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7. arsit. There seems to be a play in the word, 'He was fired by her as he had fired Troy’; cp. Epod. 14. 13 'si non pulchrior ignis Accendit obsessam Ilion.'

8. rapta, 'captive.' Hom. Il. 22. 62 viás a' órdvuévous & KvoDeloas TE Búyatpas. Compare the scene in Virg. Aen. 2. 403 foll. • Ecce trahebatur passis Priameia Virgo Crinibus a templo Cassandra,' etc. There is an antithesis between medio in triumpho' and 'virgine rapta ’; 'capta victorem cepit. It is this feeling which gives its point to the next stanza. When the warriors had fallen and the citadel of Troy was an easy prey to its foes, then a captive maid vanquished the great conqueror.'

10. Thessalo, as in Od. 1. 10. 15. Thessalos ignes,’ i. e. the watchfires of Achilles.

victore is the abl. absol. ; see on 1. 6. I and 2. I. 12.

ademptus Hector, cp. I. 37. 13 ‘minuit furorem Vix una sospes navis,' but the constr. which attributes the action more personally to Hector is intentionally chosen, as though by his death he was the very traitor who opened the walls of Troy to the foe. Cp. Virg. Aen. 4. 17 Postquam primus amor deceptam morte fefellit.'

II. leviora, perhaps with a remembrance of Hom. Il. 22. 287 kal kev ελαφρότερος πόλεμος Τρώεσσι γένοιτο Σείο καταφθιμένοιo: but leviora' and tolli' probably match and make one metaphor.

fessis, 'even in their weariness,' Virg. Aen. 2. 108 foll. The dative goes grammatically either with tradidit’ or with “leviora tolli,' in feeling with the latter; for the constr. ‘leviora tolli,' see App. 2, § 2.

13. nescias, an, an extension of the common nescio an,' which means, 'I am not sure, but nearly so.' It may be either potential,

Possibly you may be able to say, nescio an,' i. e. "Possibly though you know it not, auburn Phyllis has parents among the great, a wreath of glory to you their son-in-law,' or permissive, 'You may say, nescio an,' i. e. ' You may be pretty sure,' etc.

15. regium genus, after 'maeret.' 'Her tears are surely for some royal ancestry and the unkindness of her home gods,' who suffered her to fall in the world.

17. de plebe, a tertiary predicate with dilectam. • Believe that in her thou hast not loved one from the rabble crowd.' Bentley interprets ‘dilectam' as = ='selectam.' It is true that here, as often, though not always, 'diligere' retains its force of 'to love pre-eminently,' to choose for love'; dilectam Cypron,''Cyprus of thy choice’; compare Od. 2. 5. 17.

21. teretes, 'well-turned,' shapely.'

23. trepidavit, the stream has run quickly; cp. 'curret aetas,' Od. 2. 5. 13

octavum lustrum. Horace's fortieth year ended on Dec. 8, B.C. 25. The 'lustrum' was properly the sacrifice performed by the censor after completing the quinquennial census. Horace recalls, but avoids the technical phrase "condere lustrum,' Liv. I. 44. For the inf. 'claudere' see Ap. 2, § 1.

ODE V. 'Lalage is not old enough for your advances. Let her be a child a little longer. Have patience, she will come to you by and bye, and return the love greater than you ever gave to Pholoë or Chloris.'

'Incertum est quem alloquatur hac Ode utrum amicorum aliquem an se ipsum,' Acr. Even if it be a soliloquy, the poet may be addressing himself in an assumed character, as e. g. in Od. 3. 12. The Zurich MS. of the Ioth century (1) has the inscription ' Ad Gabinium. The Ode has nothing either to gain or lose by being supposed to have had reference to any real persons.

The main image the ode is one, as Dillt, says, “in antiquitate usitata, a nostris moribus aliena.'

Line 2. munia comparis aequare,' to match the labours of a yokefellow,' cp. 'ferre iugum pariter,' Od. 1. 35. 28.

5. circa est, ‘is occupied with,' cp. the Greek phrases elvai nepi ti, έχειν αμφί τι.

6. fluviis, Virg. Aen. 7. 494, 495.

10. immitis uvae, oupakos, according to the epigram (Brunck 3. 164) όμφαξ ουκ επένευσας, ότ' ης σταφύλη παρεπέμψω.

lividos, of the dull blue of the grapes just beginning to turn.

II, 12. distinguet .. colore. Is this merely the effect of Horace's collocation, streak the bunches with purple,'' varius,' the epithet of autumn, 'the motley-coloured, being placed between those words which most recall the character which the epithet expresses ? or does he, while meaning distinguet purpureo colore,' allow purpureo colore' as a matter of grammar and primary sense, to go rather with varius' as a description of personified Autumn • streaked with purple dyes,' like Epod. 2. 18. decorum mitibus pomis caput Autumnus agris extulit'?

13. ferox aetas. Her time of life makes her shy, and time is flying.' To the rest of the sentence, 'aetas,' in its general sense, alone is the subj. ; the epithet has no further relation to it. Cp. Od. 1. 21. 7,8 ‘nigris aut Erymanthi silvis aut viridis Cragi,' and 3. 23. 15, where * parvos’ is the epithet of · Deos,' so long as they are the obj. of coronantem,' not when they are the obj. of tentare.' Dillr., however, follows Mitsch. in taking ‘ferox' of the flight of time, like an unbroken horse,' as Ov. Fast. 6.772 ' fugiunt freno non remorante dies.'

• If you

14. dempserit, apponet, a ground for not being impatient. are losing the years fast, she is gaining them as fast.' Each fresh year of life is a year added or a year taken away, according to our point of view. Compare the double phrase by which Horace expresses the lapse of time in Od. 3. 30. 5 'annorum series et fuga temporum.' So Seneca de Cons. ad Marc. 20 ' Quo quisque primum lucem vidit iter mortis ingressus est, accessitque fato propior; et illi ipsi qui adiiciebantur adolescentiae anni vita detrahebantur.' Cp. Soph. Aj. 476 nap fuap ημέρα .. Προσθείσα κάναθείσα του γε κατθανείν. To the impatient lover time seems to be robbing him of year after year, and to be making no difference to Lalage, to be .galloping' with him while it crawls' or stands still with her, cp. Epp. I. 1. 20 foll. Such expressions as A. P. 175 'anni venientes, recedentes' (cp. Od. 2. 11. 5), Soph. Trach. 547 ορώ μεν ήβην την μεν έρπουσαν πρόσω Την δε φθίνουσαν are not in point. . They refer not to different ways of viewing the same time, but to different epochs of life. They suppose an åkuń, a definite point to which life ascends and from which it descends. Horace does not mean here to represent his lover as going down the hill of life.

15. proterva fronte, a return to the metaphor of stanzas 1, 2.

17. dilecta, sc. 'a te.' •Lalage, whom you love with a passion you never felt for any other.' His pre-eminent love for Lalage is the measure both of the happiness for which he is bidden to wait and of the impatience with which he waits for it.

Pholoë fugax, see on Od. 1. 3. 36 • asperam Pholoën.' Her flight is one which attracts pursuit, ‘fugit ad salices et se cupit ante videri.'

non, non, ve, cp. Od. 2. 9. 1-6 'non,' 'aut,' nec,'aut.' 19. pura, Od. 3. 29. 45 .sole puro,' free from mist or cloud. renidet, in what is its first sense, .shines again’; Od. 2. 18. 2

. renidet lacunar'; Epod. 2. 66. renidentes lares.' 22. mire, with 'falleret.' hospites, strangers who came in.

aureum..

ODE VI.

Septimius, my dear friend who would accompany me to the ends of the earth, let me spend the end of my life at Tibur, or if not there, then at Tarentum. Let us go there together and live there till I die.'

Septimius has been naturally supposed to be the same person whom Horace introduces to Tiberius in Epp. 1. 9. The Schol. Cruq. further identifies him with Titius, the poet on the staff of the same Tiberius in Epp. I. 3.9 'Romana brevi venturus in ora, Pindarici fontis qui non expalluit haustus.' It may probably be the same person who is named

as the common friend of the poet and the emperor in Augustus' letter preserved in the Suetonian life of Horace.

This is one of the Odes which is assigned by several of Horace's chronologists to a date earlier than B.C. 31 (see Introd. to Books i-iii, § 2). We must not, perhaps, lay very much stress on the fact that the year 29 is the earliest time at which we know of public attention being called to the difficulty of subduing the Cantabri (v. 2); but the positive arguments for the early date seem slight. If the words ‘lasso maris et viarum militiaeque’ are to be pressed (see note on v. 1), they'would carry the Ode back not only beyond 31, but to a time when Horace was really fresh from his campaign, and before he could well have become familiar with Tibur and Tarentum. Macleane justly remarks that the tone of the Ode is not that of a young adventurer freshly come to Rome to begin life. Nor is the argument stronger from the supposed incompatibility of his roving tastes with his possession of the • unica Sabina, which he obtained in B.C. 34. Cp. his language in Ep. 1. 7. 44 ' mihi non tam regia Roma Quam vacuum Tibur placet aut imbelle Tarentum.'

Line 1. Gades aditure. The beginning of the Ode is taken from Catullus, 11. 1, ‘Furi et Aureli comites Catulli, sive in extremos penetrabit Indos,' etc. Here this proverbial test of friendship is more specially in point, 'You are such a fast friend that you would go to the furthest and most dangerous places with me, much more will you come to Tibur or Tarentum.' Dillr. points out that the three places named represent distance (“ remotis Gadibus,' 2. 2. 10) and danger, either of war or shipwreck. We may notice, perhaps, that they correspond also, though not in the same order, to the three things of which the poet professes to have had enough, ‘maris, viarum, militiae.' This softens the difficulty of which Orelli complains, that Horace should speak of himself in mature life as weary of toils which he had long left behind him. The whole line of thought has been ruled by his imitation of Catullus. • You would go with me anywhere, but don't let us put our friendship to such a test, we have had enough in our time of wanderings and fighting, we are growing old, let us go to Tibur, or to Tarentum.'

3. barbaras Syrtes. The coast is given a bad name not only for its dangers (see on Od. 1. 22. 6, where there is the same conjunction), but for the savageness of its inhabitants. Virg. Aen. 4. 41 “inhospita Syrtis.

5. Argeo, 'Apyelw, as ‘Lesbous' instead of the Latin form • Lesbius,' Od. 1. I. 34. For the historical reference see on Od. 1. 7. 13.

7. maris et viarum, Epp. 1. 11. 6 odio maris atque viarum’; so viator' is opposed to 'navita,' Od. 3. 4. 32. The genitive seems to go. both with ‘lasso' (as Virg. Aen. I. 178 ‘fessi rerum ') and with ‘modus, see on Od. 1. 3. 6.

10. pellitis, Varro de R. R. 2. 2 explains this epithet, 'ovibus pellitis, quae propter lanae bonitatem ut sunt Tarentinae et Atticae pellibus integuntur, ne lana inquinetur.'

ovibus, dat. after • dulce,' 'pleasant to the sheep.'

Galaesi, the “niger Galaesus' of Virg. G. 4. 126, which flowed into the Gulf of Tarentum, a few miles from the city; see Liv. 25. II.

11. regnata, Od. 3. 29. 27 ‘regnata Cyro Bactra’; Virg. Aen. 3. 14 ‘terra . . regnata Lycurgo.' The legend of Phalantus, who headed the insurrection of the Partheniae, and after its failure was allowed to lead a colony of them to Italy, where he seized and ruled Tarentum, is gathered from Justin 3. 4, and Strabo 6. p. 278 foll.

13. terrarum, with 'angulus,' as 'angulus mundi,' Prop. 4. 3. 65. • The corner of the world' gives the idea of retirement, 'secessus litus amoeni.'

14. ridet ubi. For the lengthening of the short syllable see on Od. 1. 3. 36.

15. decedunt, 'give way to,’‘are second to’; for a similar metaphor cp. Virg. G. 2. 97 'firmissima vina, Tmolus et assurgit quibus.' Cic. de Sen. 18 enumerates the compliments paid to old age, ‘salutari, appeti, decedi, assurgi. For the Tarentine honey cp. Od. 3. 16. 33 •Calabrae apes.'

certat, with the dat. as in Epod. 2. 20'certantem uvam purpurae”; so 'pugnare,' Sat. 1. 2. 73 ; 'luctari,' Od. 1. I. 15.

16. baca, Sat. 2. 4. 69 ‘Pressa Venafranae quod baca remisit olivae.' Venafrum was an inland city in the north of Campania, in the valley of the Vulturnus, and on the Via Latina. Cicero (pro Planc. 9) speaks of the neighbourhood as very populous,'tractus celeberrimus.' It is classed by Horace with Tarentum, as one of the places to which a Roman would go for a holiday, Od. 3. 5. 55. .

17. ver longum, a mild winter and a cool summer : 'quas et mollis hyems et frigida temperat aestas,' Stat. Silv. 3. 5. 83.

18. Aulon, 'felix vitibus Aulon,' Mart. 13. 125. I; “mons Calabriae,' Acr. The name, which is a common one, suggests rather a hollow between hills. It is perhaps preserved in the name 'Melone,' still given to a slope near the seashore, about eight miles south-east of Tarentum, Dict. Geog.

amicus fertili Baccho. This was clearly read by Statius, who writes, Silv. 1. 2, Qua Bromio dilectus ager collesque per altos Uritur et prelis non invidet uva Falernis.' Bentley is displeased at the epithet • fertili,' and accepting the reading "fertilis,' which is found in several good MSS., and in Servius, on Virg. Aen. 3. 553, alters 'amicus' to

T

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