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be rendered intelligible in a general way by the study of the annexed tabulations :

The Vegetable Kingdom may be arranged into two grand divisions the CELLULAR and VASCULAR; and these again, according to their modes of growth and reproduction, into the following groups and classes :I. CELLULAR—Without regular vessels, but composed of fibres which

sometimes cross and interlace each other. The Confervo (green scumlike aquatic growths), the Lichens (which incrust stones and decaying trees), the Fungi (or mushroom tribe), and the Algæ (or sea-weeds), belong to this division. In some of these families there are no apparent seed-organs. From their mode of growth-viz., sprout-like increase of the same organ-they are known as THALLOGENS or

AMPHIGENS, and constitute the lowest orders of vegetation.
II. VASCULAR--With vessels which form organs of nutrition and repro-

duction. According to the arrangement of these organs, vascular
plants have been grouped into two great divisions--CRYPTOGAMIC
(no visible seed-organs), and PHANEROGAMIC (apparent flowers or
seed-organs). These have been further subdivided into the followin
classes-ascending from the lower to the higher forms:-
1. CRYPTOGAMS— Without flowers, and with no visible seed-organs.

To this class belong the mosses, equisetunis, ferns, and lycopo-
diums. It embraces many fossil forms allied to these families.
From their mode of growth-viz., increase at the top or grow-

ing point-they are known as ACROGENS. 2. PHANEROGAMIC MONOCOTYLEDONS---Flowering plants with one

cotyledon or seed-lobe. This class comprises the water-lilies, lilies, aloes, rushes, grasses, canes, and palms. In allusion to

their growth by increase within, they are termed ENDOGENS. 3. PHANEROGAMIC GYMNOSPERMS-This class, as the name indi

cates, is furnished with flowers, but has naked seeds. It embraces the cycadeæ or cycas and zamia tribe, and the coniferæ or firs and pines. In allusion to their naked seeds, these plants

are also known as GYMNOGENS. 4. PHANEROGAMIC DICOTYLEDONS—Flowering plants with two

cotyledons or seed-lobes. This class embraces all forest-trees and shrubs-the compositæ, leguminoso, umbellifero, cruciferae, and other similar orders. None of the other families of plants have the true woody structure, except the coniferæ or firs, which seem to hold an intermediate place between monocotyledons and dicotyledons; but the wood of these is readily distinguished from true dicotyledonous wood. From their mode of growth, increase by external rings or layers—they are terined EXOGENS.


(EXOGENS....... DICOTYLEDONS. ... ... ... Trees, Shrubs, Herbs.
(Increase from without.) (Two Seed-Lobes.)

ANGIOSPERMS (Enclosed Seeds.)



| ENDOGENS...... MONOCOTYLEDONS......Grasses, Sedges, Palms.
I (from within.) (One Seed-Lobe.)

GYMNOSPERMS... GYMNOGENS ..... POLYCOTYLEDONS ......Cycads and Conifers. (Naked Seeds.) (from without.) (Many Seed-Lobes.)

SPOROGAMS ...............Clubmosses, Lycopods.

(Spore-Growths.) ANGIOSPORES ... ACROGENS.....

THALLOGAMS............ Ferns and Horsetails. (Enclosed Spores.) (from the point.) | (Leaf-Growths.)

AXOGAMS........... ......Mosses and Liverworts. (Centre-Growths.)



GYMNOSPORES... AMPHIGENS... (Naked Spores.) (from all sides.)

HYDROPHYTES........... Algæ and Confervæ.

) AËROPHYTES ............ Lichens.
) (Air-Growths.)
HYSTEROPHY'TES ........ Fungi or Mushrooms.
(Ultimate or Lowest Growths.)

Subdividing still further, according to their most marked characteristics, whether external or internal, the botanist arranges all the known forms of Vegetable Life into some 300 orders, upwards of 9000 genera, and about 120,000 species. As the most of these distinctions, however, are founded on the form and connection of the flower, fruit, and leaf-organs which rarely or never occur in connection in a fossil state—the palæontologist is guided in the main by the great structural distinctions above adverted to, and not unfrequently by the simple but unsatisfactory test of “ general resemblance.” The flower and the organ of fructification may have perished, but still the form and venation of the leaf, the external sculpturing of the bark, the disposition of the leaves and branches, and the general mode of growth, may be preserved ; and from these, as well as from the microscopic examination of the lapidified tissues, the palæophytologist can for the most part determine, or at all events approximate to the determination of, his fossil twigs and fragments. So certain, indeed, are the determinations of the microscope, that where good sections can be procured, the competent observer rarely or never fails to establish the great order to which the organism belongs; and this, considering the difficulties surrounding palæophytology, is a triumph of no mean description.

As the palæophytologist, in arranging his fossil organisms, is guided by the classification of the botanist, so the palæozoologist follows, as closely as the nature of his objects will permit, the systematic schemes of the zoologist. And in this he has altogether an easier task, inasmuch as animal organisms, from their less destructible nature, are in general more perfectly and legibly preserved. The horny and calcareous structures of zoophytes, corals, shells, crusts of crustacea, calcareous tubes of annelids, chitonous

wing-sheaths of insects, and the like, are well-known instances of this comparative indestructibility among the invertebrata ; while bony scales and scutes, horns, bones, and teeth, are still more familiar examples, perhaps, among the vertebrata. In this way, partly by external form, partly by internal structure, and partly by the great anatomical law of the co-relation of parts, the palæozoologist is enabled to arrive at determinations more satisfactory, on the whole, than those of the palæophytologist. Species, genera, families, and even whole orders, may be extinct; but, comparing his organisms with the existing, he finds their nearest affinities, and assigns them their place in the systematic arrangements of the zoologist. For this purpose the subjoined scheme is in general sufficient, and its study in this place will greatly facilitate the reader's comprehension of what may be subsequently stated respecting the fossils of the different formations :


VERTEBRATA, Or animals with backbone and bony skeleton, and comprehending

MAMMALIA, AVES, REPTILIA, and PISCES. I. MAMMALIA, or Sucklers ; subdivided into Placental and Aplacental. 2. APLACENTAL, bringing forth immature young. MARSUPIALIA (Pouched -- Kangaroo, Opossum, Pouched Wolf. MONOTREMATA (One-vented)-Ornithorhynchus, Porcupine-ant-eaters.

1. PLACENTAL, bringing forth mature young. BIMANA (Two-handed)-Man. QUADRUMANA (Four-handed)—Monkeys, Apes, Lemurs. CHEIROPTERA (Hand-winged)Bats, Vampire-bats, Fox-bats. INSECTIVORA (Insect-eaters)—Mole, Shrew, Hedgehog, Banxring. CARNIVORA (Flesh-eaters)—Dog, Wolf, Tiger, Lion, Badger, Bear. PINNIPEDIA (Fin-footed)--Seals, Walrus. RODENTIA (Gnawers)--Hare, Beaver, Rat, Squirrel, Porcupine. EDENTATA (Toothless) - Ant-eater, Armadillo, Pangolin, Sloth. RUMINANTIA (Cud-chewers)—Camel, Llama, Deer, Goat, Sheep, Ox. SOLIDUNGULA (Solid-hoofs)-Horse, Ass, Zebra, Quagga. PACHYDERMATA (Thick-skins)—Elephant, Hippopotamus, Rhinoceros. CETACEA (Whales)—Whale, Porpoise, Dolphin, Lamantin.

II. AVES, or BIRDS. RAPTORES (Seizers)-- Eagles, Falcons, Hawks, Owls, Vultures. INSESSORES (Perchers) --Jays, Crows, Finches, Sparrows, Th rushes. SCANSORES (Climbers)—Woodpeckers, Parrots, Paroquets, Cockatoos. COLUMBÆ (Pigeons)-Common Dove, Turtle Dove, Ground Dove. RASORES (Scrapers) – Barnfowl, Partridge, Grouse, Pheasant. CURSORES (Runners)—Ostrich, Emu, Apteryx. GRALLATORES (Waders)--Rails, Storks, Cranes, Herons. NATATORES (Swimmers)--Divers, Gulls, Ducks, Pelicans.

III. REPTILIA, subdivided into Reptiles Proper and Batrachians.

CHELONIA (Tortoises)— Turtles, Tortoises.
LORICATA (Covered with Scutes)—Crocodile, Gavial, Alligator.
Sauria (Lizards) — Lizard, Iguana, Chameleon.
OPHIDIA (Serpents) --Vipers, Snakes, Boas, Pythons.

ANOURA (Tail-less)— Toad, Frog, Tree-Frog.
URODELA (Tailed)--Siron, Triton, Salamander.
APODA (Footless) — Lepidosiren, Blindworm.

SELACHIA (Cartilaginous)—Chimæra, Sharks, Sawfish, Rays.
GANOIDEA (Enamel-scales)- Amia, Bony-pike, Sturgeon.
TELEOSTIA (Perfect-bones)— Eels, Salmon, Herring, Cod, Pike.
CYCLOSTOMATA (Circle-mouths)-Lamprey.
LEPTOCARDIA (Slender-hearts)—Amphioxus.

INVERTEBRATA, Or animals void of backbone and bony skeleton, and comprehending


I. ARTICULATA, subdivided into Articulates and Vermes.

1. ARTICULATA, or Jointed Animals Proper. INSECTA (Insects)-Beetles, Butterflies, Flies, Bees. MYRIAPODA (Many-feet)-Scolopendra, Centipedes.

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