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* apricus.' But for «fertili'='the giver of fertility,' cp. Ov. Met. 5. 642 dea fertilis' of Ceres. Keller retains • amicus,' but adopts 'fertilis,' in which case the two adjectives will be=' fertilitate amicus.'

19. minimum invidet, 'invidet enim tantum qui inferior est,' Porph,

21. beatae, in the same sense as 'beata arva, Epod. 16. 41,= *fortunatae.'

22. arces, 'loca excelsa,'Orell. It may be doubted, however, whether 'arx'is ever used simply for “a height' without a conscious reference, literal or metaphorical, to its use for purposes of defence. Here, whether we take it for the heights behind Tarentum or in its usual Horatian sense of the city itself, it is probably intended to suggest also the idea of a “safe retreat,' a fortress that care cannot storm. Cp. his metaphor for his Sabine farm, “ubi me in montes et in arcem ex urbe removi,' Sat. 2. 6. 16, and possibly the same idea in ‘igneae arces,' Od. 3. 3. 10. It was the occurrence of the word in this passage probably that suggested the false reading · Aulonisque arces' for 'Caulonis' in Virg. Aen. 3. 553.

ibi, emphatic, repeating ‘ille,' as “tu .. amici' repeats 'te mecum.' • There we will live and there I will die.' 'Eleganti figura Septimium sibi superstitem fingit,' Porph.

calentem . . favillam, of the solemn weeping at the pyre before the ashes were extinguished by the pouring of wine, 'adhuc vivente favilla,' Stat. Silv. 2. 1. 2. Cp. Virg. Aen. 6. 212-228, 11. 184-194, especially v. 191, and Tib. 3. 3, especially v. 25.

ODE VII.

• What, Pompeius at home again safe in limb and rights! Pompeius who shared with me the dangers and the snatched pleasures of the campaign under Brutus. After Philippi we separated. Mercury carried me off in safety, you were swept back again into the war. Surely you owe Jove a feast of thanksgiving. My lawn shall be the scene of the revel. Who would think of sobriety when a lost friend is found ?'

• Ad Pompeium Varum,' Acr.; and so the Ode is inscribed in the oldest MSS. Nothing is known of Pompeius. He has been by some editors wrongly identified with Pompeius Grosphus, the rich owner of pastures in Sicily, Epp. 1. 12. 21, Od. 2. 16.

At what point of the civil war Pompeius abandoned it and availed himself of an offered amnesty, or what interval had elapsed since then there is no indication. Horace writes as if he had heard nothing of his old friend for some years, and he has by this time a lawn of his

own on which he can entertain a guest. The name of Pompeius suggests that he may have followed, after the battle of Philippi, the fortunes of Sextus Pompeius, who maintained the war by sea against the Triumvirs till the year B.c. 35.

Line 1. tempus in ultimum, Catull. 64. 151 'supremum tempus' 169 'extremum tempus,' utmost peril. •Tempus ' = kalpós, a crisis, time of special import.

2. deducte .. duce, perhaps (as Dillr. and Ritter think) with a slight play on the two words, as though that were the point to which Brutus' leadership led them.

3. quis redonavit? merely a question of wonder, 'how came you here?' not intended to be answered by “Maecenas' or ‘Augustus.' This wonder at seeing Pompeius safe again is the thought which gives its unity to the poem. “A god saved me, but I saw you carried back again into the stormy sea; what can have rescued you? What limits can we set to our gratitude or to our rejoicing ?' *Redonare' is a word only found in Horace, see Od. 3. 3. 33.

Quiritem, ' a full Roman citizen'; 'capite non deminutum,' Dill'., Orell., Ritter. Conington in his Translation takes it as opp. to 'miles,' “a man of peace,' supporting it by the story of Julius Caesar reducing the mutinous roth legion to order by addressing them as 'Quirites,' the term implying that they were disbanded, Suet. J. C. 70.

5. Pompei. For the form cp. “Voltei’ (dissyll.), Epp. 1. 7.91.

prime, ' praecipue,' Acr. Ritter would interpret it earliest,' objecting that Pompeius would not be ranked before Varius, Virgil, Maecenas, etc.; but Horace is thinking only of the old days of their acquaintance in the camp, when Pompeius may well have been the chiefest of his companions.

6. morantem fregi, see on 1. 1. 20. This can hardly have been during the actual campaign in Macedonia, but it is probable that Horace, while in Brutus' army, was in Asia; see Milman's Life of Horace, p. 17, and on Sat. 1. 7, and Epp. I. II. 6.

7. coronatus nitentes, 'with a garland on my hair glistening with Syrian perfume.' •Dat et Malobathron Syria, arborem folio convoluto arido colore: ex quo exprimitur oleum ad unguenta,' Plin. N. H. 12. 59.

10. non bene; there is the same irony in the dimin. ' parmula,'.my poor little shield’; cp. Epod. 1. 16 •Imbellis ac firmus parum,' and contrast Epp. I. 20. 23 ‘Me primis urbis belli placuisse domique.' That Horace should have been able playfully to impute cowardice to himself is enough, as Lessing pointed out, to prove that he had no fear that others would impute it to him. He is clearly thinking, as his Roman readers would have thought, of Alcaeus at Sigeum, Herod. 5.95; see the lines of Alcaeus (Fr. 22 Bergk) conjecturally restored from Strabo 13. p. 6οο κάρυξ άγγείλον μεν εμοίς ετέροισιν εν οίκω Σως 'Αλκαίος 'Αρη, Έντεα δ' ουκ ανένεικον και δη κτέρας ες Γλαυκώπω Ιρον úverpéuao av "ATTiKOL. Similar self-accusations are quoted from Archilochus, Fr. 5, and Anacreon, Fr. 27.

11. cum fracta virtus. Of his own share in the campaign the poet professes to remember only the stolen holidays of carousing, the dropped shield and Alight; but this gives greater force to the few words in which he speaks of the fall of the cause for which he fought. He seems to say, • What could I do when Valour itself broke, and those who threatened so high bit the dust in defeat ?' Horace heartily embraced Octavius' cause, and put his muse at his patron's service, but he was not expected to revile the party he had left, cp. 1. 12. 35. Orelli suggests that there is a reminiscence of Brutus' last words, Ω τλήμον αρετή, λόγος άρ' ήσθ', εγώ δε σε Ως έργον ήσκουν, Dio C. 47. 49.

12. turpe, defeat is felt as disgrace, Od. 3. 2. 17. repulsae sordidae.' From another point of view the poet may say 'dulce et decorum est,' but here he is only speaking of the contrast between the hopes and the

event.

tetigere mento, probably the Homeric πρηνέες έν κονίησιν όδας dacolato yażav, Il. 2. 418, etc. Orelli, however, takes it of suppliants throwing themselves at the conqueror's feet.

13. sed me, opp. 'tecum,' v. 9. The .sed' contrasts the separation of Horace's lot from that of Pompeius in this stanza with their union in the last.

Mercurius, the poet is a 'Mercurialis vir,' 2. 17. 29. Mercury carries him safely through the foe as he led Priam through the camp of Troy's enemies, 1. 10. 13 foll. Horace is thinking of the escape of Paris, Il. 3. 380, of Aeneas, 5. 344.

15. resorbens unda, the wave has thrown Horace high and dry, its down-draught carries back Pompeius into the deep water. See a similar image in Epp. 2. 2. 47. Civilisque rudem belli tulit aestus in arma.'

16. fretis aestuosis seems to be one of Horace's ablatives absolute, see on 2. 1. 12, 'in that boiling surf.' 17. ergo, ‘now, then.'

It draws the conclusion of the whole review, but specially refers to the reason for thankfulness just suggested in the freta aestuosa' in which he had been a second time immersed.

obligatam, properly 'obligari’ is said of the person, as in the next Ode, v. 5.

18. latus, see on 3. 27. 26.

lauru mea. Probably with a certain play, my bay tree,' the bay being the appurtenance of poets (Od. 3. 30. 16, cp. 3. 4. 18) as well as warriors (Od. 2. 2. 22). • You haven't found the bay on the battlefield, come and look for it in the poet's peaceful garden.'

21. Horace fancies the banquet preparing, and issues orders to the servants, ' exple,' 'funde,' •quis curat?' as in 2. 11. 18 foll., 3. 19. 22.

levia, Epp. 1. 5. 23 cantharus et lanx Ostendant tibi te.' The eye as well as the palate is remembered in Horace's feast, the graceful shape of the cups, their shining surface, the glistening parsley.

22. ciboria, a large cup made to imitate the pod of the Egyptian bean (colocasium).

exple .. capacibus, 'let there be plenty,' Epod. 9. 33 ‘Capaciores affer huc, puer, scyphos.'

24. deproperare, “ to make with speed,' transitively, as ‘properare,' Od. 3. 24. 62, Epp. 1. 3. 28, Virg. G. 4. 171.

25. curatve. For the position of 've' see on Od. 1. 30. 6.

Venus arbitrum dicet bibendi, see on 1. 4. 18.regna vini sortiere talis. “Venus' was the highest throw of the four · tali, undevós åotpagyálov megóvtos low oxhuatı (Lucian), as 'canis' (Prop. 4. 8. 45 damnosi canes ') was the worst, when all showed the same face. The 'tali," originally knuckle-bones, marked only on four sides, are different from the six-sided dice (* tesserae,' kúßoi), of which three were used, the highest throw being three sixes, tpis é£, Aesch. Agam. 33.

27. Edonis. He is thinking rather of the Thracian orgies ("bacchabor') than of their reputation for excessive drinking (1. 27. 1), though the two things were really one.

28. furere, Od. 3. 19. 18 •Insanire iuvat’; 4. 12. 28 dulce est desipere in loco.' They are probably from the Pseudo-Anacreon 3 θέλω θέλω μανήναι. .

ODE VIII.

•No, Barine, if you ever suffered in the least degree for forswearing yourself, I would believe your oaths now; but you thrive on it, and only become more beautiful and more popular. The gods who ought to punish you only laugh. Fresh lovers crowd to you, and the old ones, in spite of your faithlessness, will not forsake you.'

Lines 1-5. Dille. points out the art which is expended in the collocation of this stanza. The point is the contrast between the little he demands, brought out by the emphatic position of ‘ulla,'' unquam,' .dente,'' uno,'

ungui,' and the large offer which he makes, brought out by the single unqualified crederem,' the equivalent, in a single word, for the whole stanzaful of offered conditions. For a similarly balanced sentence, see 3. 3. 30-33

1. iuris peierati, an expression apparently coined by Horace for

a 'false or broken oath' to follow the analogy of ius-iurandum.' The Pseudo-Acron vouches for the phrase 'ius iuratum,' but it does not seem to be found anywhere.

3. uno, with. dente’ as well as with ‘ungui, see on 1. 2. I.

4. turpior, in point of grammar, goes with both ablatives; in point of sense it has more duty to discharge to that to which it is attached, as 'dente' has its special kind of deformity named.

6. caput. From thehahit* f swearing by the head, Virg. Aen. 9. 300, etc. The ‘vota' are imprecations on herself if her promises should not be kept.

7. iuvenum publica cura,' to break the hearts of all our youth.' prodis, ‘go abroad' (Od. 3. 14. 6), to seek and win admiration. 9. expedit, sc. `tibi,' not a generalisation. 'It is positive gain to you.'

10. fallere, “to swear falsely by,' as Virg. Aen. 6. 324 · Di cuius iurare timent et fallere numen.' For such oaths the commentators compare Prop. 2. 20. 15 Ossa tibi iuro per matris et ossa parentis; Si fallo, cinis heu sit mihi uterque gravis’; Virg. Aen. 6. 458 per sidera iuro, Per superos, et si qua fides tellure sub ima est.'

táciturna, the epithet seems meant to suggest the awfulness of night, Epod. 5. 52.

11. gelida morte carentes, sc. 'per deos immortales.' As they cannot die, it is dangerous to swear falsely by them.

13-16. The very goddess of love, from whom the injured lover might look for redress; the Nymphs, for all their own guilelessness ; Cupid, usually so terribly in earnest in making lovers feel-all only laugh at Barine's faithlessness.

15. ardentes, muppópovs.

16. cruenta, either that makes them draw blood,' or reddened with the blood of former victims.'

17, 18. servitus crescit nova explains the tibi crescit of the first clause. ‘All that grow to manhood, grow to manhood to become thy slaves.' This is separated into two clauses. Servitus'='servi.'

21–24. iuvencis .. aura. Cp. Introd. to Od. 2. 5, and Virg. G. 3. 250. It is the same offensive metaphor.

ODE IX.

• The most continuous rains, the longest winters, end at last. Let not your grief for Mystes alone be unending, Valgius. Not even Nestor grieved inconsolably for the son of his old age, nor his parents and sisters for the blooming Troilus. 'Tis time to cease from wailings more womanly than theirs, and to sing of Caesar's triumphs.'

The Ode is addressed to C. Valgius Rufus, a poet whose elegies are

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