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this opening is the only road of approach to the town. Hence the castle, on the northern side of this valley, and occupying the whole apex of a swelling hill, guards and commands this pass or gorge, and also the whole of the town and its harbour. * From ils cliff-walls, to the east, a wide extent of the ocean, and the opposite French coast are to be seen ; but there are eminences to the north-west, and to the west, even higher than the keep tower of the fortress, and, consequently, subject the whole to annoyance, if not imminent danger, were they possessed by an enemy, in the present state of warfare. But these eminences are likewise provided with numerous entrenched and excavated defensive works. Not only topographers and antiquaries, but tourists, foreign and domestic, and poets of the olden and of modern times have written encomiastic comments on the castle of Dover and its accessaries. The often quoted lines from Shak. speare allude to, and mark the sublime heights of the sea cliffs at this place :

“How fearful
And dizzy 'tis to cast one's eyes so low!
The crows, and choughs, that wind the midway air,
Shews scarce so gross as beetles : Half-way down
Hangs one that gathers samphire; dreadful trade !
Methinks he seems no bigger than his head :
The fishermen, that walk upon the beach,
Appear like mice; and yon tall anchoring bark
Diminish'd to her cock; her cock, a buoy
Almost too small for sight: The murmuring surge,
That on the unnumber'd idle pebbles chafes,
Cannot be heard so high :-I'll look no more,
Lest my brain turns, and the deficient sight

Topple down headlong."-KING LEAR, Act iv. Scene vi. In the time of Queen Elizabeth, the port seems to have been neglected, and“ a Memorial touching the port of Dover” was presented to her by Sir Walter Raleigh,* containing the following remarks :

"No promontory, town, or haven, in Christendom, is so placed by nature and situation, both to gratify friends and annoy enemies, as this town of Dover. No place is so settled to receive and deliver intelligence, for all matters and actions in Europe, from time to time. No town is by nature so settled, either to allure intercourse by sea, or to train inhabitants by land, to make it great, fair, rich, and prosperous ; nor is there, in the whole circuit of this famous isle, any port, either in respect of security, or defence, or of traffick, or intercourse, more convenient, needful, or rather of necessity to be regarded, than this of Dover.”

In the outer ballium, to the east of the principal castellated buildings, are the singular and interesting remains of the com


paper appears in an " Essay on Ways and Means to maintain the honour and safety of England.” 4to. 1701.

VOL. V. - Jan. 1831.


pound edifice represented in the accompanying engraving. These comprehend portions of an ancient church, and a connected tower, which are remarkable in design, construction, situation, and historical relations.

The tower and attached church are usually regarded as two distinct buildings, both in architectural character and in historical relations. It is said that the first was erected as a watch-tower, or pharos, by one of the first Roman generals, perhaps Publius Ostorius Scapula, who visited Britain A.D. 49. Aulus Plautus, a Roman consular officer, had previously subjected some of the Britons ; but his residence and dominion were short. Scapula obtained more conquests and power, and built some forts to protect his own soldiery and awe the natives. Dover Castle, as a walled fortress, is said to have been erected by him, and the tower, here represented, is supposed by Dr. Stukeley to have been intended as a beacon, or light-house, for vessels passing between the opposite coasts.

Other similar buildings appear to have been raised at Boulogne, in France, or the heights to the south of Dover Castle. The form of this pharos is octagonal, on the outside, and square within, as shewn in the accompanying views and ground plan (No. 3 a). Each of the exterior sides measures when perfect about 14 feet ; thus making the circumference 112 feet; the thickness of the walls is about 10 feet; and the interior area is a square of 14 feet each way. Through the eastern wall is a door-way formed by an arched head of semi-circular form, opening to a passage, or vaulted corridor, communicating to another doorway in the western wall of the church. As shewn in the annexed views, the town diminishes in diameter from the base upwards, and at the top, which is evidently of much later architecture than the bottom, it is much smaller. According to Dr. Stukeley's prints, the tower diminished gradually from the base to the summít, assuming the pyramidical form; but, at present, there is a considerable break or ledge about three parts of the height. The facing of the wall is in a ragged, broken condiion, and presents a ruinous appearance ; hence, its precise dimensions and form cannot be precisely defined. It is related, that the walls have been increased in thickness by Anglo-Saxon or Norman masonry, but that the inner surface, at least of the lower portion, remains nearly the same as when left by the Roman builders. This consists of alternate layers or courses of large bricks and squared pieces of a stalactical substance, called tufa, which was probably brought from the French coast, near Boulogne, and where it was also used in building another similar tower. * Each tufa course consists of seven, and the

* Mr. Lyons, in his History of Dover, considers the employment of this tufa as a proof of the early date of the building; for had the Roinans waited till they become

brick of two rows; the blocks of the former measure about 12 by 7 in. each, and the bricks are, on an average, 21 inches by one and a half. The semicircular arches of the windows and doorways are formed of the same bricks, with joints converging towards the centre of the choir. Some of these bricks are evidently made in moulds, have grooves on the surface, and also projecting pieces at two angles, intended to fit, or dove-tail into adjoining bricks, which have two angles cut off. On the surfaces of some, are four projecting knobs, whilst others have corresponding cavities, thus forming mortices and tenons.*

Dr. Stukeley's account of this building, written in 1722, is worth repeating in this place for the purpose of imparting his opinions to persons who are not in the habit of perusing his scarce and expensive works.

“The greatest curiosity here is the pharos, or Roman watch-tower; notwithstanding it is so much disfigured by new daubing with mortar, casing, and mendiag, I discovered its primitive intention the first moment. I saw it, and sent the three prints, which I here present to the reader, to Monsieur Montfaucan, at the instances of my most honoured lord, the Archbishop of Canterbury. I suppose the inside was entirely filled up with a staircase; the height of what is left is 40 feet. I believe there was 20 feet more originally, and the whole number of windows on a side was eight. This building was made use of as a steeple, and had a pleasant ring of bells in it, which Sir George Rooke procured to be carried away to Portsmouth. Since then, the office of the Ordnance, under pretext of savingness, have taken away the lead that covered it, and left this rare piece of art and masonry to struggle with the sea, air, and weather.”

Immediately east of this tower, and connected with it by an arched passage, are the ruined walls of an ancient church, the erection of which is generally ascribed to King Lucius, in the second century; but the identity, or sovereignty of this monarch has been doubted by some of our critical antiquaries.† The materials with which it is built, the form and construction of the old windows and door-ways, and its junction with the tower already described, are pretty good proofs of its very remote anti

acquainted with the nature of the inland country, and been masters of it, they would have found stope nearer their fortress, and have used it in preference to such as was to be conveyed across the channel.

• Dr. Stukeley, in “ Itinerarum Curiosum,” vol. i., has given three engravings of this pharos and the adjoining church, which, being drawn in 1722, represent several parts that have disappeared since this date. The pharos is shewn in perspective elevation, with five stories of windows, nine divisions of tufas, and nine courses of bricks. He also gives a section and plan of the building, displaying only three windows in height, but marking carefully the relative proportions and numbers of courses of brick and stone. To the laborious, learned, and enthusiastic Doctor, we are indebted for the first architectural illustration notice of this very curious building, and I conclude that he christened it by its present cognomen.

+ See King's “ Munimenta Antiqua,” vol. iii.; and Brayley's Account of St. Alban's, in the “ Beauties of England and Wales."

quity ; but, as Mr. Lyons says, “it may be difficult to determine whether it was erected by a British, a Roman, a Saxon, or a Norman workman." Although we are unable to obtain anything like authentic evidence on a subject of such remote date, we cannot hesitate in ascribing the original construction, as well as parts of the present walls, to an Anglo-Roman origin; for the size and make of the bricks, the mode of placing them in the arches (see plate No. 4, shewing the door-way on the south wall), the simple form, arrangement, and execution of the whole work, are so many indications of an age long anterior to the Norman invasion, and also point to the Romans, or some Romanized builders. The slight ground plan of the building, and the small views of it, here annexed, are calculated to convey better information than can be given in words; and it is my intention to offer a few further observations on the subject in a subsequent number of this Magazine.

J. B. December 18, 1833.



KNIGHTS OF MALTA. When the knights abandoned Malta, after Valetta fell into the hands of the French, in 1797, the principal officers of the different langues are said to have carried of all the muniments belonging to their respective societies.

Two folio volumes, however, which must have been left by the English knights in 1549, were preserved among a few valuable documents of a more public nature in the Grand Master's Library.

Besides these, it is believed, no other manuscripts of any interest, relating to the order, exist in the island. I am sorry that I did not make longer extracts from the rentals. The entries of disbursements therein contain much that is curious. It is also a matter of regret to me that my acquaintance with old writing did not enable me to transcribe what I took to be the original grant of Rhodes to the order, and many other muniments of great antiquity which are to be found in the same collection.

R. H. F. In the Knights' Library. In a folio volume,-paper thick,ếno wire mark,-much wormeaten, and occasionally defaced. Lingua Anglica.

Liber in quo per minutim exprimuntur redditus Prioratus Hosplis Sci Jois Hierosolm. Li. Anglia.

* Robert Rolle's Prayers will be continued in subsequent numbers.

Et omnium ipsius Comderm secundum valorem currentem anno 1338. Eodemque modo exprimuntur aliqua bona ordinis Templariorum, quæ ordini Sci Jois Hierm post extinctionem di ordinis Templariorum fuerunt adjudicata. Qui liber confectus ex ordinatione fratris Phillippi Thame

Tunc temporis ipsius Prioratus

Angliæ Prioris Extent. terrar et tenement Hospit Sci Johis ferlm in Anglia.....

Phil de Thame. ejusdm Hospit. in Anglia Priorem anno dmi......

Millesi trecentisimo..........simo octavo. Comitatus Berks (account of rents and reprises fills 3 pages) In Comitatu Wilts

(2 pages) In Com Worcester (2 pages)

Cornubiæ (2 pages)

Somerset (1 page) Possessiones sororum de Stokeland (1 page)

In Com Southampton (3 pages) .......... de Palyng in comitat Sussex (2 pages) Banilia de Clanfelde in comit Oxon (1 page)

de Querinton in comit Gloucest' (2 pages)
de Kynemor cu memb in com Hertford (3 pages)
de Slebach in com Pembrook

(1 p)
de Halston in Nort walls

(2 p) de Grafton in Coin. Warr

(2 p) de Grencley in Com Derbye

(1 p) de Newland in Com Ebor

(1 p) .... in Com Northumb. (1 p) ...... de Ossinton in Com Notting

(2 p) Maltby in Com

(2 p) de Skirbeck in Com

(2p) de Dalby cum Mem in Com ...cestr (2) de Dyngelee in Com Northamp (2 p) de Hoggesshanke in Com Suk

(2 p)
Banilia de Melcheburn in Com Bed

(4 p)
de Herdwych in Com Beds
de Shenegaye in Cantabrg cm memb (3 p)

(2 p)

(q. Lincoln)

(q. Lincoln)


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