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what there is no reason otherwise to suppose, that Proculeius was dead at this time.

metuente solvi, 'that dare not droop,' 'is shy of drooping. Od. 3. 11. 10, 4. 5. 20. Virgil had the expression first, G. I. 246 · Arctos metuentes aequore tingi.'

solvi, like Virgil's 'solvi membra,' Aveodal; or possibly, as Ritter suggests, with a remembrance of Icarus' fate, whose wings were fastened with wax and melted in the sun. Cp. in a similar metaphorical description of posthumous fame, ' Daedaleo notior Icaro,' Od. 2. 20. 13.

9. latius regnes. In the following stanzas Horace is thinking of the Stoic paradox, that the wise man is king. Cp. Sat. 1. 3. 125, 136, Epp. I. 1. 107, etc., Sen. Thyest. 334 foll. “Regem non faciunt opes,' etc.

10-12. “Than if your property stretched into the far South and West, so as to unite in one sway Carthage and its Spanish colonies.' Gades was one of these : see Cic. pro Balbo 14, Liv. 28. 87. The expression should be compared with Od. 3. 16. 31, 41 · Fulgentem imperio fertilis Africae,'Mygdoniis regnum Alyattei Campis continuem.' Horace is not speaking in either case of proconsulships, but of the “latifundia' (see on Od. 1. I. 9), which were one of the favourite means of investing and acquiring wealth. Seneca expands this as other Horatian metaphors, Epp. 89 ‘Hoc quoque parvum est nisi latifundiis vestris maria cinsistis: nisi trans Hadriam et Ionium Aegaeumque vester villicus regnet . . sit fundus quod aliquando imperium vocabatur.. In both passages of Horace the metaphor of royalty is suggested by the context_here by • latius regnes' and the allusion to Phraates, in 3. 16 by dominus splendidior' and ' vectigalia.'

II. et, and so. Dillr. draws attention to the consecutive force of • et,' as almost equal to ‘ita ut.' Cp. 1. 3. 8, 4. 13. 10.

13. indulgens sibi, ' by indulging itself,' i.e. its own feverish thirst.

hydrops, “the dropsy.' It is properly the subject of'crescit,' but it is made also the subject of indulgens' and 'pellit,' the actions of the sick man being attributed to his malady.

14. nec sitim . . languor, 'drinking increases the disease; it cannot quench the thirst till the malady which causes the thirst is gone, and with it the other symptoms.' The application of the analogy is evident. Cp. 3. 16. 17.'Crescentem sequitur cura pecuniam Maiorumque fames.' Ovid reproduces the comparison, Fast. 1. 212 'quum possideant plurima plura petunt: Sic quibus intumuit suffusa venter ab unda Quo plus sunt potae plus sitiuntur aquae.'

nisi .. venis. They speak of drinking as though it immediately filled the veins, Sat. 2. 4. 25 'vacuis committere venis Nil nisi lene decet'; of thirst as though it were felt in the veins, Virg. G. 3. 482

'venis omnibus acta sitis.' So the meaning is, ‘no pouring into the veins will cure the thirst; there is something that must be got rid of out of them—some inner malady in the recesses of the body.'

15. aquosus languor, 'the faintness caused by the water.'

17. redditum Cyri solio, cp. 3. 29. 27 .regnata Cyro Bactra.' It is the most distinct enunciation of that identity of the Parthian with the Persian monarchy which Horace assumes elsewhere. See on Od.

For the historical event referred to see Introd. to Books i-iii, $ 8.

19. Virtus, the judgment of a virtuous man, as in Sat. 1. 3. 42. 20. dedocet, 'would fain unteach the people to use names falsely.' 21, 22.

tutum, propriam, predicative, a diadem and a laurel crown that cannot be taken away again. Cp. 3. 2. 17-20.

23. oculo inretorto, 'who can see huge treasure-heaps, and never turn to look again.'

1. 2. 22.

ODE III.

• Let the thought of death moderate both repining in trouble and exultation in prosperity. Enjoy yourself while you may, for death is at hand, for rich and noble as well as for poor and humbly born.'

Some little doubt hangs over the name of the person to whom these counsels of Epicureanism are addressed. The old Blandinian MS. gave it as .Gellius.' Cruquius identifies him with L. Gellius Publicola, the brother (half brother through their mother Polla, or brother by adoption, according to different theories) of Messalla (Od. 3. 21. 7), and consul B.c. 36.

Dellius (as the other good MSS. and the MSS. of Acr. and Porph. write the name) would probably be Q. Dellius, who had changed sides so often that Messalla is said to have nicknamed him “Desultor bellorum civilium.' He had deserted successively Dolabella, Cassius, and finaliy Antony on the eve of the battle of Actium. Gellius' character was not such that Horace would gain much by the substitution of his name for that of Dellius.

Line 1. aequam .. arduis. There is probably some slight feeling of the verbal antithesis, when life's path is steep (åvavtńs) let your mind at least be on a level.'

3. insolenti, not that all joy is . insolens':-'chastened from insolent excess of happiness,' from the őßpus, of which kópos in the Greek tragedians was the parent.

5. seu, seu, depend on 'moriture,' 'for that thou must soon die, whether thy life has been sad or merry.' With the emphatic position of 'moriture' cp. Od. 1. 28. 6.

6. remoto, 'retired,'«quiet’; cp. Epod. 2. 23-28.

per dies festos, pero might denote either through the entire day' as 'per brumam,' Epp. 1. 11. 19, or on each holiday,' as 'per exactos annos,’ Od. 3. 22. 6. It is opposed to the life of unbroken sadness (* omni tempore'), and means 'miss no opportunity of merriment.'

8. interiore nota, the brand of the innermost, and so the earliestfilled bin. The amphora’ itself was branded or a label was attached to it with the name of the wine and of the consul in whose year it was bottled ; “patriam titulumque,' Juv. S. 5. 33. Cp. ‘nota Falemi,' Sat. 1. 10. 24.

9-11. quo .. quid, “to what purpose ? why?' 'to what purpose but that you may make merry in the shade?' Dillr. quotes, for the change of conjunction, Ov. Met. 13. 516 .Quo ferrea resto? Quidve moror?' This is the reading of the oldest MSS., including V and B. A large number have quo .

quo, in which case the two clauses must be written without a note of question, as 'quo' will answer to ‘huc,' • hither to the spot to which the boughs stretch out and to which the stream is in such haste to hurry down.' The lemma in the MSS. of Porph. has in the second place 'quo,' but whatever he read, he interpreted it .wherefore?' for he writes "subaudiendum, si ea non utimur.' It must be allowed that this possibility of a double interpretation is in favour of 'quo.' Keller edits 'quo et,' which Bentley found in some MSS. The hiatus, if we retain 'quo,' must be classed with Epod. 5. 100.

9. alba, as candida populus, Virg. E. 9. 41. The double contrast between the slighter poplar white in the wind and the gloom of the heavier pine is indicated, after Horace's manner, by one epithet with each of the pair of substantives, see on 3. 4. 46, 47, 3. 13. 7, 4. 4. 10. For his notice of colour cp. Od. 1. 21. 7, 8 * Nigris aut Erymanthi Silvis aut viridis Cragi’; 1. 25. 17, 18 hedera virente . . pulla myrto.'

10. hospitalem, Virg. G. 4. 24 Obviaque hospitiis teneat frondentibus arbos.'

amant, rather on account of the charm of the place or for the pleasure of shading the revellers, than (as Orelli takes it) as though the boughs themselves were lovers, after the image of 'lascivae hederae,' 1. 36. 20. ‘Amare' is used by Horace and other Graecising Latin writers in imitation of pileiv, but it rarely, if ever, attains the colourless or unconsciously idiomatic force of the original.

11. laborat trepidare, App. 2, § 1, 'frets in its haste to escape down its tortuous channel.' Contrast the water which (Epp. 1. 10. 21) per pronum trepidat cum murmure rivum.'

13. breves, accusative; Od. 1. 36. 16 . breve lilium.' Here the epithet is in point, for the roses are types of the pleasures of life that must be snatched quickly, so that it has the force of ere they be withered.'

15. res, 'patrimonium,'Schol. Probably so, rather than with Orelli, 'tota vitae conditio.' There is no fear, Orelli says, that Dellius' fortune should prove inadequate. But he may lose it, and, at any rate, it is only his for a short time, 'Cedet coëmptis saltibus.'

aetas, Od. 1. 9. 17 donec virenti canities abest Morosa. The three conditions are summed up in 2. II. 16 'dum licet.'

17. coëmptis saltibus, Epp. 2. 2. 177 · Calabris Saltibus adiecti Lucani.' They are pasture grounds; see on Od. 1. 31. 5, and cp. 2. 16. 33.

domo, the city house, opp. to 'villa,' the house in the country or suburbs.

18. flavus, the habitual epithet helps the sense of 'use and wont,' 'you must leave all you know so well.'

lavit. Horace prefers this, the older form, in the Odes; cp. 3. 4. 61, 3. 12. 2, 7, 4. 6. 26. In the Epp. and Sat. he uses also the first conj., as Sat. 1. 3. 137, Epp. I. 6. 61.

19. exstructis in altum, 'piled up so high,' constr. as 'ad plenum,' Od. I. 17. 15.

20. Inacho. This mythical king of Argos seems to have stood as a representative of the most remote antiquity, cp. 3. 19. I Quantum distat ab Inacho Codrus.' Cp. also Juv. S. 8. 46. Cecropides. •It makes no difference whether you pass your little span of life as a man of wealth and mythical lineage or in poverty and humble station, seeing that you are the doomed victim of Orcus, who shows no pity to any.'

23. sub divo, ún' aibépi, Aesch. Eum. 373. Virgil's “aura aetheria vesci.'

moreris, as though every year of life was a delaying of the natural departure.

24. victima. For a fuller carrying out of the metaphor see Od. 1. 28. 20 n.

25. cogimur, of gathering the flock to the fold, Virg. E. 3. 98, etc. Cp. Od. 1. 24. 18' nigro compulerit Mercurius gregi.'

26. urna, Od. 3. I. 16 aequa lege Necessitas Sortitur insignes et imos; Omne capax movet urna nomen.'

28. cumbae, dative after “impositura,''to place us on board the bark for the banishment from which none returns.' • Cumba’ is said to be the form preferred when the boat of Charon is meant.

ODE IV.

* No need to blush, Xanthias, though you love a slave girl. Achilles had his Briseis, and Ajax his Tecmessa; even Agamemnon, the conqueror of Troy, could not withstand Cassandra. Who knows but Phyllis too is some born princess: one so constant and so indifferent to money can spring from no vulgar stock. Nay, don't suspect my praises, I am close on forty.'

We can hardly be wrong in supposing that, with the exception of her pretty face and figure, the praises of Phyllis are meant to be interpreted ironically. The mock heroic tone of the list of precedents (cp. Od. 1. 16, Introd., and Epod. 3), the “regium certe,' and the contempt implied for her real birth, 'scelesta plebe, might be merely playful; but considering the topics of praise, ‘sic fidelem, sic lucro aversam,' there is hardly feeling enough in their expression, standing as they do between the levity of stanzas 4 and 6, to redeem the playfulness from the sting of irony.

And possibly the Ode refers to some real person, although the name be fictitious. The irony would be wasted on a shadow; and there is a definiteness both in the name of the ‘Phocian’ Xanthias and in the introduction of Horace's own personality (stanza 6), which is more dramatic than is usual in the purely imaginary Odes. It is undoubtedly Horace's

's way to add a local designation to fictitious characters: ‘Cnidius Gyges, Od. 2. 5. 20; ‘Liparaei nitor Hebri,' 3. 12. 6. In some cases, as in 'Thurini Calais filius Ornyti,' 3. 9. 14, the appearance of complete identification is strongly in point, and in all the object probably was to give a greater semblance of reality. The purpose here is the less easy to imagine, from the fact that the name is addressed to Xanthias himself, not used by way of identifying him to others. If the lover of the Ode was a real person, there may of course be some play in the name, of which the point is lost to us. Orelli suggests that • Xanthias' may be chosen to cover a Roman · Flavius,' cp. Od. 3. 15. 11, where he thinks ‘Nothus' may represent a real 'Spurius.' Ritter imagines a Greek resident in Rome, and, comparing Od. 1. 27. 10 • Megillae frater Opuntiae,' ingeniously suggests that the person there rallied is none other than Xanthias, and that the ‘Phyllis' of this Ode is the 'Charybdis' of that; see Introd. to 1. 27.

The composition of the Ode is fixed by v. 24 to the end of Horace's fortieth year, B.C. 25.

Line 2. prius, 'before you,''you are not the first.'

insolentem, according to the character assigned to him in A. P. 122 Iura neget sibi nata, nihil non arroget armis,’ so he was less likely to stoop to a slave girl. Notice the antithetical placing of the words throughout, 'insolentem serva,'captivae dominum,' • fessis leviora,' • Pergama Grais.

6. Tecmessae. Orelli recalls Soph. Aj. 211 émei de Méxos dovpiáλωτον Στέρξας ανέχει θούριος Αίας. Tecmessa is unknown to Homer.

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