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distinction, surrendered their possessions and received fresh grants of them on military tenure. .
The archbishop of Dublin, Allan, having died about this time, George Browne, an eminent preacher of the Refore mation in London, was appointed to succeed him by the king, with a view to forward that important work in Ireland. Several commissioners were sent over with him, who were instructed to confer with the clergy and nobility, and to endeavour to procure from them an acknowledgment of the king's spiritual supremacy. Having begun to execute their instructions, Cromer, archbishop of Armagh, immediately protested against the measure as impious and rebellious against the holy see, from which the kings of England held their sovereignty. Leaving the commissioners, he summoned the suffragans and clergy of his province, and denouncing dreadful curses upon all who should give way to the views of the king, commanded them in the name of the pope to resist all innovation, as they valued their eternal salvation. He then dispatched two emissaries to the court of Rome, to represent to it the danger of the church, and to rouse it to the defence of its rights.
Meantime Browne, by labouring to forward the views of the king, brought his life several times into imminent danger, and at length advised that a parliament should be summoned to enforce by law what could not be accomplished by persuasion. Accordingly a provincial assembly of the Pale, dignified with the appellation of a parliament of Ireland, met on the first day of May, one thousand five hundred and thirty-six, which, by the intrigues of Henry, enacted that all who should refuse to acknowledge his supremacy were guilty of high treason ; that the spiritual power of the pope was for ever annulled ; and that payment should be made to the king of the first fruits of bishoprics, abbeys, priories, hospitals, and colleges. This parliament also renewed the laws against intermarriages with the colonists and native Irish, and enforced the observance of English customs and the use of the English language throughout the Pale. By these regulations the division between the colonists and the primitive inhabitants was widened and extended more than ever, and two factions were formed within the Pale itself, which involved the colony in endless dissension and
hostility. The whole nation, aboriginals and new settlers, with exception of a few who favoured the designs of Henry, were at this period zealously attached to the doctrines of the church of Rome. Vindictive as the Irish were to each other and to the English, they had hitherto implicitly believed and observed the same forms of religious worship. In their wars, though uniform in their detestation of the English, they as often had recourse to arms for the annoyance of each other as of them. But they were now closely connected by a new bond of union with which they were formerly unacquainted, and which they could allege to be the cause of all their future disaffection—the defence of the inviolability of their conscience. Several chieftains, on that pretence, rose in arms and acted openly as rebels, till they were obliged to submit by the vigorous conduct of the deputy. These oppressive measures, however, and the introduction of base money into the Pale, contributed to render the administration of Henry exceedingly unpopular, and to distract the short reign of his successor Edward VI.
Many chieftains, immediately on the accession of this virtuous young monarch, hoping to profit by his minority, showed themselves in arms, and resorted to their ancient practices of pillage and warfare. Sir Anthony Bellingham, the deputy, however, succeeded in reducing them to obedience. He also seized the earl of Desmond, who had begun to relapse into his former way of life; but, instead of punishing him, he prevailed on him by conciliating treatment to give sureties for his future good conduct, and to continue a true and faithful subject during the remainder of his life.
Meantime the Reformation was pushed with greater vigour than before. The protector, Somerset, having successfully proceeded with it in England, determined that the English liturgy, together with several other new ordinances, should be introduced into the Irish church. Accordingly, Sir Anthony St. Leger, who was appointed Lord deputy (1559] was entrusted with the management of this important business. Without convening a parliament, the royal Proclamation was published, enjoining the clergy to accept the new liturgy in the English tongue. An ecclesiastical assembly being called, it was submitted to their inspection; when John Dowdall, an Irishman by birth, who had
been promoted to the primacy of Armagh by Henry, unexpectedly opposed it with the utmost vehemence, and, followed by most of his suffragans, retired from the convention. Archbishop Browne and other prelates declared their acceptance; after which the assembly broke up. The Liturgy was read in the cathedral of Dublin, in presence of the lord lieutenant, the nobility, and the clergy, on Easter day, one thousand five hundred and fifty-one. The primatial dignity was transferred from the see of Armagh to that of Dublin ; and Dowdall retiring to the Continent, his diocese was bestowed on a prelate named Goodacre. John Bale, a man of great learning, and so violent an opposer to popery, that his life was in continual danger from the populace, was promoted to the see of Ossory. But the Reformation was far from being effected by these means. The aversion of the people to it was supported by the refractory opposition of Dowdall, and much increased by the unwarrantable conduct of the commissioners appointed to remove relics and other objects of superstition, who, without authority plundered and exposed to public sale the most valuable furniture of the churches. These attempts, therefore, to force the Irish to depart from the religion of their ancestors, and to conform to an English ritual, not only caused many present disturbances, but contributed to raise the famous insurrection of the earl of Tyrone, who had lately made ample submission to the king and accepted an English title.
The sudden death of Edward, and the short reign of his sister and successor Mary, a stupid and sanguinary bigot, zealously attached to the cause of popery, and disgraced by a combination of the lowest passions and prejudices of the vulgar with almost cvery vice usually attendant upon exalted stations, gave a temporary respite to the troubled state of Ireland. Immediately on her accession, she repealed all the acts in favour of protestantism which had been executed by her father and brother: She returned the church to its former dependance on the see of Rome: She placed many of the deposed ecclesiastics in their former situations : She persecuted the reformers in England with unremitting assiduity, committing all who refused to renounce their opinions without mercy to the flames : the persecution, however, did not extend to Ireland, whither many of
the heretics Aed to escape her fury: She restored Gerald, the only surviving member of the noble family of Kildare, to the honours and estates of his progenitors. During her reign an insurrection of the people of Leix and Ofally was quelled with such effect as nearly to occasion their total extirpation. Their territories were for ever vested in the crown and converted into shires; Leix, under the name of Queen's-county, in compliment to the queen, and Ofally, under that of King's-county, from a like attention to her husband, Philip, king of Spain. She reduced the army in Ireland to about a thousand men, so confi. dent was she of the tranquillity of the country, but was obliged afterwards to reinforce it, on account of the increasing commotions, and the lawless.conduct of Scotch adventurers, who con. tinued to land frequently on the island.
Although the restoration of the church to its former state of dependance on the see of Rome gave much satisfaction to the great mass of the Irish, yet they seem, upon the whole, to have been rather dissatisfied with the administration of Mary. The power vested in the lord lieutenant to dispose of the lands of Leix and Ofaily at the royal pleasure, to the injury of the na. tives to whom they had hitherto belonged, and several acts she passed with evident intention totally to subvert their civil independence, appear particularly to have irritated them.
On Elizabeth's accession to the throne (1558,] she found the Irish better disposed to submit to her government than they had been to that of any of her predecessors. Having resolved, however, completely to effect the reformation in religion, she imprúdently reversed the steps of Mary, and renewed the im.. politic measures of Henry with still greater severity. She adopted, amongst other outrages against the people, the inhuman plan of repeopling the whole province of Munster, to the extermination of the original inhabitants. Great inducements were held out to all who would adventure in this scandalous undertaking. Estates were offered at a small rent, on condition that a certain number of families were planted on them, amongst whom there were to be no native Irish; and they were promi. sed a force sufficient for the defence of their frontiers. To Sir Walter Raleigh and many other persons of power and distinction, considerable portions of territory were on these terms ini
quitously granted. The people were enraged by this arbitrary measure, and though forced to affect submission, waited only for a favourable opportunity to shake off the yoke by which they were oppressed.
The chieftains, especially in the north, were soon in arms; and so formidable did they at length become, that the queen was forced to submit to treat with them. The cessation of arms that ensued was only a temporary respite. Hostilities quickly recommenced; and for the first time (1596] a regular system of rebellion against English government was organized in Ireland. The most formidable of the rebels was O‘Nial, who, disdaining his title of earl of Tyrone, boldly assumed that of king of Ulster, and entered into a correspondence with Spain, from whence he was furnished with a supply of arms and ammunition. The queen' sent over her favourite, the earl of Essex, as lord deputy, with an army of twenty thousand men. During the violent struggle which ensued, acts of the deepest atrocity were committed by both parties. The English arms were for several years unsuccessful; but mutual devastation soon rendered the country, however fertile, incapable of supporting its inhabitants. Many fell daily by the sword: more were destroyed by famine. The putrid exhalations from multitudes of carcases, left every where exposed to the air, brought on a pes. tilence, which, added to innumerable other calamities, threatened completely to annihilate the Irish race. The army of Tyrone diminished rapidly; while the English were supported by seasonable supplies of fresh provisions from sea. Reduced to the last extremity, O‘Nial was obliged to make overtures of accommodation. After much treachery, evasion, and many pretended submissions, he was at length obliged to yield in good earnest. He fell upon his knees before the deputy, and petitioned for mercy with an air and aspect of distress. He subscribed his submission in the most ample manner and form. He implored the queen's most gracious commiseration; and humbiy sued to be restored to his dignity and the state of a subject which he had justly forfeited. He utterly renounced the name of O‘Nial, which he had assumed on account of the veneration in which it was held by the people. He abjured all foreign power, and all dependency except on the crown of