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André was anxious to return to Hudson between the American and the Vulture with the least possible British lines, and when about a mile delay, but that ship had been fired north of Tarrytown, André was acupon from shore and had dropped costed by three armed men who dedown the river some distance, in con- manded to know his destination. sequence of which André was unable Supposing himself to be among to persuade the boatmen to carry him friends, André said: “I hope you the greater distance necessary to put belong to our party.” him on board the ship. He there- party?" one of the men asked. “ The fore had no alternative but to return lower party,” answered André. As to the British lines by land. He he was answered in the affirmative, thereupon changed his regimentals André then declared himself to be a for citizen's dress over which he British officer engaged upon pressirs threw a great coat, and accompanied business, but perceiving from the by Smith, set out a little before sun- countenances of the three men that set upon his return trip. He crossed he had made a mistake, he showed the river at King's Ferry to Ver- Arnold's pass and urged them not to planck's Point, and shortly after detain him.* The three men, John dark took the road toward New York. Paulding, Isaac Van Wart, and David On the outposts the two men were Williams, refused his request, ordered challenged by a sentinel, but after him to dismount, and then proceeded close scrutiny André's pass secured to search him. In his stockings were his release with an apology. He was discovered the papers which Arnold advised to remain all night in that had given him detailing the works vicinity because of the marauders in- and forces at West Point, etc. festing the “ neutral ground," and it Knowing that the men had sufficient was only after much persuasion on evidence to condemn him as a spy, the part of Smith that André finally André offered them large sums of consented to do so. At daybreak, money for his release,f but they reafter a night of great restlessness jected the bribe and a few hours and uneasiness, André and Smith afterward André was lodged in conagain started. After traveling some finement at Newcastle,. the nearest distance, the two men separated and military post, under command of André continued his journey toward Lieutenant-colonel John Jameson.|| New York alone.* While passing

* See the testimony in Sparks, Life and Treason over the “ neutral ground,” a tract

of Arnold, pp. 223–226; Irving, Life of Washing. some 30 miles in extent along the

ton, vol. iv., p. 126.

† Lossing, Field-Book of the Revolution, vol. i., Fisher, Struggle for American Independence, vol. ii., pp. 306–307; Lossing, Field-Book of the | Irving, Life of Washington, vol. iv., 129. Revolution, vol. i., pp. 753–755.

|| On the 3d of November, it was resolved, " That

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When Jameson perceived the im- send the prisoner to West Point.* portance of the papers found upon Fortunately, he sent the papers with André, he seems to have lost his another note to meet Washington senses entirely. With the absolute who was then supposed to be on the proof of Arnold's treachery in his road returning from Hartford. In possession, Jameson was so devoid the evening Major Benjamin Tallof sagacity as to write a short note madge, second in command, came in to Arnold telling him of André's from White Plains, and being thorarrest and of his determination to oughly astonished and highly indig

nant at the news of the treachery of Congress have a high sense of the virtuous and

Arnold, begged Jameson to detain patriotic conduct of John Paulding, David Williams, and Isaac VanWart: in testimony

the prisoner at the post. Finally whereof, ordered, that each of them receive Jameson reluctantly consented to do annually, $200 in specie, or an equivalent in the

this, though he still persisted in sendcurrent money of these states, during life, and that the Board of War be directed to procure foring his letter to Arnold, thus giving each of them, a silver medal, on one side of which,

him fair warning that his treachery shall be a shield, with this inscription, ‘Fidelity,' and on the other, the following motto, Vincit

was discovered and sufficient time to Amor Patriae,' and forward them to the com

escape capture.t mander-in-chief, who is requested to present the

André now realized that further same, with a copy of this resolution, and the thanks of Congress for their fidelity, and the attempts to conceal his true position eminent service they have rendered their country.”

would be foolhardy, for he knew that See Journals of Congress, vol, vi., p. 154; Thacher, Military Journal, p. 213, footnote; Lossing, pp.

the papers sent to Washington would 773–774. There has been much dispute as to immediately establish his position as whether it was “sterling virtue or the hope of a larger reward from Congress than André offered

a spy. On September 24, therefore, that prompted the men to turn André over to he wrote a note to Washington rethe nearest patriot officer. Against their honesty vealing his name and rank, and enit is argued by many people who knew the cir. cumstances that these men consulted for some

deavoring to prove that he time before refusing the bribe and then rejected neither an imposter nor a spy. He it only because the risk was too great and they

asserted that he had come on the had no faith in its being paid. Major Tallmadge believed that the men would have allowed André “ neutral ground” for the purpose to enter New York if they had had the faintest idea that the money would be paid then, but they * Thacher, Military Journal, p. 214. were afraid, if they sent a messenger after the † Jameson wrote to Washington on September money with a note from André telling their place 27 as follows: "I am very sorry that I wrote to of concealment, that a British detachment would General Arnold. I did not think of a British ship be sent to capture them and release André, in being up the river, and expected that, if he was which case they would be losers. On the various the man he has since turned out to be, he would points of the controversy, see Benson, Vindication come down to the troops in this quarter, in which of the Captors of André; Abbatt, Crisis of the case I should have secured him. I mentioned my Revolution, p. 31; Boynton, History of West intention to Major Tallmadge, and some others of Point, chap. vii.; J. J. Boudinot, Life of Boudinot, the Field-Officers, all of whom were clearly of the vol. i., pp. 192–203; Ford's ed. of Washington's opinion that it would be right, until I could hear Writings, vol. vii., pp. 417–420, vol. viii., pp. 444– from your Excellency.” — See Sparks, Correspond445, 449, 455.

ence of the Revolution, vol. iii., p. 102.

he was



of consulting with another party, and for some time, he and his family, tothat he had unknowingly gone within gether with the aides, sat down to the American lines.* In other ways breakfast. While at the table, the he also tried to prove that his rank messenger from Jameson arrived and entitled him to considerations other presented the letter to Arnold, giving than those usually accorded a spy. him the first information of André's

Meanwhile, on the evening of Sep capture. “Yet," says Irving, “in tember 24, Washington had arrived this awful moment he gave evidence at Fishkill, eighteen miles from of that quickness of mind which had Arnold's quarters, intending to go to won laurels for him when in the path West Point that evening. One of the of duty.'* With a self-control that officers, however, urged him to re- was amazing, Arnold read the letter, main over night at Fishkill, and it and, arising, informed the company was not until early on the morning that he must proceed at once to West of the 25th that he set off toward Point. He then went to his wife's West Point, sending word ahead that chamber, and calling her to him inhe would breakfast with Arnold at formed her of the circumstances and Robinson's house. When nearly that he must fly for his life. Leaving opposite West Point, Washington her in a swoon on the floor, he hastily drove his horse from the main road rode to the edge of the river, entered down a lane, and was thereupon re- a barge which was waiting there for minded by Lafayette that this road him, and urging the men forward by did not lead to Arnold's house and promises of reward, he soon reached that at that time Mrs. Arnold was un- safety aboard the Vulture.t Thence doubtedly awaiting them for break- he was conveyed to New York, and fast. With some words as to the of- later departed for Virginia. ficers being in love with Mrs. Arnold, Shortly afterward Washington Washington insisted upon riding still reached headquarters at Robinson's further to examine the redoubts on house, and being informed that that side of the river, and sent for- Arnold had crossed the river, he deward two of his aides to Mrs. Arnold termined to hurry breakfast and to to explain the cause of delay.t

follow Arnold as soon as possible. When Arnold learned that Wash

As the whole party crossed the river, ington and his suite would not arrive Washington remarked: “ Gentlemen,

I am glad General Arnold has gone * See the letter in Lossing, Field-Book of the Revolution, vol. i., pp. 757-758, notes; Irving, Life of Washington, vol. iv., pp. 132–133; Arnold, * Life of Washington, vol. iv., p. 138. Life of Arnold, pp. 292–293.

† Fiske, American Revolution, vol. ii., pp. 225† Lossing, Field-Book of the Revolution, vol. i., 226; Heath's Memoirs, p. 235 (Abbatt's ed.); p. 726. Another version is given in Irving, Life Lossing, pp. 726–727; Arnold, Life of Arnold, pp. of Washington, vol. iv., p. 137.


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