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much as possible, he sent General advanced to the attack, the right unMaxwell, with about 1,000 light der command of General Knyphausen troops, to occupy the other side of the marching straight to Chad's Ford, Brandywine.* The formation of the and the left under Lord Cornwallis, American army was as follows: The accompanied by Generals Howe, Sir right wing was commanded by Gen- Charles Grey, Grant and James eral Sullivan with six brigades, in- Agnew, endeavoring to turn the right cluding those of Lord Stirling and of the Americans and to gain their General Stephen; the extreme left rear by making a circuit toward a was guarded by John Armstrong with point named the Forks, where the the Pennsylvania militia; Wayne's two branches of the Brandywine division with Thomas Proctor's ar- unite. Knyphausen's column soon tillery guarded the ford; and came in conflict with the light troops

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Greene's division, consisting of under General Maxwell, and by reinGeorge Weedon's and Peter Muhlen- forcing his advance Knyphausen sucberg's brigades, accompanied by ceeded in driving the Americans Washington, formed a reserve and across the river, where they sheltered took a position in the centre between themselves under their batteries on the right and left wings.t

the north bank. Knyphausen then Early on the morning of September brought up his artillery which was 11, the British army in two columns placed in the most advantageous

* Fisher, Struggle for American Independence, points, and a sharp artillery duel was vol. ii., p. 23; Trevelyan, American Revolution, carried on between the two forces.* vol. iv., p. 226; Tower, Marquis de La Fayette, vol. i., p. 224.

* Carrington, Battles of the Revolution, pp. 369– † Tower, Marquis de La Fayette, vol. i., p. 225; 370; Lowell, Hessians in the Revolution, pp. 197– Lossing, Field-Book of the Revolution, vol. ii., pp. 198; Lossing, pp. 171-173; Sparks, Life of Wash. 169–170.

ington, p. 233.





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Meanwhile the British left wing defeated and in full flight. Greene under Cornwallis crossed the Ford covered the retreat and shortly afterabove the Forks. The information ward, finding an advantageous posigiven to Washington regarding this tion, he renewed the battle and put a movement seems to have been very stop to the progress of the enemy.* conflicting, coming as it did from sev. As soon as Knyphausen was informed eral different quarters and through that Cornwallis' division was in acunpracticed scouts. Consequently, his tion, he immediately forced a passage movements were much embarrassed.* at Chad's Ford, attacked Wayne's Having passed the fords, Lord Corn- troops opposite him, and drove them wallis took the road toward Dilworth, into headlong flight.t Consequently, which led him to the American right..t as both divisions of the army had General Sullivan, who had been ap- been decisively defeated, Washington, pointed to command the troops in that with such of the troops as he had been quarter, occupied the heights above able to keep together, retired with his Birmingham church, his right flank artillery to Chester. There a halt was covered by the woods and his left made within eight miles of the British flank extending to Brandywine, the army until the next morning, when artillery being placed at advanta- the retreat was continued to Philadelgeous points. Lord Cornwallis formed phia. The British troops were so exhis troops in battle order about 4 hausted from fighting that they did o'clock in the afternoon, and shortly not continue the pursuit during the afterward began the attack. The re- night, which fact probably saved the sistance was intrepidly sustained by American army from total annihilathe Americans for some time, but at tion. length they were compelled to give The losses on the American side in away. Upon hearing the firing from this battle were severe, amounting to that quarter, Washington ordered 300 killed, 600 wounded, and about General Greene, with the brigades 400 captured by the British. The under Weedon and Muhlenberg, to British loss is supposed to have been support Sullivan. Greene covered the much less, probably not exceeding 600 four miles in about 42 minutes, but

* Sparks' ed. of Washington's Writings, vol. v., upon reaching the scene of battle pp. 56-59; F. V. Greene, Life of Greene, pp. 80-83; found Sullivan's division completely

Fiske, American Revolution, vol. i., pp. 312–316;

Knox, Life of Knox, pp. 104, 267-269; Stillé, * Irving, Life of Washington, vol. iii., pp. 215 Wayne and the Pennsylvania Line, pp. 77-80; 216; Trevelyan, American Revolution, vol. iv., p. Tower, Marquis de Lafayette, vol. i., pp. 229-231. 228; Lodge, George Washington, vol. i., p. 192; † Trevelyan, American Revolution, vol. iv., pp. Tower, Marquis de La Fayette, vol. i., pp. 226–228; 230–231. Lossing, pp. 173-174.

| Bancroft, vol. v., pp. 174-179; Carrington, † Tower, Marquis de La Fayette, vol. i., p. 226. Battles of the Revolution, pp. 370-381; Lowell,

Lossing, Field-Book of the Revolution, vol. ii., Hessians in the Revolution, p. 199; Irving, Life pp. 175-176.

of Washington, vol. iii., pp. 220–222.



killed and wounded. Among the Warren Tavern on the Lancaster Americans wounded was Lafayette, Road, about twenty-three miles from who received a bullet in the leg, from Philadelphia. Early the next mornwhich he was laid up for several ing Washington was apprized that the months.f The troops under Count British were approaching in two colPulaski displayed great bravery in umns, and therefore determined to this action, and for meritorious con- hasten his march and to engage Howe duct on the field of battle Pulaski was in front.* Both armies made hasty raised to the rank of brigadier-gen- preparations for the battle, and the eral in command of the cavalry. Sub- advance guards had even begun to sequently an investigation of Gen- skirmish when a terrific thunder eral Sullivan's conduct was made, but storm arose which absolutely prehe was exonerated from any blame vented fighting by either army except connected with the retreat. $ . with the bayonet. The gunlocks were

After allowing his army a day of not well secured and the muskets soon complete rest, Washington recrossed became unfit for use; in addition the the Schuylkill and proceeded by the cartridge boxes had not been well Lancaster Road with the full inten- made so as to protect the ammunition, tion of meeting and engaging the and more than 400,000 were ruined. British army. The night after the The American soldiers were without battle of Brandywine, Sir William bayonets, and as the British were well Howe encamped his army on the field equipped with these instruments and of the conflict, and on the two succeed well trained in their use, Washington ing days marched by easy stages perceived that they possessed a great toward Chester, also occupying Wil superiority over his army, and that a mington, to which place the sick and retreat was absolutely necessary.† wounded were carried. On the 15th, The attempt to engage the British in an effort to gain the left of the Brit- army was therefore abandoned, the ish, the American army reached the retreat continuing all day and a

greater part of the night, in the midst * Gordon, American Revolution, vol. ii., p. 509 of a heavy downpour and over very (ed. 1788); Greene, Life of Greene, vol. i., p. 447;

poor roads. One of Washington's Drake, Life of Knox, p. 48; Reed, Life of Joseph Reed, vol. i., pp. 305–307; Ford's ed. of Washing. * Fisher, Struggle for American Independence, ton's Writings, vol. vi., p. 71; Trevelyan, Ameri- vol. ii., pp. 30–31. See also Washington's letter can Revolution, vol. iv., p. 232; Sparks, Life of in Sparks, Life of Washington, pp. 237–238. Washington, p. 235.

† Lodge, George Washington, vol. i., p. 193. See † Tower, Marquis de La Fayette, vol. i., pp. also Knox's letter of September 24 to his wife, in 232-233.

Brooks, Life of Knox, p. 105; Kalb's letter of | Hildreth, vol. iii., pp. 218–219; American His September 24, 1777, quoted in Fredrich Kapp, torical Magazine (December, 1866); Proceedings Life of John Kalb, p. 125. of the Massachusetts Historical Society (1866– I Bancroft, vol. v., p. 180; Carrington, Battles 1867). See also W. D. Stone, The Battle of of the Revolution, p. 383; Lossing, Field-Book of Brandywine (1895).

the Revolution, vol. ii., pp. 179–180.



officers writes: “The hot-headed munition, it was ascertained that there politicians will no doubt censure this was scarcely a musket that could be part of his conduct, while the more discharged and hardly one cartridge judicious will approve it, as not only that was fit for use.* The army then expedient, but in such a case highly retired to Warwick Furnace, on the commendable. It was, without doubt, south branch of the French Creek, chagrining to a person of his fine feel- where a supply of muskets and amings to retreat before an enemy not munition could be obtained in suffi

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AAAA. March of Grey's Detachment in two columns to attack the Americans (B). C. Light infantry attacking Americans in flank. D. Light infantry pursuing American artillery (EE.) which was carried off on first alarm. F. Light infantry after routing Americans, G. 44th regiment supporting light infantry. H. 42d regiment in reserve. IIII. Americans in disorderly retreat. The two regiments under Colonel Musgrave were not engaged.

more in number than himself; yet, cient time to dispute the passage of with a true greatness of spirit, he sac- the Schuylkill River. rificed them to the good of his coun- At Paoli Inn, in the vicinity of try."* Early the next morning a halt White Horse Tavern, a detachment of was made at Yellow Springs, and 1,500 troops, under General Wayne, upon examining the muskets and am

*G. W. Greene, Life of Greene, vol. i., p. 461;

F. V. Greene, Life of Greene, p. 84; Ford's ed. * Josiah Quincy, Memoir of Major Samuel Shaw, of Washington's Writings, vol. vi., pp. 77, 81, 83 ; quoted by Irving, Life of Washington, vol. iii., Gordon, American Revolution, vol. ii., p. 515 (ed. p. 227.


60 BATTLE OF WHITE HORSE TAVERN; CONGRESS MOVES. had been stationed in the woods on the themselves continued to hold their left of the British army for the pur- sittings in the city and to maintain pose of harassing the latter as much their authority until the very last as possible. Upon learning of this, moment. They did not, however, Howe dispatched General Grey on the lose confidence in Washington's night of September 20, with a suffi- ability, but gave him still greater aucient body of troops completely to thority. He had been invested with overwhelm Wayne. Grey was almost power to seize whatever provisions successful in the task assigned him, were necessary for the maintenance but Wayne had been warned of the of the troops, paying for such proviattack and was prepared for it. His sions in public certificates. He was troops resisted bravely and he was also empowered to try by courtable to save his artillery and stores. martial, and immediately upon conThe British finally conquered, how- viction to execute such persons as ever, killing or wounding about 300 should assist the British in any way men and taking nearly 100 prisoners. or furnish them with provisions, The British loss amounted to only 4 arms, and stores. The citizens of killed and 4 wounded.* Wayne was Philadelphia were levied upon for sharply censured for his apparent blankets, shoes, and clothing, before neglect in allowing the British to sur- the British captured the city. These prise him, and he demanded a court measures were considered an absolute martial to determine his responsibil- necessity in the face of an advancing itý, but he was acquitted with honor.t British army, and with the knowl

The result of the campaign thus far edge that there was a large body of had been all in favor of the British, sympathizing Tories or lukewarm and it was seen, unless some notable neutrals in the vicinity.* To Alexevent should occur, that Philadelphia ander Hamilton, at this time a lieuwould soon be in the possession of tenant-colonel, was entrusted the the British. Congress therefore work of carrying out the terms of determined to move from the city these provisions, and he executed the to a place of safety as soon as it task with energy, judgment and with should become absolutely necessary. a great measure of success. On The magazines and public stores September 18, the British now being were removed, but the members very near Philadelphia, Congress de

cided it most prudent to abandon the Pennsylvania Line, pp. 82-91; Reed, Life of city. They first went to Lancaster Joseph Reed, vol. i., pp. 312–313; Trevelyan, American Revolution, vol. iv., pp. 232–234; Loss

and later to Yorktown, where they ing, Field-Book of the Revolution, vol. ii., pp. continued to transact business for the 163-164. † Irving, Life of Washington, vol. iii., pp. 229–

* Hildreth, vol. iii., pp. 220–221.



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