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10. violens obstrepit, 'longe sonans,' •acer,' Sat. 1. I. 58. Cp. Od. 4. 14. 25. The Aufidus is within ten miles of Venusia, and Horace must have seen it in flood. “Like most of the rivers of Italy, it has much of the character of a mountain torrent,' Dict. Geog. For the absol. use of obstrepit' cp. Epod. 2. 27.

11. pauper aquae; Epod. 3. 16 'siticulosae Apuliae.' 12. regnavit populorum, a Greek gen. hpše dañv.

13. Aeolium carmen, etc., “to have made the lyric poetry of Aeolia at home among Italian measures.' The use of 'deducere ' seems akin to that of deducere coloniam.'

15. Delphica =' Apollinari,' Od. 4. 2. 9.

16. volens, of thy grace,' Bérovoa, ĉkowoa: it is common in prayer, but gen. with the addition ' propitiusque, Liv. 7. 26. 4.

BOOK IV.

ODE 1.

· Again a summons to arms, Venus! No, spare me; it is not with me in my tenth lustre as it was in the days of poor Cinara. Away, then, to the house of Paulus Maximus. High-born, and handsome, and eloquent, and accomplished, he will bear thy colours more worthily, and, when the victory is won, will pay thee richer honour. I am to co old to love, to drink, to play. Yet what am I saying? my heart gives the lie to my words.'

On the meaning which this Ode acquires from its place at the beginning of this Book see Introd. pp. 104-5.

Metre-Third Asclepiad.

Line 1. The language of this Ode answers to that of 3. 26, in which Horace declares his love-campaigns at an end. In both places the image is not of Venus attacking the heart of a lover, but of a warfare carried on with her weapons and under her auspices, in which the poet has once served, and is now called to serve again.

intermissa, sc. bella.

3. non sum qualis; cp. Epp. I. 1. 4 'Non eadem est aetas, non mens.'

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bonae. Perhaps, as Dill”. thinks (quoting Lucr. 3. 1037 'bonus Ancus '), the epithet implies that she has been some time dead.

4. sub regno; see on Od. 1. 36. 8, and compare especially 3. 9. 9 me nunc Thressa regit Chloë, 2. 8. 18, 19 servitus,''dominae.' For Cinara see Appendix I'on the unknown names in the Odes.'

5. mater saeva Cupidinum. This line is intentionally repeated from 1. 19. 1.

There Venus is invoked at the outset of the lovecampaign; here, after it was or should have been closed. It is the άρχετε βωκoλικάς and the λήγετε βωκoλικάς, the altered refrain of the whole. “Dulcium,''saeva,' imply that he is balancing the bitters and sweets of the old life.

6. circa, of time, ‘hard upon my fiftieth year. The metaph. of 'flectere’ is of breaking horses. He is too old and hard-mouthed now for the soft guidance of Venus' rein. Cp. for the expressions Virg. G. 3. 188 'det mollibus ora capistris Invalidus, etc., and ib. 165 ' Dum faciles animi, iuvenum dum mobilis aetas,' etc.

8. revocant, call you back,' as to your proper place.
9. tempestivius, 'you will be a more timely guest there.'

in domum. A rival reading with good.support is 'in domo'; but her car of swans' implies that.' comissari ''is used rather in the Greek sense of Kwuos, a moving band of revellers or serenaders (Theoc. 3. I. κωμάσδω ποτέ τάν 'Αμαρυλλίδα), than in its more usual Latin sense of a stationary revel. The reading 'comissabere' is quite certain, but the unusual word makes great havoc among the copyists. Some of the best MSS. are at fault. "Comis habere,' comitabere,' commutabere,' etc. For the future tense see on Od. I.

10. Pauli Maximi. Two persons are suggested, one or other of whom may possibly be intended. (1) Paulus Fabius Maximus, consul B.C. 11, who would now be, unless he were made consul long before the regular age, about forty years old ; (2) his son or nephew, Ovid's patron, an intimate of Augustus, who was consul twenty years afterwards. It is a question whether it is least improbable that Horace should call his middle-aged friend 'puer,' making the most of the ten years between them, or that the younger man should be spoken of in such terms when a mere boy.

purpureis ales oloribus, 'on the wings of lustrous swans,' i.e. in a chariot drawn by them. Od. 3. 28. 15. For ' purpureis' see on 1, 13. 2 roseam cervicem,' Virg. Aen. 1. 590 'lumenque iuventae Purpureum.'

12. iecur; 1. 25. 15.
idoneum, perhaps another reminiscence of 3. 26. 1.
13. decens; 1. 4. 6.

14. ‘No tongue-tied champion of trembling prisoners.? Cp. 2. 1. 13 'insigne maestis praesidium reis.'

6. I.

15. centum artium, the descriptive genitive; Madv. § 287, with obs. 3. It seems to have been almost a proverbial expression. 'Omnium artium puerulos,' Cic. Rosc. Am. 41.

17. quandoque, usually='aliquando'; but Horace uses it as = quandocunque.' Cp. Od. 4. 2. 34, A. P. 359.

potentior seems to some degree to continue the metaph. of ‘militiae tuae.' 'So soon as he shall laugh triumphant over the presents of his open-handed rival.' His rival can give richer presents; Paulus fights and vanquishes him with arms which Venus lends him—beauty, youth, etc. •Muneribus' is the ablative of comparison after 'potentior.'

19. Albanos .. lacus, where Paulus, it is implied, had a villa. The title includes the Lago d'Albano and the Lago di Nemi.

20. ponet marmoream; cp. Sat. 2. 3. 183 'aeneus ut stes,' and the promise in Virg. E. 7. 31 'Si proprium hoc fuerit levi de marmore tota

stabis.’ χαλκούν τινά ιστάναι is a common expression in Demosth., as Fals. Leg. 425. I.

citrea. The reading 'Cypria,' found in a few good MSS., seems to be due to the copyist's reminiscence of Od, 1, 1, 13, where the connection wholly different. The citrus' is mentioned by Pliny (N. H. 13. 16) as much used in temples on account of the durability of the wood. What it was is not so certain ; apparently some kind of cypress or cedar; certainly different from the citron, the ‘Medicum malum' of Virg. G. 2. 126.

22. It is difficult to be certain about either the reading or the exact meaning. A majority of the older MSS. have lyrae,' tibiae,' but the Bland. Vet. is among those which read "lyra,''tibia.' In that case they are ablatives, constructed probably with delectabere,' though they may also be taken after 'mixtis.' Against the ablative, there is the unpleasantness, to our ears at least, of four verses out of five ending with a long 'a.' If we read 'ae,' there is still a question both of construction and

Are 'lyrae,' 'tibiae' genitives after carminibus,' minglel strains of harp and flute'; or datives, as Orelli thinks, after 'mixtis'? And in this last case does 'carminibus' mean the joint strains mingled, as we should rather say 'of' than 'with the harp and flute, or are

carmina ’ the voices of singers to be added to the instrumental music ? More probably, perhaps, the former, as he is speaking now of the music at a sacrifice (Od. 1. 36. 1); the hymns of praise are mentioned in the next line. For the • lyra’ and tibia' see on Od. 1. 1. 32, 1. 12. 1, 3. 4. 1, Epod. 9. 5. 6.

24. fistula is the Gr. oúpiyć or Pan's pipe.
25. bis die, morning and evening.
28. in morem Salium ; see on 1. 36. 12,
ter ; see on 3. 18. 16.

sense.

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30. 'The fond hope of finding a heart to answer mine.'

33. cur, 'Why, if all I have said is true'? Compare the unexpected turn of Od. I. 26. II.

34. rara lacrima; 1. 13. 6. For the fits of silence cp. Epod. 11. 9. 35. A hypermetric verse, as Od. 3. 29. 35, 4. 2. 22.

ODE II.

'As vain for any of us to imitate Pindar as to soar on wings of Icarus; Pindar rolls down strong and deep, as a river in flood, supreme alike in dithyrambs, hymns, émivikta, Opavou. He soars on the winds, the swan of song; I fly from flower to flower, like the bee of my native Apulia, and roam from wood to wood gathering my little store of poetic honey. Some day, Antonius, when Caesar comes home, some greater poet such as you must sing his triumph,-Caesar, the best and greatest gift which heaven ever gave to earth, even in the golden age, our joy at receiving him back, our games, our holiday. Even I may find a voice then amid the happy multitude. We will all shout and rejoice and offer incense; you will offer a lordly sacrifice, as befits you, I a home-bred calf.'

Julus Antonius was the son of the Triumvir by Fulvia, and was educated by his step-mother Octavia. Through her protection he was spared when his brother Marcus Antyllus was slain, and rose eventually to high favour with Augustus, and was married to Marcella, Octavia's daughter, after her divorce from Agrippa in B.c. 21. Horace's Ode is the only ancient authority for his having been a poet; but the PseudoAcron vouches for his having written an excellent Epic poem in twelve Books, called the Diomedeia, some years afterwards. He was made praetor in B.c. 13, and consul in B.c. 10. In B.c. 2 he was condemned to death on the charge of adulterous intercourse with Julia.

On the bearing of the Ode see Introd. p. 258. It does not follow, of course, that the Ode was written after the later Odes. It may well be, as Franke thinks, that the omission of any reference to the successes of Tiberius and Drusus makes it improbable that it was written after the year 15.

With the form of the Ode, refusing praise in word, yet granting it in the act of refusal both directly and indirectly, comp. 1. 6, and 1. 12.

Line 2. Iule. The use of the praenomen was a mark of familiarity (Sat. 2. 5. 32) which Horace would be likely to avoid. In this case, however, it would be felt as a compliment, as the name (not properly a * praenomen,' but family names were used as praenomina at this date; cp. “ Paulus' in the last Ode) had been given him (possibly by Octavia) to mark the connection of his family with the Julian house, through his grandmother Julia, the mother of Marc Antony. In v. 26 we have the gentile name alone. Cp. Epp. I. 10, where the same person is addressed as 'Fuscus' in y. I, ' Aristius' in v. 44.

ope Daedalea, with 'ceratis,' or perhaps with the whole ceratis nititur pennis,” he has got some Daedalus to help him.' Probably, as, Ritter thinks, there is in the expression the idea of the audacity of the enterprise ('Expertus vacuum Daedalus aera Pennis non homini datis' 1. 3. 34), as well as its danger.

3. nititur ; Virg. Aen. 4. 252 'paribus nitens Cyllenius alis.'

4. nomina, for plural cp. 3. 27. 76. Compare with the stanza the way in which Horace speaks of the enterprise when it is undertaken by a friend, not offered to himself, Epp. 1. 3. 10 [Titius] ‘Pindarici fontis qui non expalluit haustus Fastidire lacus et rivos ausus apertos.'

6. quem .. aluere. This seems to be the certain reading, though the old Bland. is among a few MSS. which have 'cum .. saliere.' The vulg. was the reading interpreted by Acr, and the Comm. Cruq.

7, 8. ‘Boils and rushes in a fathomless flood of words. As so often in Horace, the interpretation of the simile is clothed still in language almost wholly metaphorical and borrowed from the simile itself, see on Od. 1. 35. 19, 2. 2. 1, 4. 4. 59. “Ore' belongs more to the poet than to the river, 'profundo ore' being the analogue of 'ore rotundo,' A.P. 323, ‘magno ore,' Virg. G. 3. 294, of varieties of poetical style. The epithet, on the contrary, belongs primarily to the river, and even 'ore' is a word which was probably felt to be capable of an interpretation in the same connection, though neither 'fountain-head' (Virg. Aen. I. 245) nor * mouth' (Virg. G. 4. 292) is a meaning which would bear pressing here.

10. audaces covers, probably, boldness of treatment and of tropes, besides the two points afterwards named—vocabulary and rhythm.

nova verba, novel words, long compounds. Tôv ° óvouátov od pèr διπλά μάλιστα αρμόττει τους διθυράμβους, Arist. Poet. 22. Ι4.

11. devolvit, as the torrent rolls boulders down its bed.

12, lege solutis. Two technical expressions possibly contribute to the full force of this phrase : (1) legibus solutus,” said of any one exempted from the operation of any law (Cic. Phil. 2. 13), in later times of the emperor as above the laws (Merivale, vol. iii. p. 466); (2) ‘soluta oratio,' the common designation of prose, as exempt from strict laws of prosody; so that the words of the text form a sort of oxymoron, 'verse which is as free of law as if it were not verse.'

13. regesque. The kings obviously of mythology-Pirithous, Theseus, Bellerophon, not the kings of Pindar's day. He is speaking of Hymns and Paeans. “Que’ is the reading of all the best MSS., as against the vulg. ‘ve,' and the change would hardly be necessary, even if it were clear that Pindar's Odes on the mythical exploits of demigods were

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