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Friends” he had to suffer imprisonment and persecution for conscience sake. By the course of time, however, and the change of parties, he acquired some influence at Court, and was able in 1681 to obtain a Royal Charter assigning to himself and his heirs a large tract of the land beyond the Delaware. Thither accordingly he proceeded with a numerous Quaker train. The city which they began to build near the confluence of the Schuylkill and the Delaware was called Philadelphia, from the brotherly love which they trusted would there prevail, while the Colony itself combined the remembrance of its forest-state and of its founder in the name of PENNsylvani A. How vast the scope which at that period the New World opened to enterprising spirits in the Old! To become from a plain country gentleman, or the spokesman of a few enthusiasts, the “Proprietary” in title, but in truth the Prince, of an immense territory! To gain Pennsylvania in the place of Penn Woods! Even during the lifetime of Penn the interests of the Proprietary were found to clash with those of the colonists, and also with those of the Crown. But these differences grew much greater when on his death his sons succeeded to his rights, though not to his popularity and influence. There were also other difficulties to perplex the rising Colony. Though many other sectarians had arrived as settlers, the Quakers still formed a majority in the House of Assembly, and found it hard to reconcile their principles of peace with the frequent demands of the Crown for military aid. Franklin, who resided so many years among them, observes that they used a variety of evasions to avoid complying, and a variety of modes of disguising the compliance when it became unavoidable. The common mode at last was to grant money under the phrase of its being “for the King's use,” and never to inquire how it was applied.* * Life by himself, ch. viii. p. 154. ed. 1840. Franklin adds that on one occasion when powder was wanted for the garrison at Louisburg, which was much urged on the House by Governor Thomas, “they would not

“grant money to buy powder, because that was an ingredient of war; but “they voted an aid to New England of 3,000l. to be put into the hands of 1765. DELAWARE. - MARYLAND. 73

DELAwarE, both the river and the state which lies near its mouth, derive their name from Thomas Lord Delaware, who had been Captain-General of Virginia under James the First. This territory was originally occupied by the Swedes, who indeed had also helped to colonise New Jersey on the opposite bank of the stream. Next it passed to the Dutch, and afterwards with the New Netherlands to the English. Still later it became under William Penn an appanage of Pennsylvania. So it continued in some measure until the Revolutionary War, while in other respects it might be termed a separate Colony. Thus it had an Assembly of its own, but that Assembly was in general convened by the Pennsylvanian Governor, and the province was often designated by the dubious phrase of “the “Lower Counties.”

The Colony next in order owes its foundation to an upright and honourable statesman, Sir George Calvert, who had served as one of the Secretaries of State under James the First, and who under Charles the First was created . Lord Baltimore in the Irish Peerage. To himself and his heirs as Proprietaries the new settlement was granted by the Crown, and in honour of Queen Henrietta Maria he gave it the name of MARYLAND. The chief city, which has now become one of the most flourishing in North America, received his own title of Baltimore. While yet a Commoner he had embraced the Roman Catholic faith, and relinquished office for its sake, and thus his settlement became the favourite resort for emigrants of the same persuasion. Yet the Roman Catholics as such enjoyed no special privileges or immunities in Maryland; freedom of conscience and equality of civil rights were from the outset conceded to all, except only the Socinians. For the clause

“the Governor, and appropriated it for the purchase of bread, flour, wheat, “or other grain. Some of the Council, desirous of giving the House still “further embarrassment, advised the Governor not to accept provision as * not being the thing he had demanded; but he replied: “I shall take the “‘money, for I understand very well their meaning; other grain is gun“‘powder,' which he accordingly bought, and they never objected to it!"

granting this religious liberty was clogged with a proviso that “whatsoever person shall deny or reproach the Holy “Trinity, or any of the Three Persons thereof, shall be “punished with death.”* The noble bay of Chesapeak, formed by the estuaries of the Susquehanna and Potomac rivers, is bounded on its western side by the shores of VIRGINIA. This, the earliest of all the chartered Colonies of England, was first planned by the chivalrous Raleigh, and named by and from the maiden Queen, Elizabeth. Raleigh's coadjutors or lieutenants, as Lane and Greenville, bold and gallant spirits, were, however, more successful as explorers than as colomists. No real progress in settlement was made until the succeeding reign. Successive Charters were granted by King James, mainly in favour of the London Company, or as they were called “Adventurers,” — a term honourable then, though reproachful now. But that Company which might have risen to an eminence resembling the East Indian, greatly abused its trust; it dissatisfied the colonists, it became involved in dissensions with the Crown; the Judges gave sentence against it; and finally in 1624 the Company was dissolved, and the Crown succeeded to its rights. Already had the colonists won for themselves the rights of a popular assembly; and these rights, which had been wrested from the London Company, were confirmed, or at least not annulled, by Charles the First. Virginia, as the firstborn of the Colonies, grew, it may be said, to man's estate sooner than the rest. The settlers were chiefly of the Established Church, and comprised some of the highest rank of gentry, as, for example, the Lords Fairfax. Their staple produce was tobacco, a large source of wealth to them, as protected by a monopoly in England; at one period indeed in our common speech we may observe

* Bancroft's History of the United States, vol. i. p. 256. An attempt, far from candid, to conceal this proviso, appears to be made by Mr. Bacon in his Laws of Maryland at Large, 1649, c. i.

1765, THE TWO CAROLINAS. 75

the word Virginia used oas a synonym for the plant.* On the whole then at the accession of George the Third there might be found in this Colony less, no doubt, of commercial enterprise than among its neighbours, but a larger population in proportion to its settled territory; and a greater degree of landed affluence, perhaps also of mental refinement. It is a striking fact that of the five first Presidents of the United States no less than four were natives o Virginia. In the two CARoll NAs—-North and South, and in Charleston, the chief city of the latter, — the appellation was either conferred or retained in honour of Charles the Second.* A Charter of that territory was granted by that King in 1663 to a large number of persons as Proprietaries, including not only those who wished to go forth and colonise, as Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, but also various statesmen in office or favour at that time, as the Duke of Albemarle, the Earl of Clarendon, and Lord Ashley. Settlements were made accordingly, first in North and afterwards in South Carolina, sometimes increased by the emigration of persecuted Protestants from France or Germany. But the yoke of the Proprietaries proved hard to bear; some were distant and careless, others on the spot but grasping and oppressive; there ensued great misrule and oppression, and then the usual consequences, – popular insurrection and the final grant of a representative assembly. Still, however, the bickerings on a lesser scale continued, and finally in 1729 the remaining Proprietaries, on receiving the moderate sum of 17,500l., surrendered their rights to the Crown. — The staple commodities of the Carolinas were rice, tar, and afterwards indigo. Here, as in Virginia, the influence of a southern latitude becomes apparent; both the climate and the produce, and the modes of life resulting from them, more nearly, perhaps, approach those of Jamaica than those of Massachusetts. The most southerly and the last founded of all these Colonies was GEORGIA. It owed its name to King George the Second, but its origin, establishment, and furtherance to James Oglethorpe, a Member of the British Parliament. This most worthy man had chosen arms for his profession at an early age, and ardent as he was then for military fame had served as a volunteer under Prince Eugene at the siege of Belgrade. In our own army he in after years, and by due course of seniority, attained the rank of General. But objects of benevolence and practical humanity had meanwhile become paramount in his mind. On entering the House of Commons he zealously applied himself to alleviate the sufferings of his kind. It was to him that the investigation and reform of our Prisons in 1728 and the succeeding years, as already related in this History”, was mainly due. The same zeal for humanity led him to plan a colony, for the remoter districts, hitherto umpeopled, of South Carolina, which he intended as a resource and asylum for insolvent debtors in England, and for persecuted Protestants in Germany. He found associates — as the Earl of Shaftesbury, the author of the Characteristicks, – in his benevolent designs; and in 1732 they obtained a Royal Charter for their new province during twenty-one years, not as Proprietaries, — not with any collateral view of personal advantage, such as might be traced in even the most upright and highminded of all their predecessors, as in Baltimore and Penn, – but solely, as the deed expresses it, “in trust for the poor.” * Vol. ii. p. 159.

* As in Pope's humorous imitation of Swift and enumeration of blessings, entitled The Happy Life of a Country Parson: “A wife that makes conserves; a steed “That carries double when there's need; “October store, and best Virginia, “Tithe-pig, and mortuary guinea . " ** The name of Carolina was probably first given in honour of Charles IX. of France, and confirmed in honour of Charles II. of England. But “it is “curious what variety of origin might plausibly be found for the name of “Carolina.” Such is the observation of Mr. Henry Reed, the American editor of this History, whose great care and accuracy, as well as courtesy, I am glad to have the opportunity of thus publicly acknowledging. He has justly noticed the error of a hasty allusion to that name of Carolina which I had made in my twentieth Chapter, and had left uncorrected. (See note in the American ed. 1849, vol. i. p. 476.)

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