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GIBBON. In the second century of the Christian æra the empire of Rome comprehended the fairest part of the earth, and the most civilized portion of mankind. The frontiers of that extensive monarchy were guarded by ancient renown and disciplined valour. The gentle but powerful influence of luws and manners had gradually cemented the union of the provinces. Their peaceful inhabitants enjoyed and abused the advantages of wealth and luxury. The image of a free constitution was preserved with decent reverence.

Johnson. Of genius, that power which constitutes a poet ; that quality without which judgment is cold and knowledge is inert ; that energy which collects, combines, amplifies, and animates ; the superiority must, with some hesitation, be allowed to Dryden. It is not to be inferred that of this poetical vigour Pope had only a little, because Dryden had more; for every other writer since Milton must give place to Pope: and even of Dryden it must be said, that if he has brighter paragraphs, he has not better poems.

From the preceding instances we may form an idea of the power of the Saxon language; but by no means a just idea ; for we must not conclude that the words which are not Saxon could not be supplied by Saxon words. On the contrary, Saxon terms might be substituted for almost all the words not marked as Saxon.

To impress this sufficiently on the mind of the reader, it will be necessary to shew how much of our ancient language we have laid aside, and have suffered to become obsolete; because all our writers, from Chaucer to our own times, have used words of foreign origin rather than our own.

In three pages of Alfred's Orosius I found 78 words which have become obsolete, out of 548, or about ;. of his Boethius I found 143 obsolete, out of 666, or aboutz. In three pages of his Bede I found 230 obsolete, out of 969, or about The difference in the proportion between these and the Orosius proceeds from the latter containing many historical names. Perhaps we shall be near the truth if we say, as a general principle, that one-fifth of the Anglo-Saxon language has ceased to be used in modern English. This loss

In three pages


must be of course taken into account when we estimate the copiousness of our ancient language, by considering how much of it our English authors exhibit.

I cannot agree with Hickes in classing the works of Alfred under that division of the Saxon language which he calls Danish Saxon. The Danes had no footing in England til! after the period of Alfred's manhood, and when they obtained a settlement, it was in East Anglia and Northumbria. We cannot therefore suppose that Alfred borrowed any part of his language from the Danes. None of their language could have become naturalized in Wessex before he wrote, nor have been adopted by him without either reason or necessity. We may therefore refer to the Anglo-Saxon laws before the reign of Athelstan, and to the works of Alfred, as containing the Anglo-Saxon language in its genuine and uncorrupted state.

I should have been desirous to have stated some opinions on the affinities of the Anglo-Saxon tongue, but that I found it a subject which could not be accurately handled without a deep consideration of almost every other language; and which, therefore, could not with any propriety have been made a part of this history.


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near Lincoln's Iown Fields.

I N D E X.

ib. 374.


ALFRED, his first studies, 285.--He seeks.

for literary friends, 291.-His kindness to
ABBO, his account of St. Edmund, 235. Asser, 292.-He learns the latin language,
Adrian sent to England, ii. 361.

294.-His preface to one of his transla--
· Adultery, its punishment among the Pagan tions, 295.-His taste in the arts, 299.-

Saxons, ii. 10-Ditto among the Anglo- In architecture, ib.
Saxons, ib. 253.

his care in the education of liis chil--
Æscuin reigns, 150.

dren, 301.-His last address to his son, 303.
Æthelheard in Wessex, 162.

His arrangement of his officers, 304.-
Alaric, his rise, 66.--And Progress, 67.

His employment of his income, 305...
Takes Rome, 75.

Of his time, ib.-His piety, 307.
Alcimus Avitus, his narrative poem, ii. 318. his public conduct, 311.-His embassy
Alcuin's latin poetry, ii. 354:—His life, to India, 313.-His police, 326.-His

disease, 330.-The first monarch of the
Aldhelm's native poetry, ii. 287.-His latin

Anglo-Saxons, 351.
poetry, ib. 332.-His other literature, ib.

his poetry, ii. 321.-His translations,ib..

381-401.-His Notitia of Germany, ib.
Alfred of Northumbria, 153:—Encourages 382.–His account of Ohthere's voyage,
literature, 154.-His successors, 137:

ib. 384.-His Psalter, ib. 402.--His
ALFRED The Great, his birth, 184.-Sent

to Rome, 185.—His youth and educa- Algar, his patriotic struggle agaiust the
tion, 191.—His marriage, 227.-His bat-

Danes, 229.
tle against the Danes at Æscesdun, Aneurin, quoted, 11.-A chieftain, 117.-
240.-Accedes, 243.-His battles and

His poem on the battle of Cattraeth, 122..
peace with the Northmen, 244.--At- Angles, their origin, 58.
tacked again, 246.-His naval successes, Anglo-Saxons, their octarchy established,
ib.-Becomes a fugitive, 248.-Miscon-

Æsop, ib.

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duct impated to him, 251.-Deserted by Anlaf, invades Athelstan, 344.–Visits his
his subjects, 255.- His asylum at a

camp, 345.
Swineherd's, 256.-His munificence to Apollonius Petrus, his

the peasant, 257.-His retreat described, Arator, bis poem, ii. 319. ,
259.-Joined by others, ib.-Their ex- Architecture of the Anglo-Saxons, ii.411.
cursive warfare, 200.—His charity, 261. ARTHUR, his probable history, 101.--His
He visits the enemies camp in disguise, birth, ib.-His actions, 102.-How men-
262.-His battle at Eddinton, .263.-- tioned in the Welsh Bards, 104.-Ilis
Permits the Danes to colonize East An-

poetry, 105.—His death, ib.--His family,
glia, 264.—Builds ships, 267.—His battles

107.-His remains discovered, ib. --Ori-
with Hastings, 271.-His death, 284.

gin of the romances concerning him, 108.
Vol. II.

poem, ii.

Arts of the Anglo-Saxons, ii. 406.

Assault, its punishment, ii. 248.

Cadwallon, his successes, 143.-His death,
ATHELSTAN, accedes, 340.—Attacked by 144.

Anlat, 344.--His battle at Brunanburh, Cadwaladyr goes to Bretagne, 151.
347.—The first monarch of England, Cadmon's paraphrase, ii. 309.
350.-Aids the French king, 355. Cambridge, its antiquity disputed, 323.

his connections with Bretagne, 352.- CANUTE the Great, becomes king of Den-
With France, ib.-With the Emperor of mark, 421.-His conflicts in England
Germany, 355.—With Norway, 358. with Ethelred, ib.-With Edmund, 423 to

his books, 363.-He kills his brother, 430.—Made king of England, 431.-

Punishes Edric, 433.—His reign, 431-443.
Augustin introduces Christianity into Eng- Carausius, his usurpation, 53.—He teaches
land, ii, 435.

the Saxons the naval art, 54.

Carthaginians, acquainted with Britain, 15.

Cassiterides, the British islands, 11-14.
Bagauda, 82.

Ceadwalla, 154.-His death, 155.
Baldwin, surnamed the Arm of Iron, 189. Cealwin's conquests, 131.-His death, 132.
Ballads, or songs, ii. 287.

Cena, his verses, ii. 352.
Bards of Britain, 23, 110.

Cenwalch reigns in Wessex, 148.
Bede, his life of St. Cuthbert, ii. 319.--His Cerdic, invades Britain, 98.--His battles at

latin poetry, ib. 347.—His other litera- Llongborth, 99.--At the Llawen, 100.-
ture, ib. 368.-His works, ib. 369.—His At Bath, 101.
death, ib. 370.-His chronology dis-Character of the most ancient Saxons, ii. 2.
puted, 63.

Chivalry of the Anglo-Saxons, ii. 139-148.
Benedict of Weremouth, ii. 362.

CHRISTIANITY introduced into England,
Benedictine order, 373.

133.-Into China, 140.-- In India, 316.-
Beornroulf, accedes in Mercia, 179.—Wars Its progress in England, and effects, ii.
with Egbert, 180.

Beowulf, a narrative poem, ii. 294-303. .

Cimmerians. See Kimmerians.
Berserkir described, 210.

Cimbri, same as the Kimmerians, 4.-Their
Boniface, his latin poetry, ij. 350.-His manners, 7.

Clubs of the Anglo-Saxons, ii. 103.
Borh, or sureties, ii. 258.

Cnihts of the Anglo-Saxons, ii. 144.
Boundaries of the Anglo-Saxon lands, ii. 184. Commerce of the Anglo-Saxons, ii. 113.
Bretagne, emigrations to, 109.

Conveyances, Anglo-Saxon, ii. 182.
Brihtric accedes, 174.

Cookery of the Anglo-Saxons, ii. 51.
BRITAIN, its names in the Welsh Triads, 5. Constantine, chosen emperor in Britain, 74.

Known to the Greeks, 16.-Manners of Leaves Britain, ib.-Destroyed, 76.
its first inhabitants, 18.-Their religion, Croyland Abbey destroyed by the North-
20.--Invaded by the Roinans, 23.-Its men, 233
history from the death of Maximus, 63. Cuthred, in Wessex, 163.-Attacks the
Attacked by the Barbarians, 76.-Its Welsh, 164.
history from the departure of the Ro- Cynegils conquers the Britons, 136.
mans, 79.--Its civitates, 83.-Its civil Cynewulf assassinated, 173.

discord, 85.-Many kings in it, 86.
Brunanburh, battle of, 347.

Busen, a Saxon island, 40-

Danes. See Northmen.

life, ib. 372.


Danes, first land in England, 174.-Invade | Egbert, archbishop, his love of literature, ii.

Egbert, 182.- Invade Ethelbert, 190. 362.
invade Ethelred, 410.-Their massacre, Egbert, king, his ancestors, 176.-Comes
4:5.-Boughtoff', 110.412.415.418,419.

from the Court of Charlemagne to Eng-
Denmark, its state in the eighth century, land, 177.--Ilis victory over Mercia, 180.

Invades Northumbria, 182.-His death,
Ditmarsia described, 44.

Diversions of the Anglo-Saxons, ii. 73. Egfrid, in Northumbria, invades Ireland,
Dress of the Anglo-Saxons, ii. 57.

152.—Perishes against the Picts, ib.
Drinks of the Anglo-Saxons, ii. 31.

Elfric, account of, ii. 403.
Druids described, 21-23.

Elgira, her sufferings, 390.
DUNSTAN, his birth, 377.-His studies, 379. Ella arrives in Sussex, 97.

Decomes a courtier, ib.—Disgraced 380. Ella kills Ragnar Lodbrog, 222,
Urged to become a monk, 382.--Change Eorl, account of, ii. 232.
of his character, 383.-His affectation of Eostre, a Saxon goddess, ii. 15.
peculiar piety, 384.---Made abbot of Ephorus, the historian, 9.
Glastonbury, 386.-Drags Edwin back Essex, its kingdom established, 123:-Con-
to the feast, 380.- Banished, ib.-Made

verted, 134.
archbishop, 396.-His political arts, 397. Ethelbald, of Mercia, 162.—Wars with the

Welsh, 163.—With Cuthred, ib.-Pe-

rishes, 165.
Eadburgu, ber vices, 174.-Escapes to Ethelbald accedes in Wessex, 189.

Fra:ce, ib.--Her miserable death, 175. Ethelbert, invades Cealwin, 131.-His death,
Ealdorman, his rank, ji. 232.

136.-His reception of christianity, ii.433.
East Anglia occupied, 123.-Expedition to Ethelbert accedes in Wessex, 190.
the continent, 137

Ethelfrith's successes, 133.- Destroys Ban-
Eddius, his life, ii. 373.

gor, 134.-Seizes Deira, 138. Falls,
Edgar, his reign, 394-403.

Edmund, king of East Anglia, attacked by Ethelred, succeeds in Wessex, 224.-His

Ingwar, 235.—His address to the Danish battle with the Northmen, 239.—Dies,
envoy, 237.—Killed, 238.

Edmund the Elder, bis reign, 365-368. Ethelred the Unready, accedes, 408.-In-
Edmund Ironside, his reign, 423-430. vaded by Svein, 412.-Again, 416.-His
Edred, his reign, 369-371.

flight, 420.--His death, 422.
Education of the Anglo-Saxons, ii. 39. Ethelwulph, accedes, 183. — Donation of
Edward the Elder, his reign, 333-339.

tenths, 186.-His present to the Pope,
Edward the Martyr, his reign, 404-407. ib.—His marriage with Judith, and de-
Edward the Confessor, his reign, 449.- position, 187.
His person, 461.

Ethilwald, his verses, ii. 352. .
Edwin, takes refuge in East Auglia, 138. Europe, its first inhabitants, 2.

King of Northumbria, 139.-Attacked
by an assassin, 140.--Adopts christianity

140. and ii. 437.-His police, 141-His Fahthe, or deadly feud, ii. 246.
conduct to Cadwallon, 142.

Food of the Anglo-Saxons, ii. 44.
Edwin, accedes, 372.-Insulted by Dunstan Fortunatus, his life of St. Martin, ii. 319.

at his coronation, 387.- Conspiracy Fosete, a Saxon deity worshipped in Helig-
against him, 390,–His death, 391. land, ii. 15.

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