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usually given to an edition without name or date, which is supposed to have been published by Zarotus at Milan in 1470. The first edition which contains a commentary by a modern scholar of name is that of Landinus (Cristoforo Landino, born at Florence 1424, died 1504), printed at Florence in 1482, and at Venice in the same year. An edition, published at Venice in 1492, contained, besides, notes by Mancinellus (Antonio Mancinelli, born at Velletri in 1452, a teacher at Orvieto).

Sixteenth century. 1501 (also 1503, 1509, 1519, 1527), the Aldine edition, from the

press of Aldus at Venice. 1503 (also 1514, 1519), the Juntine, from that of Ph. Giunta at

Florence. 1519, the Ascensian (Paris), from that of Badius (named Ascen

sius from his birthplace, the village of Assche, near

Brussels). 1523 (Freiburg in Breisgau), ed. of Glareanus (Henri Loriti, so

named from his birthplace, the canton Glaris, born 1488, Professor at Basle 1515-1529, retired to Freiburg, where

he died in 1563). 1551 (Venice), an edition of the younger Aldus, which con

tained annotations by M. Ant. Muretus (born at Muret, a village near Limoges, in France, 1526, died at Rome

1585). 1555 (Basle), ed. of Fabricius (George, born at Chemnitz in

1526, died 1571). 1561 (Lyons), ed. of Lambinus (Denis Lambin, born at Mon

treuil, in Picardy, 1516, Professor of Greek in Paris, died, it is said, partly from the shock of the Massacre of St.

Bartholomew, in September 1572). Canter (born at Utrecht 1542, died 1575), published in 1564,

and in subsequent years, some 'Novae Lectiones' on various authors, including Horace (which are to be found

in Gruter's Thesaurus Criticus, vol. iii). 1578 (Antwerp), ed. of Cruquius, Professor at Bruges.

Seventeenth century. 1605, ed. of Dan. Heinsius, born at Ghent 1580, died at Leyden

in 1665. 1608 (Antwerp), ed. of Torrentius (a Latinized form of the

name Vanderbeken). He was bishop of Antwerp, born 1525, died 1595 ; his edition being published posthu

mously. 1613 (Paris), R. Stephens published an edition with the notes

of Rutgers (a pupil of Heinsius, born at Dort 1589, entered the service of Gustavus Adolphus, and served as ambassador in several foreign courts, died 1625). His 'Venusinae Lectiones' were not published in their entirety until

Burmann's edition in 1699. 1671 (Saumur), ed. of Tanaquil Faber (Tanneguy Lefevre, born

at Caen 1615, Professor at Saumur, died 1672 ; the father

of Madame Dacier). 1681 (Paris), a translation, with notes, by A. Dacier, son-in-law

of the preceding. 1699 (Utrecht), ed of Burmannus (P. Burmann, born at Utrecht 1668).

Eighteenth century. 1701 (London), ed. of W. Baxter, nephew of the nonconformist

divine. 1711 (Camb.), ed. of R. Bentley. 1721 (London), ed. of Cunningham. 1728 (Paris), ed. of Sanadon, a Jesuit father. 1752 (Leipzig), ed. of Gesner. 1778 (Leipzig), ed of Fani. 1794 (London), ed. of Wakefield. 1800 (Leipzig), ed. of Mitscherlich.

Of recent editions, those of which most frequent mention is made in my notes are those of

Orelli, Zurich, 1837, 1852.
Dillenburger, Bonn, 1844-1867.

Ritter, Leipzig, 1856.
Nauck (7th ed.), Leipzig, 1871.
Macleane, Bibliotheca Classica, London, 1853.
Yonge, London, Longmans, 1867.
Munro and King, London, Bell and Daldy, 1869.

The editions of the Scholia of which I have made use are those of F. Hauthal (Berlin, 1864) and F. Pauly (Prague, 1858).

I have also referred often to Estré’s ‘Prosopographeia Horatiana' (Amsterdam, 1846) and Franke's 'Fasti Horatiani' (Berlin, 1839).

I should not forget the translations of Horace's Odes by Conington, Lord Lytton, and F. W. Newman, to each of which I have been at times indebted for a happy rendering or an ingenious suggestion.

HORACE'S EARLY LIFE IN HIS WRITINGS.

Name-Quintus, Sat. 2. 6. 37.

Horatius, Od. 4. 6. 44, Epp. I. 14. 5.

Flaccus, Sat. 2. I. 18, Epod. 15. 12. [Of the origin of the 'cognomen’ nothing can be guessed. The 'nomen’might imply that his father, on manumission, had taken a gentile name from some member of the Horatia gens. It is now more generally believed, on a suggestion of G. F. Grotefend, that it was derived from the Horatia tribus, the one of the country tribes in which the colony of Venusia was enrolled, and to which Horace's father, as a libertus of Venusia, would belong.] B.C. 65. Date of Birth.—The year is given in Od. 3. 21. I,

Epod. 13. 6, Epp. 1. 20. 26–28. The last reference adds the month. Suetonius completes it by fixing the day, 'Sexto idus Decembris,' December the 8th.

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He says,

Birthplace.-Sat. 2. I. 35. Cp. Od. 3. 30. 10, 4. 6. 27, 4. 9. 2. We may compare the familiarity of his mention of scenes in Apulia, Od. 3. 4. 9-16, Sat. 1. 5. 77 ; the river Aufidus, Od. 4. 14. 25, cp. Sat. 1. I. 58; the Fons Bandusiae (?), Od. 3. 13; Garganum Pr., Od. 2. 9. 7, Epp. 2. I. 202 ; Litus Matinum (?), Od. 1. 28. 3, cp. 4. 2. 27, Epod. 16. 28 ; Luceria, Od. 3. 15.7 ; the wolves on the Apulian hills, 1. 22. 13, 33. 7. See also, on the fondness with which he attributes to the Apulian all Roman virtues, Od. 1. 22. 13,

2. I. 34, 3. 5. 9, 16. 26, Epod. 2. 42. Parentage.—Libertino patre natus,' Sat. 1. 6. 6 and 45 ; cp.

Od. 2. 20. 6 and Epp. I. 20. 21. Horace himself was 'ingenuus,' i.e. born after his father had attained his freedom,

Sat. 1. 6. 8.
His father's profession.Coactor,' Sat. 1. 6. 86. [Suetonius,

coactor exactionum,' 'a collector of taxes.'
further, that he was a 'salsamentarius,' or dealer in salt-
fish, and that Horace was once taunted with this by one
who said to him, ' Quoties ego vidi patrem tuum brachio se
emungentem.] He had purchased a small estate, Sat. 1.
6. 71. For Horace's feeling towards his father see Sat. 1.

6, especially vv. 89-96. Anecdotes of his childhood.Od. 3. 4. 9 foll., Sat. 1. 9. 29 foll.,

2. 2. 112 foll. Removal to Rome for his education.-Sat. 1. 6. 71 foll., Epp.

2. 2. 42. His father's care, Sat. 1. 4. 105 foll., 1. 6.71 foll. Study under Orbilius, 'plagosus,' Epp. 2. 1. 69. [There is a short life of Orbilius Pupillus of Beneventum in Sueton. de Illustr. Gramm. Horace's epithet is quoted and illustrated by a line of Domitius Marsus, "Si quos Orbilius ferula scuticaque cecidit.'] For the subjects of his reading

see l. c. and Epp. 2. 2. 41. B.C. 44 (?). Studies at Athens.—Epp. 2. 2. 43 foll. [Brutus was

at Athens at the time, immediately after Caesar's murder, attending the lectures of Theomnestus the Academic, and

Cratippus the Peripatetic, and wishing to be thought entirely intent on philosophy, Plutarch, Brut. 24.] First

literary efforts (?), Sat. 1. 10. 35. B.C. 43, 42. Campaign with Brutus.—Epp. 2. 2. 46 foll., Sat.

1. 6. 48, Od. 2. 7. 26, Epp. 1. 20. 23. [Sueton. 'bello Philippensi excitus a Marco Bruto imperatore tribunus militum meruit.'] For indications that he was with Brutus while he was still in Asia see Sat. 1. 7, Epp. I. 11. 7 foll.,

and on Od. 2. 7. 6. B.C. 41. Return to Rome.—Decisis humilem pennis, inopem

que paterni Et Laris et fundi,' Epp. 2. 2. 49. [Sueton. "Victis partibus, venia impetrata, scriptum quaestorium comparavit.' This means the place of a “scriba,' or clerk, in the quaestor's office, and Horace's appointment to it is connected by some with his father's old employment as

coactor exactionum.'] B.C. 38 (?) Introduction to Maecenas.-Sat. 1. 6. 54 foll. The

date of this is fixed by a comparison of Sat. 2. 6. 40. ‘Septimus octavo propior iam fugerit annus, Ex quo Maecenas me coepit habere suorum In numero,' with the references in vv. 38, 53, 55, which seem to fix the composition of that Satire to the end of B.C. 31.

6

EXTRACTS FROM THE SUETONIAN LIFE OF

HORACE.

Maecenas regard for him.

MAECENAS quantopere eum dilexerit satis monstratur illo epigrammate:

•N te vis bus meis Horati
Plus iam diligo, tu tuum sodalem
Ninnio videas strigosiorem ;'

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