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without condescending to make an apology for the delay. He waved the business for which they had been assembled, and enjoined them with an authoritative air and tone to represent in their several districts the favour offered by the king to such as would compromise for the renewal of their defective titles to their estates, and to convince the protestants that the support of the royal army was absolutely necessary for their defence. On the next day, when the council was again summoned, they evinced an unwillingness to supply the king's necessities beyond the present year. Wentworth, enraged, proudly informed them that he had summoned them, not from necessity, but from a willingness that they should have an opportunity to display their loyalty and zeal; and that, at the peril of his head, he would undertake to provide for the king's troops amongst them without their assistance. Awed by his lofty demeanour and by the allusion he made to the odious practice of free quarters, they abjectly agreed to furnish another year's provision, to be levied on the protestants, the catholics having provided for the last.
The next step of Wentworth was to summon a parliament, in the lower house of which he hoped to be able to balance the · catholic and protestant parties, and to tamper privately with
each. The custom of consulting the lords of the Pale, previously to its being convened, was contemptuously neglected. When the council appeared disinclined to observe the mode prescribed by him with respect to the bills to be transmitted, he interrupted their consultations, and informed them that they were not to consider what might be agreeable to the people but what might please the king. On the meeting of parliament, no less than six entire subsidies, consisting of two hundred and forty thousand pounds, were voted by the commons, who relied on the royal promise to grant fresh patents for the estates in Connaught and in the county of Clare. The deputy, however, having secured the subsidies, so far from fulfilling this promise, proceeded immediately to take steps for seizing every estate in Connaught, with a view to establish a new plantation throughout the whole province. In the prosecution of this his favourite scheme, he advanced first to Roscommon, the inhabitants of Leitrim having already consented to the surrendry
of their lands. Having called a jury of the principal, men of the county, he informed them, at the head of the commissioners of the plantation, that the scheme would be attended with great advantage to their country, that the king had no interest in it beyond the welfare of his people ; that their consent was by no means necessary to establish the king's title, but that it was his majesty's wish they should share in the glory of executing a scheme so beneficial to the commonwealth and to themselves; and that, if they did not return a favourable verdict, the right ful claims of their sovereign would be enforced by a more summary mode of procedure. Conscious of the violent and determined character of the deputy, intimidated by his lofty spirit, and terrified into submission by his menaces, the jury found a title for the king. Their example was followed without hesitation by the inhabitants of Mayo and Sligo. But the jury of Galway, more spirited than those of the former counties, peremptorily refused to acknowledge a title in the crown. Wentworth, exasperated by their obstinacy, imposed on each of them the enormous fine of four thousand pounds, and seized on their persons and estates till the sums should be paid. On the sheriff, also, he adjudged a fine of one thousand pounds for having returned such a jury.
These and other harsh and imperious measures of lord Wentworth were attended with such universal detestation, that complaints against his administration at length reached the ears of the king. He was recalled; but, on representing his conduct personally to his majesty, was confirmed in his authority with still greater powers than before, and was created earl of Strafford and knight of the garter.
On his return he convened a parliament, which readily voted to the king six more subsidies; but which at the same time drew up a very strong remonstrance, setting forth in fourteen separate articles the grievances under which the nation laboure ed; and appointed a committee to convey it to London. He next, alarmed at the critical posture of the king's affairs both in England and Scotland, raised a body of nine thousand men for his assistance, eight thousand of whom were catholics, on whose loyalty and zeal he knew he could best depend. Meantime the committee appointed to convey the remon
strance of parliament, had been received with particular favour by the popular party, who expected considerable assistance from them in the execution of the favourite design then in agitation the overthrow of the earl of Strafford. Their public instructions directed them to apply to the king only for redress; but they were privately ordered to address themselves to the English house of commons, a power then growing every day stronger than the throne. This step alarmed the earl of Strafford, who perceived in it the first symptom of his danger. By the advice of Charles, however, who assured him he still had power to save him, he fatally, contrary to the dictates of his own judgment and the urgent solicitations of his friends, repaired to London and gave himself up to the parliament, by which he was impeached, committed to custody, and afterwards ordered to suffer death as a traitor. Before the execution of Strafford, the king made a speech to the house of lords, in which he assured them he was well convinced the earl had been guilty of high misdemeanours, but that he could by no means think he had imagined high treason. Notwithstanding this ac. knowledgment of the earl's misconduct, however, so infatuated was Charles with his favourite's system, and so implicated was he himself in all the acts of his administration, that, by his ad. vice, he appointed his kinsman sir Henry Wandesworth to succeed him in the lord lieutenancy. On the death of Wandesworth, which quickly followed his appointment, he deputed sir William Parsons and lord Dillon, another relative of Strafford, as lords justices of the kingdom : but finding Dillon was exceedingly disagreeable to the Irish, he afterwards cancelled the commission, and appointed sir John Borlase in his stead. Immediately on the commencement of the exercise of their functions, these ministers proceeded to re-establish throughout the kingdom the former moderation in the execution of government, mollifying the rigorous measures of Strafford, and adapting their conduct to the laws and established customs of the realm.
About this time Charles began to be seriously alarmed at the symptoms of disaffection which began to appear in Ireland. Conscious of the repeated instances of insincerity with which he had treated them, he attempted by a last effort to recover
the affections of his injured subjects. In a letter he directed the lords justices to publish to the people all the royal graces he had formerly promised them; and to assure them that they should henceforth more particularly enjoy his favour and protection. Both houses of parliament returned thanks to his majesty for the publication of his graces, and prayed that the present parliament should not be dissolved nor prorogued until laws should be prepared for the redress of all grievances. As the chancellor Bolton had insinuated a doubt, on a charge against him, whether, since the enacting of a law, called the law of Poynings, the Irish house of lords had power of judicature in capital cases, both houses joined in a solemn protestation declaring that the court of parliament ever was and is the supreme judicatory of the realm. After the transaction of this and some other business, both houses of parliament adjourned, during which recess the grand rebellion of one thousand six hundred and forty-one broke out.
THE hatred of the old Irish to the English for what they esteemed the usurpation of their country; the grievous and oppressive measures which still continued to be enforced by the commissioners and agents of plantation; the dispossessing of private property by chicane and the revival of obsolete claims of the crown; the insincerity, and faithless "conduct of the king, who evaded the fulfilment of his promises to the recusants; the insolent and impolitic behaviour of the new adventurers, who treated the whole of the natives of Ireland, both of Irish and English blood, as traiterous and disaffected slaves, and selfishly represented them as such to the government; the violent doctrines of ecclesiastics educated on the Continent, who laboured with unwearied assiduity to instil into the minds of the people the most deep-rooted hatred to heretical opinions and an heretical government; the secret and cautious proceedings of the puritans, who by a series of aggressions, provoked the recusants frequently to take arms, in order that they might become obnoxious to administration, which, by treating them with rigour, might be deprived of the advantages resulting from catholic loyalty, during that contest with the power of the crown which they themselves meditated; all contributed to foster the latent spark of disaffection which now exploded with such destructive effects. The government, lulled into a fatal security by the many false rumours of conspiracies, plots, treasons, and insurrections, which from time to time continued to be spread abroad, took no precautionary steps to meet the impending danger. Even the intelligence transmitted from the British cabinet that great numbers of Irish ecclesiastics had poured into the