by United States from the British Empire; and while these the opinions of the Europeans. The Baron de Steuben, principles remain with us, while America continues and Generals Lee and De Portail, whose military skill true to herself, resting on the favour of that Providence was in high estimation, bad warmly opposed an engagewhich led her through the dangerous ordeal, she may ment, as too hazardous. But General Washington, whose confidently bid defiance to the arts, and to the arms of opinion was in favour of an engagement, made such disthe old world.

positions as would be most likely to lead to it. In that Anthony Wayne was borne in the year 1745, in Ches action, so honourable to the American arms, General ter County, in the State, then the Colony, of Pennsylva. Wayne was conspicuous in the ardor of his attack. Ge. nia. His father, who was a respectable farmer, was neral Washington, in his letter to Congress, observes, many years a representative for the County of Chester “Were I to conclude my account of this day's transacin the General Assembly, before the revolution. His tions without expressing my obligations to the officer grandfather, who was distinguished for his attachment to of the army in general, I should do injustice to their the principles of liberty, bore a captain's commission merit, and violence to my own feelings.' They seemed under King William at the battle of Boyne. Anthony to vie with each other'in manifesting their zeal and Wayne succeeded his father as a representative for the bravery. The catalogue of those who distinguished County of Chester, in the year 1773; and from his first themselves is too long to admit of particularizing indiappearance in public life, distinguished himself as a firm viduals. I cannot, however, forbear mentioning Brigaand decided patriot. He opposed with much ability the dier-General Wayne, whose good conduct and bravcry, unjust demands of the mother country, and in connexion throughout the whole action deserves particular conwith some gentlemen of distinguished talents, was of mendation.” material service in preparing the way for the firm and In July 1779, the American commander in chief har. decisive part which Pennsylvenią took in the general ing conceived a design of attacking the strong post of contest.

Stony Point, committed the charge of this enterprize to In 1775 he was appointed to the command of a regi- General Wayne. The garrison was composed of six ment, which lfis character enabled him to raise in a few hundred men, principally highlanders, commanded by weeks in his native connty. In the same year he wa Lieutenant Colonel Johngon. Stony Point is a consider

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