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JOY CAUSED BY NEWS OF PEACE.

empty themselves into the river St. were immediately issued recalling all Lawrence, from those which fall into armed vessels sailing under the authe Atlantic Ocean, to the northwest- thority of the United States. Shortly ernmost head of Connecticut River." afterward, official information was It was therefore necessary to deter- received of the agreement between mine which was the St. Croix River, the commissioners of the United which Highlands was meant, what States and Great Britain, and that rivers fell into the ocean, and to preliminary articles between France which branch of the Connecticut be- and Great Britain had been ratified. longed the northwestern head of the On April 11 Congress issued a procriver. The line ran from the Con- lamation declaring a cessation of necticut along the 45th parallel to hostilities both on sea and land, the St. Lawrence, thence to the Lake

as agreed upon between the United of the Woods through the Great States and Great Britain, and enjoinLakes; from the most northwestern

ing all strictly to observe the terms point of the Lake of the Woods due of the agreement. west to the Mississippi - down the The news of the treaty created the river to the 31st degree and thence greatest satisfaction everywhere. * east along the 31st parallel to the Boudinot said: “It has diffused the ocean. The secret article was also sincerest joy

joy throughout these retained.*

States, and the terms of which must On January 20, 1783, the commis

necessarily hand down the names of sioners of France, Great Britain

its American negotiators to posterity and Spain signed preliminary arti

with the highest possible honors." cles of restoring peace between

Adams wrote to Robert Morris: “I these countries, t and at the same

thank you, sir, most affectionately time the British and American commissioners entered into an agree

for your kind congratulations on the peace.

When I consider the ment regarding the cessation of hos

number of nations concerned, the tilities in America. I On March 23 news of the general peace reached

complication of interests, extending America through the medium of a

all over the globe, the character of letter from Lafayette,ll and orders

actors, the difficulties which attended

every step of the progress, McLaughlin, The Confederation and the Con- I feel too strong a gratitude to stitution, pp. 28–29; John Adams, Works, vol.

heaven for having been conducted viii., pp. 25–26. † McLaughlin, The Confederation and the Con

safely through the storm, to be very stitution, pp. 32–33.

solicitous whether we have the ap| Bancroft, vol. vi., p. 37. | Ford's ed. of Washington's Writings, vol. x.,

John Adams, Works, vol. i., p. 396.

p. 197.

ATTITUDE OF FOREIGN NATIONS.

311

66 This

probation of mortals or not." *

wrath of man to his own glory, and Vergennes wrote to Luzerne: “ The causing the rage of war to cease boundaries must have caused aston

among the nations."' * ishment in America. No one could On February 5, 1783, Sweden achave flattered himself that the Eng knowledged the independence of the lish ministers would go beyond the United States, and she was followed headwaters of the rivers falling into on February 25 by Denmark; on the Atlantic." + De Aranda, the March 24 by Spain, and in July by Spanish ambassador, wrote:

Russia; and about the same dates federal republic is born a pigmy. A treaties of amity and commerce were day will come when it will be a giant; concluded with all of these powers.t even a Colossus, formidable to these On September 3, 1783, the definitive countries. Liberty of conscience, the treaty of peacef between Great facility for establishing a new popu- Britain and the United States was lation on immense lands, as well as signed at Paris by Adams, Jay and the advantages of the new govern- Franklin on the part of the United ment, will draw thither farmers and States, and by David Hartley on the artisans from all the nations. In a part of Great Britain.|| This treaty few years we shall watch with grief was simply a repetition of the prethe tyrannical existence of this same liminary articles signed in NovemColossus." The Venetian ambassa- ber, 1782. Early in January, 1784, dor wrote: 5. If the union of the the treaty was ratified by Congress. American provinces shall continue, It is as follows: they will become by force of time and of the arts, the most formidable

IN THE NAME OF THE Most HOLY AND UNDI

VIDED TRINITY. power in the world.”

How truly

It having pleased the Divine Providence to disthey spoke!

pose the hearts of the most serene and most poThe anniversary of the battle of tent prince, George the Third, by the grace of God

King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, DeLexington, April 19, was selected as

fender of the Faith, Duke of Brunswick and Luthe day on which the news of the nenburg, Arch-Treasurer and Prince Elector of the treaty should be proclaimed to the

holy Roman empire, etc., and of the United States

of America, to forget all past misunderstandings army. On that occasion Washing

and differences that have unhappily interrupted ton addressed the army and issued the good correspondence and friendship which orders that “ the chaplains, with the

Thacher, Military Journal, pp. 332-334; several brigades, render thanks to

Heath's Memoirs, pp. 338-341 (Abbatt's ed.). Almighty God for all his mercies, † See Bancroft, vol. vi., pp. 54–58.

I For a resumé of the debates in the British particularly for his overruling the

Parliament regarding the treaty, see Bancroft,

vol. vi., pp. 36-53. Letter of July 5, 1783, John Adams, Works, || John Adams, Works, vol. viii., p. 143. vol. viii., p. 82.

§ See Shortt and Doughty, Canadian Constitu† Pellew, John Jay, pp. 222-223.

tional Documents, pp. 491-493; British and For.

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312

THE DEFINITIVE TREATY OF PEACE.

they mutually wish to restore, and to establish such a beneficial and satisfactory intercourse between the two countries, upon the ground of reciprocal advantages and mutual convenience, as may promote and secure to both perpetual peace and harmony; and having for this desirable end already laid the foundation of peace and reconciliation, by the provisional articles signed at Paris, on the 30th of November, 1782, by the commissioners empowered on each part; which articles were agreed to be inserted in, and to constitute the treaty of peace proposed to be concluded between the crown of Great Britain and the said United States, but which treaty was not to be concluded until the terms of peace should be agreed upon between Great Britain and France, and his Britannic majesty should be ready to conclude such treaty accordingly; and the treaty between Great Britain and France having since been concluded, his Britannic majesty and the United States of America, in order to carry into full effect the provisional articles above mentioned, according to the tenor thereof, have constituted and appointed, that is to say, his Britannic majesty on his part, David Hartley, Esq., member of the Parliament of Great Britain; and the said United States on their part, John Adams, Esq., late a Commissioner of the United States of America at the court of Versailles, late dele. gate in Congress from the State of Massachusetts, and chief justice of the said state, and minister plenipotentiary of the said United States to their high mightinesses the State General of the United Netherlands; Benjamin Franklin, Esq., late delegate in Congress from the State of Pennsylvania, president of the Convention of the said State, and minister plenti potentiary from the United States of America at the court of Versailles; and John Jay, Esq., late President of Congress, and chief justice of the State of New York, and minister plenipotentiary from the said United States at the court of Madrid; to be the

plenipotentiaries for the concluding and signing the present definitive treaty; who, after having reciprocally communicated their respective full powers, have agreed upon and confirmed the fol. lowing articles.

Article I. His Britannic majesty acknowledges the said United States, viz., New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, to be free, sovereign, and independent States; that he treats them as such, and for himself, his heirs, and successors, relinquishes all claim to the gov. ernment, proprietary, and territorial rights of the same, and every part thereof.

Article II. And that all disputes which might arise in future on the subject of the boundaries of the said United States may be prevented, it is hereby agreed and declared, that the following are and shall be their boundaries, viz., from the northwest angle of Nova Scotia, viz.: that angle which is formed by a line drawn due north from the source of St. Croix River to the highlands which divide those rivers that empty themselves into the River St. Lawrence, from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, to the north-westernmost head of Connecticut River; thence drawn along the middle of that river to the forty-fifth degree of north latitude; from thence by a line due west on said latitude, until it strikes the River Iroquois or Cataraquy; thence along the middle of said river into Lake Ontario; through the middle of said Lake, until it strikes the communication by water between that lake and Lake Erie; thence along the middle of the said communication into Lake Erie, through the middle of said lake, until it arrives at the water communication between that lake and Lake Huron; thence through the middle of said lake, to the water communication between that lake and Lake Superior; thence through Lake Superior northward to the isles Royal and Philipeaux, to the Long Lake; thence through the middle of said Long Lake, and the water communication between it and the Lake of the Woods, to the said Lake of the Woods; thence through the said lake to the most north-westernmost point thereof, and from thence a due west course to the River Mississippi; thence by a line to be drawn along the middle of the said River Mississippi, until it shall intersect the northernmost part of the thirtyfirst degree of north latitude; south, by a line to be drawn due east from the determination of the line last mentioned, in the latitude of thirtyone degrees north of the equator, to the middle

eign State Papers, Compiled by the Librarian and Keeper of Papers, Foreign Office, London: 1841, vol. i., pt. i., p. 779; Treaties and Conventions of the United States, pp. 375–379 (ed. of 1889); Wharton, Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States, vol. vi., pp. 96-99; MacDonald, Select Documents, pp. 16–21; Snow, Treaties and Topics in American Diplomacy, pp. 62–67. See also the letters regarding the difficulty of securing a quorum in Congress, the various reports, etc., on the ratification of the treaty, in Ford's ed. of Jefferson's Writings, vol. iii., pp. 349, 350, 355, 365, 371, 372, 375, 376, 378 et seq., 397.

THE DEFINITIVE TREATY OF PEACE

313

or

of the River Apalachicola or Catahouche; thence along the middle thereof, to its junction with the Flint River; thence straight to the head of St. Mary's River, and thence down the middle of St. Mary's River, to the Atlantic Ocean; east, by a line to be drawn along the middle of the St. Croix from its mouth in the Bay of Fundy to its source, and from its source directly north to the aforesaid highlands, which divide the rivers that fall into the Atlantic Ocean from those which fall into the River St. Lawrence, comprehending all islands within twenty leagues of any part of the shores of the United States, and lying between lines to be drawn due east from the points where the aforesaid boundaries between Nova Scotia on the one part, and East Florida on the other, shall respectively touch the Bay of Fundy and the Atlantic Ocean, excepting such islands as now are or heretofore have been within the limits of the said province of Nova Scotia.

Article III. It is agreed, that the people of the t'nited States shall continue to enjoy unmolested, the right to take fish of every kind on the Great Bank, and on all the other banks of Newfoundland; also in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and at all other places in the sea where the inhabitants of both countries used at any time heretofore to fish; and also that the inhabitants of the United States shall have liberty to take fish of every kind on such part of the coast of Newfoundland as British fishermen shall use, (but not to dry or cure the same on that island,) and also on the coasts, bays, and creeks, of all other of his Britannic majesty's dominions in America; and that the American fishermen shall have liberty to dry and cure fish in any of the unsettled bays, harbors, and creeks of Nova Scotia, Magdalen Islands, and Labrador, so long as the same shall remain unsettled; but as soon as the same shall be settled, it shall not be lawful for the said fishermen to dry or cure fish at such settlement, without a previous agreement for that purpose with the inhabitants, proprietors, or possessors of the ground.

Article IV. It is agreed, that the creditors, on either side shall meet with no lawful impediment to the recovery of the full value in sterling money of all bona fide debts heretofore contracted.

Article V. It is agreed, that Congress shall earnestly recommend it to the legislatures of the respective states, to provide for the restitution of all estates, rights, and properties, which have been confiscated, belonging to real British subjects; and also of the estates, rights, and properties, of persons resident in districts in the possession of his majesty's arms, and who have not borne

arms against the said United States; and that persons of any other description shall have free liberty to go to any part or parts of any of the thirteen United States, and therein to remain twelve months unmolested in their endeavors to obtain the restitution of such of their estates, rights, and properties, as may have been confiscated; and that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several States a reconsidera tion and revision of all acts or laws regard. ing the premises, so as to render the said laws

acts perfectly consistent, not only with justice and equity, but with that spirit of conciliation which, on the return of the blessings of peace, should invariably prevail; and that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several States, that the estates, rights, and properties of such last-mentioned persons, shall be restored to them, they refunding to any persons who may be now in possession the bona fide price, (where any has been given), which such persons may have paid on purchasing any of the said lands, rights, or properties, since the confiscation. And it is agreed, that all persons who have any interest in confiscated lands, either by debts, marriage settlements, or otherwise, shall meet with no lawful impediment in the prosecution of their just rights.

Article VI. That there shall be no future confiscations made, nor any prosecutions commenced against any person or persons, for or by reason of the part which he or they may have taken in the present war; and that no person shall on that account suffer any future loss or damage, either in his person, liberty, or property; and that those who may be in confinement on such charges, at the time of the ratification of the treaty in America, shall be immediately set at liberty, and the prosecutions so commenced be discontinued.

Article VII. There shall be a firm and perpetual peace between his Britannic majesty and the said United States, and between the subjects of the one and the citizens of the other, wherefore all hostilities, both by sea and land, shall from henceforth cease; all prisoners, on both sides, shall be set at liberty; and his Britannic majesty shall, with all convenient speed and without causing any destruction, or carrying away any negroes or other property of the American inhabitants, withdraw all his armies, garrisons, and fleets, from the said United States, and from every post, place, and harbor within the same, leaving in all fortifications the American artillery that may be therein; and shall also order and cause all archives, records, deeds, and papers belonging to

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REVOLT OF THE TROOPS.

any of the said States, or their citizens, which in the course of the war may have fallen into the hands of his officers, to be forthwith restored, and delivered to the proper States and persons to whom they belong.

Article VIII. The navigation of the River Mississippi, from its source to the Ocean, shall forever remain free and open to the subjects of Great Britain and the citizens of the United States.

Article IX. In case it should so happen, that any place or territory, belonging to Great Britain

or to the United States, should have been con. quered by the arms of either from the other, before the arrival of the said provisional articles in America, it is agreed, that the same shall be restored without difficulty and without requiring any compensation.

Article X. The solemn ratifications of the present treaty, expedited in good and due form, shall be exchanged between the contracting parties in the space of six months, or sooner, if possible, to be computed from the day of the signature of the present treaty.

CHAPTER XXXIV.

1783,

THE ARMY DISBANDED: WASHINGTON RESIGNS HIS COMMISSION.

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Discontent among the army because of non-payment — Revolt of the troops - The Cincinnati formed –

Washington's circular letter to the governors Proclamation issued for disbanding army — Washington's farewell orders — Carleton evacuates New York; Washington takes possession - Washington's farewell to his officers -- Resigns his commission — Appendix to Chapter XXXIV. I. Washington's circular letter to the governors. II. The resignation of Washington's commission.

Because the government had not “soldiers of a day'!* marched to yet fully paid the officers and men, it Philadelphia to make demands upon was necessary that great care be ex- Congress, on the way being joined by ercised in reducing the army. Fur- many others, so that upon their loughs were freely granted on the arrival at Philadelphia, they numapplication of individuals, and upon bered about 300. Upon the arrival of leaving the army, they were enjoined the troops in the city, they marched not to return, so that in this manner to the State-house in a body where a critical moment was passed.* Dur. Congress and the State executive ing the summer, a large part of the council were holding their sessions; unpaid troops were scattered placed guards at the doors; and throughout the States without tumult threatened dire consequences unless or disorder. Up to this time the con- their demands were complied with in duct of the veteran troops had been twenty minutes. Washington was especially gratifying to Washington, early informed of the movement of but some of the new levies created

the troops toward Philadelphia and considerable disorder by their mu- immediately dispatched General tinous conduct at Lancaster, Pennsyl- Howe with a body of regulars to supvania. During June, about 80 of these

press the mutiny. Before Howe ar

* Ford's ed. of Washington's Writings, vol. 2.,

* See Marshall, Life of Washington, vol. ii., pp. 53-54; Heath's Memoirs, p. 343 et seq.

p. 272.

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