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coal and iron that were to astonish of 100,000 per year during the seven the world. The backwoods of Virginia years from 1783 to 1790, it would contained only a straggling village probably be as near the truth as it here and there; beyond the Blue is possible to come to estimate the Ridge, Indian warfare was still car- population at 3,250,000, though ried on by Daniel Boone and the Schouler estimates it at “ somewhat Cherokees in the cane-brakes of Ken- less thar three and a half million tucky; and on the fertile plains of souls, of whom probably 600,000 men, western Tennessee were but a few log women and children are held in servihuts. Natchez had been settled by a tude to white masters.* As will be few pioneers; St. Louis had been seen by the table, Virginia, North and founded; Pittsburg had not grown be- South Carolina contained more than yond the limits of a military post; and a third of the entire population, , Circinnati, even as late as 1795, con- chiefly because they were renowned tained but 95 log cabins and 500 in- as highly productive agricultural habitants. These western settlements regions, and were famous for their and their affairs were almost un- crops of tobacco, rice, indigo, pitch known to a large portion of the east- and tar, while, on the other hand, New ern or coast inhabitants. The West England could grow scarcely enough was a vast solitude of unbroken for

corn and rye to supply the needs of ests and the people knew little more the citizens.t about it than about darkest Africa; while beyond the Mississippi buffa- stract of the United States for 1907 distributes loes wandered in herds; the plains

this as follows: stretched for miles unbroken by

96, 540 Massachusetts

378,787 mountains or forests; the grass grew New Hampshire

141, 885 high and the flowers were beautiful;

Vermont ..

85, 425

Rhode Island and the native Indian still had to see

68,825 Connecticut.

237, 946 his first white man.*

New York The precise population of the col

New Jersey

184, 139 Pennsylvania

434, 373 onies at the end of the Revolution

Delaware .

59,096 cannot be stated absolutely, but it Maryland

319, 728 Virginia

747, 610 probably was not far from 3,250,000.


35, 691 In 1790 the first census indicated that North Carolina

393, 751 there were 3,929,214 human beings in

South Carolina

249, 073 Georgia . .

82, 548 the country;t and, allowing a growth Kentucky .

73, 677

Maine ..

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340, 120

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Total ..

3,929, 214

McMaster, United States, vol. i., pp. 3-5. On the conditions in the West at this time, see Roosevelt, Winning of the West, vol. iii., chap. i.

† The Table on page 30 of the Statistical Ab

* History of the United States, vol. i., pp. 34. † McMaster, United States, vol. i., pp. 9–10.



Boston, situated on three hills, perity, at least for Nantucket; her contained about 2,100 houses with 14,- docks and wharves were deserted, 640 inhabitants, and could boast of a grass grew in her streets and things rude ferry service between the North in general were in a sad state of End and Charlestown, but it was not decay. * until 1786 that the Charles River Prior to the Revolution, New York was spanned by a bridge.* The contained about 23,000 inhabitants streets of the city were irregular, the and was the seat of great commercial sidewalks were unflagged, and the activity, but when the British evacuroads in poor condition. In the older ated it more than a third of the town portions of the city the houses were lay in ashes, her commerce was gone, mean and squalid, and built entirely her treasury empty and her citizens of wood and generally unpainted, but (at least all except the Loyalists who on the west side of the town the had remained in the city during the streets were neater, many of the British occupation) were starving in houses were of brick and were set the wilds of New Jersey. In 1786 her back in little gardens, thus present population was about 24,500, and ing a beautiful and homelike appear- there were about 3,500 houses. The ance.t A few houses were strung city itself covered a small area, being along the post-road at Springfield; bounded by Anthony Street on the Lawrence and Manchester were ham- north, Harrison Street on the west, lets of only a few houses each; and and Rutgers Street on the east, and even as late as 1820 the site of Lowell within its small confines were not only was a favorite resort for hunters.t the business and public buildings, but There were, however, several noted also residences, many of which were whaling ports, which before the war surrounded by large gardens. At were highly prosperous, such as Fal- that time the present Greenwich mouth, Barnstable, Martha's Vine- Street was a beach upon which the yard, Cape Ann, New London and the seine was regularly drawn; Beekmost noted, Nantucket, a little town man's swamp was a splendid place which stood on a strip of land about for duck shooting, and Berkeley's four miles wide and fifteen miles woods were alive with wild pigeons.t long. But the war ended the pros- No effort had been made to eradi.

cate the traces of the fire by erecting * S. F. Thomas, Reminiscences of the Last Sixty-Five Years, p. 14.

houses, and in 1784 the devastated † See Henry Wansey, Excursion to the United

area was in practically the same state States of North America in the Summer of 1794; Drake, Landmarks of Boston; and a Description of Boston: with a view of the Town of Boston, * McMaster, United States, vol. i., pp. 63–64; finely engraved, in Columbian Magazine (Decem- Brown, History of the Whale-Fishery; Obed ber, 1797)

Marcy, History of Nantucket Island. 1 Lowell as it was and as it 18, p. 10. † McMaster, vol. i., pp. 52-53, 64.

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of desolation. Below the site occupied in social life.* There were ferries by the present city hall was the com- to Brooklyn consisting of clumsy mon, known at the " Flat” or row boats, flat-bottomed square-end “ Vlackte," north of which was a scows fitted up with sprit sails, and fresh water pond called the Collect, two masted boats called periguas. and to the east of which lay Beek- On pleasant calm days there was little man's swamp, where Jacobus Roose- danger and the trips might be made velt erected his tanneries and began with a degree of comfort and some the industry of which that section of rapidity, but, if the wind blew with the city is the centre.* Several hun- the tide or if there were a strong flood dred horses and cows might have or ebb, it sometimes took an hour to been seen grazing in the open fields cross. These boats transported pasabout Reade Street, where there was sengers, freight and cattle, and many a burying ground for negroes and of the latter were lost because at scarcely a single house.f Orchards times they would all get to one side and gardens lined the Bowery; near of the boat and tip it over or they Gramercy Park was Crummashire would become frightened and jump Hill; the upper end of Broadway or fall out. It was not until the rude above Anthony Street ended in the steamboats of Fulton made their apmeadows; and to the west of Canal pearance at New York that there was Street lay the Lispenard meadows, any comfort in crossing the river.t the mecca of sportsmen. Further Fulton, however, was not the first to up on the island were numerous operate a steamboat. In the latter stately mansions, such as the home of part of 1787, James Rumsey exhibRobert Murray at Inclenbergh, the ited a boat on the Potomac which was Apthorpe mansion on Bloomingdale propelled by means of a steam pump road, the Beekman mansion on the which forced a stream of water from East River at Turtle Bay, and the the stern. On August 22, 1787, after Roger Morris mansion overlooking the Harlem.

* See Dunlap, History of New Netherlands; The streets of the city were for the

Watson, Historical Tales of the Olden Times in

New York City and State; Denton, Brief Demost part unpaved, and the few

scription of New York; Duer, New York as it was street-lamps of which the city boasted during the latter part of the Last Century; M. L. were rarely lighted on wet nights.

Booth, History of the City of New York; Valen.

tine, History of the City of New York. The majority of the signs on William † Stiles, in his History of the City of Brooklyn, Street were in Dutch, and a knowl- vol. iii., pp. 504–540, gives much information re.

garding the Brooklyn ferries. See also An His. edge of that language was indispen

torical Sketch of Fulton Ferry and its associate sable in the transaction of business or Ferries, by a Director (H, E. Pierrepont).

#McMaster, United States, vol. i., pp. 435–436. * McMaster, vol. i., p. 54.

Writing to Jefferson January 9, 1785, Madison † Lamb, City of New York, vol. ii., p. 286. says: "J. Rumsey, by a memorial to the last



several trials, John Fitch made a suc- up the Connecticut in a boat of his cessful trip on the Delaware at Phila- own design and construction. In 1804 delphia, in a vessel 45 feet long and John Stevens built a boat in which he 12 feet beam, with an engine having placed a Watt engine and made seva 12-inch cylinder. In 1788 and 1790 eral trips on the Hudson, and in the larger vessels were built and through- same year Oliver Evans ran a paddle out the summer one was run as a wheel vessel on the Delaware and the passenger boat at 8 miles an hour to Schuylkill.* Burlington, 20 miles distant, to Bris- Further up the State were Albany; tol, Bordentown and Trenton.* In

In Poughkeepsie, which was prosperous the summer of 1796, Fitch gave the enough to support a weekly jou ; first demonstration of a steamboat Troy, a settlement of a few houses, with a screw propeller on the Collect as were also Tarrytown and NewPond, New York. The boat was 18 burg.

burg. Albany was purely a Dutch feet long and 6 feet beam and its town. Its principal

principal streets ran boiler was a 10- or 12-gallon iron parallel with the river, were wide, unpot.t Before 1800 Elijah Ormsbee, paved, and during the winter and a Rhode Island mechanic, sailed up early spring, when the snows were the Seekonk River in a boat driven by thawing, heavy with mud. The busipaddles, and Samuel Morey steamed ness district centred about Pearl

and Water Streets. The houses, built session, represented that he had invented a

three sides of wood and the front of mechanism by which a boat might be worked with little labor, at the rate of from 25 to 40 miles brick, were constructed in the Dutch a day, against a stream running at the rate of

Gothic style, a novel feature being 10 miles an hour, and prayed that the disclosure of his invention might be purchased by the public.

the tin gutters which extended from The apparent extravagance of his pretensions the roofs over the footpaths and brought a ridicule upon them, and nothing was

which in rainy weather discharged done. In the recess of the Assembly, he exemplified his machinery to General Washington and the water into the unpaved streets. a few other gentlemen, who gave a certificate of

The valley of the Mohawk was still the reality and importance of the invention, which opened the ears of the Assembly to a second me

in its wild state. Syracuse was the morial. The act gives a monopoly for ten years, haunt of wolves and foxes; Oswego reserving a right to abolish it at any time by paying £10,000. The inventor is soliciting sim

was a frontier military post; on the ilar acts from other States, and will not, I sup- site where Rochester now stands pose, publish the secret till he either obtains or

swarmed deer and black bear; and at despairs of them."— Madison's Works (Congress ed.), vol. i., p. 128.

Saratoga the famous mineral waters * Westcott, Life of John Fitch, Inventor of the

were as yet unknown, except possibly Steamboat (1857); R. H. Thurston, Growth of the Steam Engine (1878); Pennsylvania Histor

to the Indians.t ical Society Collections, vol. i., p. 34 (May, 1851); McMaster, United States, vol. i., pp. 432–434.

† Lamb, City of New York, vol. ii., p. 424 et * McMaster, United States, vol. i., p. 50. seq.

Ť Ibid, vol. i., pp. 58–61.
Vol. III — 22



South of New York lay Philadel- lining which were the pride of the phia, the most important city of the citizens. The houses were painted time, containing 4,600 houses and with bright colors, and here and there about 32,200 population. It was the the succession was broken by a richest and the most extravagant stately brick mansion owned by a rich and fashionable city on the conti- merchant. The city was noted for nent; its houses were elegant, the its gayety, the favorite amusements streets regularly arranged, and the being balls, routs and dancing aspavements well kept and clean, but semblies.* the carriage ways were filthy and full At the time of the Revolution the of dead dogs and cats, becoming the difficulties of traveling formed an imsubject of satire until the street com- portant social obstacle to the union missioners were compelled to per- of the States, and the lack of means form their duties and render the of rapid communication undoubtedly thoroughfares clean and wholesome.* led to many misconceptions on the Its principal street and most fashion- part of the inhabitants of one section able walk was Chestnut Street, now of the country regarding the others. the great commercial street of the In 1783 two stage coaches sufficed to city. In western Pennsylvania was transport all the travelers between the frontier post of Pittsburg, the Boston and New York, and the larger successor of old Fort Duquesne, in part of the lighter freight. The 1784 numbering about 100 dwellings journey usually consumed from a and about 1,000 inhabitants. It was week to ten days, depending upon the centre from which emigrants the condition of the roads. In bad started for the West and from which weather it was often necessary that travelers were carried in keel-boats, the passengers alight and, after liftKentucky flat-boats and Indian pi- ing the wheels out of deep ruts, to rogues down the waters of the Ohio.f proceed on foot until the roads again

Baltimore, Maryland, was the next became good. Rivers like the Conimportant city to the south of Phila- necticut and the Housatonic were not delphia; Market Street was its most yet bridged, and it was necessary to beautiful, gay and fashionable quar- row across, except at such times as ter, the rows of low rambling houses the ice was sufficiently solid to bear

the weight of the coach. Oftentimes * McMaster, vol. i., pp. 64-65, note.

both in summer and winter passen† See the description of the city in the Pitts

gers were spilled from boats and burg Gazette, July 29, 1786; An Early Record of Pittsburg in Historical Magazine, vol. ii.;

drowned and all considered themCraig, History of Pittsburg; Journal of Thomas Chapman, in Historical Magazine (June, 1869); * See Scharf, History of Baltimorc (Baltimore, Autobiography of Major Samuel Forman, in His- 1874); Love, Baltimore: The Old Town and the torical Magazine (December, 1869).

Modern City (Baltimore, 1895).

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