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England. He resigned all claim to any lands, excepting such as should be conferred upon him by letters patent; promising at the same time to assist the state in abolishing all barbarous customs and in establishing law and introducing civilization among his people. The lord deputy, on the part of the queen, promised a full pardon to him and all his followers; to himself the restoration of his blood and honours, with a new patent for his lands, except some portions reserved for certain chieftains received into favour, and some for the use of English garrisons.

Thus ended this formidable rebellion ; but it was a melancholy consideration that the reduction of Ireland to a state of şullen submission, through famine, pestilence, and bloodshed, cost England near four millions and a half of money: a sum which, in that age, was truly enormous, and to the support of which her resources were by no means adequate.

No insurgent now remained in the kingdom who had not obtained or sued for mercy. Many, indeed, had been forced to make their escape to the Continent, where they subsisted themselves by serving in the armies of Spain: and thus à race of Irish exiles was trained to arms, filled with a malignant resentment against the English. The ghastliness of famine and desolation was now somewhat enlivened by the restoration of tranquillity, though the price of provisions had increased to so exorbitant a pitch that it is astonishing the inhabitants were able to subsist; every article having advanced to at least four times the value it had bore but a few years before.

With the rebellion ended the reign of Elizabeth, a princess distinguished by the wisdom and vigour of her administration in England, but who appears to have miserably mistaken her true interest in Ireland. Enthusiastically beloved by the English, she drew on herself the detestation of her Irish subjects. Politic and artful, she hoped the blackness of her actions would never be exposed to the light of truth. Her debaucheries, however, escaped not the observation even of her own times. Since then, her character has justly been painted in all its genuine blackness and deformity. Perfidious and deceitful, she hesitated at no step, however vile, which tended to forward her views; and she advanced in iniquity with a cautious circumspection that proves her villany to have been as deliberate as her principles were depraved. Her *treacherous and cruel treatment of the amiable and accomplished, though unfortunate Mary, queen of Scots, who fled to her for protection against the attempts of her rebellious subjects, unjustly detaining her many years in prison on the groundless charges of her enemies, the effects of her own intrigues, and whom she at length caused to be beheaded, though conscious of her innocence and of her own duplicity, will stand to her eternal dishonour, and to the disgrace of that legislature which suffered so flagrant a violation of the laws of justice and humanity to be inflicted on the person of a sovereign prince, a fugitive whom it was bound by every principle of honour to cherish and to protect !-To gratify the injustice, the passions, or the caprice of a monarch, to what degradations, to what abject compliances, has not an English legislature descended ?

* See Whittaker's Mary Queen of Scots Vindicated.

CHAPTER IV.

TO Elizabeth succeeded, under the title of James I. James the sixth king of Scotland, a descendant of Henry VII. by the female line, a prince eminent for profound erudition and a pacific temper, though unskilled in politics and rather pedantic. Under his government, however, Ireland began to assume a quite different appearance. At the time of his accession, the country was so reduced by famine and desolation that all thoughts of purchasing independence by a renewal of such calamities were abandoned. England, on the other hand, was unable longer to support the excessive loss of blood and treasure which was incurred by her struggles with the Irish. It was therefore unquestionably the interest of the crown to endeavour to extend its influence not by violent but by amicable means. It was no less the interest of the Irish to submit with patience to a yoke which they could not shake off. The new monarch consequently endeavoured to ingratiate himself with his Hibernian subjects. A report being spread, which was rather encouraged than discountenanced by James, of his being attached to the Romish church, tended further to pave the way for the peaceable reception of his administration. An act of oblivion and indemnity was passed, whereby all offences against the crown, all injuries and trespasses committed by subject upon subject, were for ever pardoned and extinguished, never afterwards to be revived. The whole of the Irish were admitted to a full participation of the rights of English subjects. The lords surrendered their lands and received fresh grants of them according to English law. By this means the estates of each chief descended by hereditary right to his next heir according to the English mode of succession, instead of being conveyed to perhaps a distant branch of the sept, à cause of much dissension and hostility. The new grants were confined to the lànds actually in possession of each lord; by which the landed interest of the whole island was new modelled, and the landed property became permanently ascertained and fixed, so as in future to prevent in part all disputes.

By the lands which from time to time had been escheated to the crown, particularly the forfeiture of the territories of Ty

rone and Tyrconnel, who fled the kingdom in consequence of · an information of high treason having been lodged against them,

James found himself in possession of a vast tract, consisting of near five hundred thousand acres, in the six northern counties of Tyrconnel (now called Donegal,) Tyrone, Derry, Fermanagh, and Armagh, a tract of country so covered with wood, that it afforded a secure retreat not only to rebels, but to great bands of Scotch and Irish banditti, who infested the open country; ånd which, but for the seasonable interposition of government, might have for ever continued a wild unprofitable waste, disfiguring the face of the country, and destroying the health of the people by the noxious vapours which incessantly exhaled from it, the pernicious effect of the moisture collected by the wood. To dispose of these lands in such a manner as might introduce to their inhabitants all the blessings of peace and cultivation, was an undertaking exactly suited to the genius and disposition of James; and, had not a planting mania, which made him extend his plans to the injury of his peaceable subjects by depriving them of their rightful possessions, taken possession of his breast, would have redounded to his immortal honour. He caused surveys to be accurately and expeditiously taken of the several counties where the new settlements were to be established; he described particularly the state of each; he pointed out the situations most proper for the erection of towns and castles; he delineated the character of the Irish chieftains, the manner in which they should be treated, the temper and circumstances of the old inhabitants, the rights of the new

purchasers, and the claims of both; together with the impediments to former plantations, and the most proper manner of removing them. At his instance it was resolved, That the persons to whom lands were assigned should be divided into three classes; new adventurers from Great Britain ; servitors, as they were called, that is, natives who for some time had served in Ireland in military or civil offices; and natives without distinction. The first, persons born in Britain, and chiefly Scotch, were permitted to take tenants only from amongst their own countrymen; the second, servitors, were allowed to choose their tenants, either British or Irish, with the exception of popish recusants; to gain the third, if possible, by lenity and indulgence, they were under no restriction with regard to the religion or birth-place of their tenantry, and were tacitly exempted from the oath of allegiance, which the two former were obliged to take. In the plantations which had formerly been attempted, the English and Irish had been mixed together, in the fond hope that the former would have civilized and enlightened the latter, and changed their barbarous manners to habits of industry and peace. But experience had now shewn that the very reverse was the case; the English quickly conforming to the wild customs and irregular manner of living of the Irish. It was therefore thought necessary to plant them in separate quarters; and in the choice of these situations the errors of former times were carefully avoided. The original adventurers from England to Ireland, allured by the rich and fertile appearance of the flat and open districts, had imprudently settled and built their habitations and their castles in them; driving the primitive possessors into the woods and mountains, their natural fortifications. There they kept themselves without being so much as known, subsisting on the milk of their kine; and as the sexes lived in a state of promiscuous connexion, they multiplied to a degree almost above credibility. There they held their meetings and formed their conspiracies without being discovered. By the wisdom of James's plan, on the other hand, the Irish were placed in the most open and accessible parts of the country, that their motions might the more easily be watched by their neighbours, and that they might gradually be accustomed to the regular lives of husbandry and mechanics. To

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