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gether with all the ships then lying armed vessels lying in the river half in the river.* In opposition to the way between Osborne and Richmond force under Phillips, Baron Steuben These were scuttled and set afire, had but a few ill-equipped troops and after which the crews escaped and consequently was unable to make any joined the State militia.* On April effectual resistance to this ruthless 30 Arnold and Phillips marched to work of devastation. The regular Manchester, opposite Richmond, on State troops had been sent to rein- the south side of the James River, force General Greene, and the militia and here also ' destroyed much did not exceed 2,000 men, and could property.t scarcely be relied upon to face regu- At about this time Lafayette arlar troops. To have hazarded a bat- rived from the North to take com. tle against the trained British sol- mand of the troops in the State. He diers would have been to court de- had been appointed to command the feat, the loss of all arms and accou- troops which Washington intended trements, and the subsequent dis- to send against Arnold, but when the couragement of the whole country. naval expedition was abandoned by Steuben, therefore, could only sit the French he returned to the head of idly by and see the country devas- the Elk where once again he was tated without being able to prevent ordered by Washington to take comit or to inflict any counter damage. mand of the troops in Virginia.# The After some slight skirmishing, there- troops under Lafayette's command fore, he retreated toward Richmond. t had been drawn chiefly from the

Arnold was now sent to Osborne, a Northern States, and as it was supsmall village on the south side of the posed the campaign would be of short James River, a few miles below Rich- duration, they were ill-equipped for mond; and on April 27 Phillips hard fighting, or in fact, any kind of marched to Chesterfield Court House, fighting in the southern climate. which had been appointed a place of Furthermore, when the troops learned rendezvous for the new Virginia that the service might be permanent, levies. At this place he destroyed the some deserted; but the great mabarracks and such of the public stores jority, inspired by the example of as had not been removed. In addi

Lossing, Field-Book of the Revolution, vol. tion, he destroyed a number of small

ii., p.


† See Arnold's report in Amold, Life of Arnold, See Arnold's report to Clinton quoted in pp. 345–346; Lossing, p. 340; Jefferson's letter of full in Arnold, Life of Arnold, pp. 344-345. May 9, 1781, in Ford's ed. of Jefferson's Writings, See also Muhlenberg, Life of Major-General vol. iii., pp. 32–34. Peter Muhlenberg, p. 248; Tower, Marquis de | See the two letters dated April 8 and 18 in LaFayette, vol. ii., pp. 291–292; Lossing, Field- Sparks' ed. of Washington's Writings, vol. viii., Book of the Revolution, vol. ii., pp. 337–339. pp. 512-513. See also Tower, Marquis de LaFay† Kapp, Life of Steuben, p. 426.

ette, vol. ii., p. 247 et seq.

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Lafayette, remained with the army self established headquarters behind and resolved to brave every danger.* the Chickahominy, some distance Knowing their condition and realiz- from Richmond. On May 7 General ing the hardships of a campaign in Phillips received instructions from the South, Lafayette sought to en- Cornwallis to march toward Peterscourage the soldiers by purchasing burg for the purpose of forming a shoes, linen, and other necessaries, junction with the British troops in using his personal credit to secure that province.* Accordingly, he imthe money with which to pay for mediately returned up the river, these supplies. His ardor for the landed one division at Brandon, and American cause stimulated all to fur- another at City Point, and on May 9 ther exertions, and the ladies at Bal- the two divisions met at Petersburg. timore organized a society for mak- So sudden and unexpected was their ing clothes suitable for summer wear arrival that some of Lafayette's offiin the South.f Lafayette and his cers, who had been sent to Peterstroops arrived at Richmond the night burg to collect boats for conveying before Phillips entered Manchester, Lafayette's troops across the river, but instead of attempting to pass the were taken prisoners.f In the meanriver in spite of Lafayette, the Brit- time General Phillips had been taken ish general marched back to Bermuda sick, and on reaching Petersburg was Hundred, destroying valuable prop- in no condition to command the erty on the way. He then embarked troops. He rapidly declined, and on his army and sailed down the river May 13 died, the command of the as far as Hog's Island, where the troops then devolving on Arnold until van of his fleet arrived on May 5.|| the arrival of a superior British

Immediately upon his arrival, and officer.|| after he had discovered the retreat Meanwhile, in December, 1780, of the British, Lafayette sent out

General Greene had taken command small parties to harass them and to

of the southern army, which at that watch their movements, while he him

time consisted of about 2,300 effective

men, ill trained, without arms, amCarrington, Battles of the Revolution, p.

munition, and other necessaries, and † Bancroft, vol. v., p. 506; Tower, Marquis de totally unfit to successfully oppose La Fayette, vol. ii., p. 260 et seq.

| Lossing, Field-Book of the Revolution, vol. ii., p. 340.

* Tower, Marquis de La Fayette, vol. ij., pp. || See Jefferson's letter of May 9, in Sparks, 305-306. Correspondence of the Revolution, vol. iii., pp. † Carrington, Battles of the Revolution, p. 307–309; Arnold's report in Arnold Life of Ar- 591; Arnold's report in Arnold, Life of Arnold, nold, p. 346; Simcoe's Military Journal, p. 199 p. 346; Simcoe's Military Journal, p. 204. et seq.; La Fayette's reports to Greene, etc., quoted I Arnold, p. 347. in Tower, Marquis de Lafayette, vol. ii., pp. 293– || Lossing, Field-Book of the Revolution, vol.


ii., pp. 340–341.




the march of the superior force under borough and not far from the conCornwallis.* Greene fully realized fluence of the Pacolet and Broad the responsibility of his position and rivers.* how much was expected of him. On December 20 Greene left CharThough he knew the danger of his lotte with the other division of the situation at the present time, he army, arriving at Hick's Corner, on nevertheless took the risk of dividing the east side of the Peedee, opposite his forces, placing one division under the Cheraw Hills, about seventy General Morgan, and the other under miles northeast of Wynnsborough, on General Huger, with the whole sub- December 29. He had marched to ordinate to himself. In this way he that place with the hope that the could more closely watch the move- troops would find more plentiful subments of the enemy, and more effec- sistence; but after remaining there tively harrass him at every turn; for some time he found that his burwhile on the other hand, if he kept dens in this respect were not much his forces intact, he could no more lightened, as the destructive warfare effectually oppose

Cornwallis. † carried on between the Whigs and Under Morgan's general supervision, Tories of that section had completely therefore, Greene placed 320 infantry laid waste the whole country. While under Colonel John Eager Howard, in this position, however, he did not about 200 riflemen under Major Trip- remain inactive. On December 27 he lett, and about 80 light dragoons

detached Colonel Washington with under Colonel William Washington. I his cavalry and about 200 militia, who Morgan was then dispatched to the after marching 40 miles, surprised a south of the Catawba to watch and body of Tories near Ninety-Six. annoy the enemy at Wynnsborough Exasperated by the recent outrages and Camden, though he was cautioned on the part of the British, the Con

tinentals fell on the Tories with unto use every precaution against surprise. On December 25, 1780, Mor

controllable fury and slaughtered the gan took a position toward the west

entire party without losing a single ern frontier of South Carolina, about man. As a result of this expedition, , fifty miles northwest of Wynns

Cornwallis was unable at any subsequent time to persuade a large body

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this. *

of Tories to take the field against the would stand against the British, MorAmericans. At about this time, Colo- gan determined to face about and ennel Andrew Pickens and Major gage Tarleton in battle. In order to McCall, with 260 mounted troops, ar- make his men fight more desperately, rived in camp from the Carolinas.

he placed them so that their retreat Cornwallis had determined to

was cut off, thus forcing them to fight await reinforcements under General

for their lives. As Morgan said: Leslie before he began offensive

" When men are forced to fight, they operations, but the maneuvers of

will sell their lives dearly." * Morgan in the vicinity of Ninety-Six had alarmed him. On January 1,

Morgan took a position at Cow

pens, about 6 miles from the Broad without awaiting the arrival of reinforcements, he sent Tarleton in com

River, feeling certain that the 1,000

men under him would defeat the mand of 1,000 men to annihilate Mor

forces under Tarleton. On the morngan's force, no doubt being entertained of his ability to accomplish ing of January 17, Morgan formed When Tarleton arrived at

his troops in two divisions; the first, Ninety-Six he found everything composed of militia under Colonel quiet, as the Americans had retired Pickens, was placed in front of a after some slight skirmishing. He

wood and in view of the enemy; while then determined to march against the second, composed of marksmen Morgan in the hope of surprising him and old Continental troops under or at least of driving him beyond the command of Colonel Howard, was Broad River. Cornwallis approved concealed in the wood itself. Beyond of the design and resolved to aid the second division, and acting as a Tarleton by ascending the left bank

reserve, was the cavalry under Coloof the Broad River, thus menacing nel Washington.f Tarleton's army Morgan's rear. At first everything

was formed in two divisions, the inprospered with the British. Having

fantry composing the centre of each passed the Ennoree and the Tiger,

while the cavalry, which was much Tarleton pushed along the banks of

superior to the Americans, was on the Pacolet. Morgan retreated be

the flanks. Though Tarleton's troops fore Tarleton, and the pursuit was

were fatigued by their long march in pressed with unabated vigor. Realizing that it would be extremely dan

* See Morgan's letter quoted in Carrington, gerous to ford the river with an en

Battles of the Revolution, p. 543; Fisher, terprising enemy hanging upon his Struggle for American Independence, vol. ii., p.

384. rear, and believing that his men

† Fiske, American Revolution, vol. ii., pp. 253

254; Lossing, Field-Book of the Revolution, vol. * F. V. Greene, Life of Greene, p. 185 et seq. ii., pp. 433-434.

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