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Article 1.—Their respective majesties

By the declaration delivered to the belligerent fully and sincerely determined to keep upon the powers, their contracting majesties have already most friendly terms with the present belligerent challenged the privileges founded on Natural powers, and preserve the most exact neutrality: Right, whence spring the Freedom of Trade and they solemnly declare their firm intention to be, Navigation, as well as the right of Neutral that their respective subjects shall strictly ob- Powers: and being fully determined not to de. serve the Laws forbidding all contraband trade pend in future merely on an arbitrary interprewith the powers now being, or that may here- tation, devised to answer some private advanafter be, concerned in the present disputes.

tages or cocerns, they mutually covenanted as Article II.—To prevent all equivocation or followeth: misunderstanding of the word Contraband, their 1st. That it will be lawful for any ship, what. imperial and royal majesties declare, that the ever, to sail freely from one port to another, or meaning of the said word is solely restrained to along the coasts of the powers not at war. such goods and commodities, as are mentioned 2nd. That all merchandize and effects belong. under that denomination, in the treaties subsist- ing to the subjects of the said belligerent powers, ing between their said majesties and either of the and shipped on neutral bottoms, shall be entirely belligerent powers. Her imperial majesty abid- free; except contraband goods. ing principally by the X. and XI, articles of the 3d. In order to ascertain what constitutes the treaty of commerce with Great Britain; the con- blockade of any place or port, it is to be underditions therein mentioned, which are founded on stood to be in such predicament when the assail. the Rights of Nations, being understood to ex- ing power has taken such a station, as to expose tend to the kings of France and Spain; as there to imminent danger, any ship or ships that would is at present no specific treaty .of commerce be- attempt to sail in or out of the said ports. tween the two latter and the former. His Dan. 4th. No neutral ship shall be stopped, withish majesty, on his part, regulates his conduct out a material and well-grounded cause; and in in this particular, by the first article of his such cases, justice shall be done to them, without treaty with England, and by the 26th and 27th loss of time; and besides indemnifying, each and of that subsisting between his said majesty and every time, the party aggrieved or thus stopped the king of France, extending the provisions without sufficient cause, full satisfaction shall be made in the latter to the Catholic king; there given to the high contracting powers, for the being no treaty ad hoc, between Denmark and insult offered to their flag. Spain.

Article IV.- In order to protect officially the Article III.—And whereas, by this means, the general trade of their respective subjects, on the word contraband, conformable to the treaties now fundamental principles aforesaid, her imperial extant, and the stipulations made between the and his royal majesty have thought proper, for contracting powers, and those that are now at effecting such purpose, each respectively to fit war, is fully explained; especially by the treaty out a proportionate rate of ships of war and between Russia and England, of the 20th of June,

frigates. The squadron of each of the contract1766; between the latter and Denmark, of the

ing powers shall be employed in escorting conilth of July, 1670; and between their Danish

voys, according to the particular circumstances and most Christian majesties, of August 23d,

of the navigators and traders of each nation. 1642; the will and opinion of the high contract

Article V.- Should any of the merchantmen ing powers are, that all other trade whatsoever shall be deemed, and remain free and unre

belonging to the subjects of the contracting strained.

powers, sail in a latitude where there shall be

no ships of war of their own nation, and thus be Washington, pp. 65, 67, 70; Reed, Life of Joseph deprived of the protection; in such case, the comReed, vol. ii., p. 325; Lossing, Field-Book of the mander of the squadron belonging to the other Revolution, vol. i., p. 314.

friendly power shall, at the request of said mer. TREATY OF ARMED NEUTRALITY.


chantmen, grant them sincerely, and bona fide, all necessary assistance. The ships of war and frigates, of either of the contracting powers, shall thus protect and assist the merchantmen of the other: provided nevertheless, that, under the sanction of such required assistance and protection, no contraband shall be carried on, nor any prohibited trade, contrary to the Laws of Neutrality.

Article VI.- The present convention cannot be supposed to have any relative effect; that is, to extend to the differences that may have arisen since its being concluded, unless the controversy should spring from continual vexations, which might tend to aggrieve and oppress all the European nations.

Article VII.— If, notwithstanding the cautious and friendly care of the contracting powers, and their steady adherence to an exact Neutrality, the Russian and Danish merchantmen should happen to be insulted, plundered, or captured by any of the armed ships of privateers, belonging to any of the belligerent powers: in such case, the ambassador or envoy of the aggrieved party, to the offending court, shall claim such ship or ships, insisting on a proper satisfaction, * * * and never neglect to obtain a reparation for the insult offered to the flag of his court. The minister of the other contracting power shall at the same time, in the most efficacious and vigorous manner, defend such requisitions, which shall be supported by both parties with unanimity. But in case of any refusal, or even delay in redressing the grievances complained of; then their majesties will retaliate against the powers that shall thus refuse to do them justice, and immediately agree together on the most proper means of making well-founded reprisals.

Article VIII.- In case either of the contracting powers, or both at the same time, should be in any manner aggrieved or attacked, in quence of the present convention, or for any reason relating thereto; it is agreed, that both powers will join, act in concert for their mutual defence, and unite their forces, in order to procure to themselves an adequate and perfect satisfaction, both in regard to the insult put upon their respective flags, and the losses suffered by their subjects.

Article IX.- This convention shall remain in force for and during the continuance of the present war; and the obligation enforced thereby, will serve as the ground-work of all treaties that may be set on foot hereafter: according to future

VOL. III – 16

occurrences, and on the breaking out of any fresh maritime wars which might unluckily disturb the tranquillity of Europe. Meanwhile, all that is hereby agreed upon, shall be deemed as binding and permanent, in regard both to mer: cantile and naval affairs; and shall have the force of Law, in determining the rights of Neutral Nations.

Article X.— The chief aim and principal object of the present convention being to secure the Freedom of Trade and Navigation, the high contracting powers have antecedently agreed, and do engage to give to all other neutral powers free leave to accede to the present treaty, and, after a thorough knowledge of the principles on which it rests, share equally in the obligations and advantages thereof.

Article XI.- In order that the powers, now at war, may not be ignorant of the strength and nature of the engagements entered into by the two courts aforesaid, the high contracting parties shall give notice, in the most friendly manner, to the belligerent powers, of the measures by them taken; by which, far from meaning any manner of hostility, or causing any loss or injury to other powers, their only intention is to protect the trade and navigation of their respective subjects.

Article XII.- This convention shall be ratified by the contracting powers, and the ratifications interchanged between the parties in due form, within the space of six weeks, from the day of its being signed, or even sooner, if possible. In witness whereof, and by virtue of the full powers granted us for the purpose, we have put our hands and seals to the present treaty. Given at Copenhagen, July the 19th, 1780.



H. EIKSTEDT. Acceded to, and signed by the Plenipotentiaries of the court of Sweden, at St. Petersburg, 21st of July, 1780: and by the States-General accepted, November 20th, 1780; and signed at St. Petersburg January 5th, 1781, with the addition only of article *

Article XIII.— If the respective squadrons, or ships of war, should meet or unite to enact in conjunction, the command in chief will be regulated according to what is only commonly practised between the crown heads and the republic.

con se




1781. ARNOLD IN VIRGINIA; CORNWALLIS AND RAWDON IN THE CAROLINAS. Arnold goes to Virginia Washington's ineffectual efforts to intercept him — Arnold's depredations in Virginia —

General Phillips sent to Virginia Battle of Petersburg — Lafayette placed in command of troops in Virginia — Condition of the troops — Death of General Phillips — General Greene takes command of southern army — Army divided — Morgan's attack on Ninety-Six — Battle of Cowpens — Cornwallis pursues Morgan The race between Greene and Cornwallis — Battle of Guilford Court House — Battle of Hobkirk's Hill – American forces attack Orangeburgh, Fort Watson and Fort Mott — Partisan warfare in Georgia Greene's attack on Ninety-Six — Army placed in summer quarters Battle of Eutaw Springs – Close of the war in South Carolina.

Meanwhile, Arnold had been sent Washington now entertained great by the British commander to devas- hope of apprehending Arnold, and tate the Virginia coast and Washing- ordered Lafayette, should he capture ton was anxious to intercept him. Arnold, to grant him no terms which Toward the middle of January, 1781, would save him from the consea storm overtook the British fleet off

quences of his crime.* But the delay the east end of Long Island and so in the departure of the French fleet much damaged it as to render the frustrated Washington's designs, for French fleet greatly superior on the

the British were afforded an opporThe French admiral, Des

Des- tunity to repair the damage to their touches, who had succeeded to the feet and immediately set out in purcommand of the fleet upon the death suit of the French. On March 16 the of DeTernay, was now induced to two fleets met off the coast of Virsend a force to the Chesapeake to act ginia and an indecisive engagement against Arnold, but the ships re- occurred, each party claiming the victurned without accomplishing any- tory. But the English were successthing save the capture of a 50-gun ful in their object, for they diverted ship, the Romulus, on the way from the attention of the French and comCharleston to Chesapeake Bay.

Bay. pelled them to return to Newport Washington himself then went to

without in

any way molesting Newport, and on March 6, in confer

Arnold.t ence with the French commanders, persuaded them to send the whole

Tower, Marquis de LaFayette, vol. ii., pp. 219fleet to the Chesapeake with a detach- 227, 239. ment of troops aboard. Owing to un

See Washington's letter to Lafayette, Feb.

20, 1781,- Sparks' ed. .of Washington's Writings, foreseen circumstances, however, the

vol. vii., pp. 417-419. fleet did not depart until the 8th.* † Fisher, Struggle for American Independence,

vol. ii., pp. 451-453; Tower, Marquis de LaFay* On the preparations for this expedition see ette, vol. ii., pp. 241–242.




While these operations were taking Westover January 7, and on the 10th, place at the North, Arnold had after some skirmishing, reëmbarked. landed at Westover on the James He then sailed down the river, on his River, January 4, 1781. In command way destroying the stores at Smithof the American troops in that part field and Mackay's Mills.* On the of the State was Baron Steuben, but 20th he arrived at Portsmouth, where he was unable to do more than re- it was his intention to establish a move the stores from Petersburg to permanent camp. Arnold states his a place of greater security. Imme- loss during the entire expedition at diately upon landing, Arnold 7 men killed and 23 wounded.† marched toward Richmond, quickly At this time the troops under dispersing a few regulars who tried Baron Steuben were in no condition to oppose his advance. Upon learn- to take the offensive against Arnold. ing the object of Arnold, Steuben put The American general could only forth every exertion to save the post his troops at convenient places stores at Richmond and succeeded to prevent incursions of the British in removing the greater part across into the country, and to prevent the the river and to West Ham, at the loyal element in the population from head of the rapids.*

carrying provisions to the British, There was little opposition to While Arnold lay at Portsmouth, Arnold's entrance into Richmond.

Richmond. Washington was putting forth every With 500 men he halted there and effort to capture him, but, as we have sent forward a detachment under seen, the plan failed through the inLieutenant-colonel J. G. Simcoe to ability of the French to render West Ham, where a foundry, powder effective aid. $ The British now remagazine, a boring mill, and a con- solved to increase Arnold's force, siderable quantity of provisions and and about the middle of March sent military stores were destroyed. Sim

General Phillips (one of the officers coe then returned to Richmond, where

captured with Burgoyne) from New the public property, together with

York, in command of 2,000 picked large quantities of rum, salt, and

men. Phillips arrived at Portsmouth other stores were destroyed.t Hav

on the 26th, and being the senior offiing completed the work of destruction at Richmond, Arnold returned to

See Steuben's letter of January 11, 1781, in

Sparks, Correspondence of the Revolution, vol. * Lossing, Field-Book of the Revolution, vol. iii., pp. 203–205; Lossing, Field-Book of the

Revolution, vol. ii., pp. 237–238. 228, p. † Carrington, Battles of the Revolution, p. † Arnold, Life of Arnold, pp. 342-343. See 549; Jefferson's letter to Washington in Sparks, also J. Austin Stephens, LaFayette's Expedition Correspondence of the Revolution, vol. iii., pp. Against Arnold. 199–203; Simcoe, Military Journal, p. 161 et $ Hildreth, History of the United States, vol. seq.; Cooke, Virginia, pp. 456–457.

iii., pp. 339–341.




cer, took command of the British entered Williamsburg without oppositroops in Virginia.

tion. From that central point he Phillips wasted no time in begin- dispatched small expeditions throughning offensive operations. He first out the surrounding country to decompleted the fortifications at Ports- stroy all public stores and property mouth, and then, on April 18, with which could be found. Having com2,500 men sailed up the James River pleted this work of devastation, he in order to destroy everything which reëmbarked and sailed up the river to

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