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deprive them of a subterfuge. If you send them letters to this effect let me have a copy;

His lordship of Rouen has been complaining of me to the empress for delivering to him your letter ; all your actions he imputes either to pride or anger.

For myself your lordship may feel assured that I will abstain from any intercourse with the excommunicate persons, even from ordinary civilities. If you excommunicate the king I should wish for distinct instructions in what particulars he is to be avoided, and whether I may name him in the celebration of Mass. I am ready to face any inconvenience or danger rather than fail in my part in executing the sentence of the church. Your letter to the Bishop of Chichester I have still in my possession, waiting to ascertain where he is, or, if he comes to these parts, to deliver it myself.

People say, as well at court as elsewhere, that you are to be chancellor to the King of France. Some conjecture that you will select the festival of St. Mary Magdalen for excommunicating the king. When the empress heard whom you had excommunicated she took it as a joke, saying, she thought they were excommunicated long since. But after, when Richard of Ivelchester made his salute, she took no notice of him.

Of court news I know little, except that the barons of the diocese of Le Mans have made peace with the king—from Bretagne, no one yet; but on the eve of St. Peter's day the king was with his army within four leagues of Fongeres. On the return of the Abbott of Derby you shall hear more. Radolph, the Knight Hospitaller, who is just come from England, told me that the bishops met on the day of St. John the Baptist, and appealed against you for Ascension day next, on the ground that you have suspended the Bishop of Salisbury without their consent, and have threatened to excommunicate the king. Your archdeacon, they say, is endeavouring to get permission to cross the sea, but has not yet received your letters. You may write back anything you wish to say to me by Brother Adam, the Canon Regular, who loves your lordship in his zeal for justice. He is to return immediately.

May your Holiness fare well. Know for certain that the bishops, even Hereford, speak most harshly of you, as a troubler of the English and Roman churches. They and the Abbotts are to have a meeting at Northampton, on the octave of St. Peter's day.

JOHN OF SALISBURY TO THE ARCHBISHOP.

Soon after the former.

Salutem et comfortari in eo qui dissipat concilia gentium, et impiorum conatus evacuat,

et consilia evertit.

Your Lordship will, I think, do well to follow the advice of Nicholas (who, as I trust, has the spirit of God) : i. e., by writing at once to the empress, and to the archbishops and bishops of Normandy, that you are, and always have been, ready to abide by the decision of the canon law; and that you will return at once to your see on the following conditions, viz. : that you and yours shall be restored to your possessions with a promise of personal security, and that the liberties of the church shall be allowed to stand as they were before the outbreak of these troubles. It seems to me that you can scarcely be too moderate in your demands, as it is quite clear they will be rejected be they what they may; for your adversaries are obviously hardened against any proposals, short of such as will break down the church and disgrace the clergy. By such a course you will at least record a testimony against the malignants among the bishops, and, what is of most consequence, will set men right as to the moderation of your own conduct.

lf, as I very little expect, they lay your proposals before the king, and he accepts them, I do not see that you need be very cautious in wording the conditions, as long as the empress and the Archbishop of Rouen are parties to them, and if the king grants you security by a public declaration and by letters patent. For what if God has willed to discipline you by placing you in the midst of enemies, of those who will lay siege against you and seek your life to take it away.

Some, perhaps, will reprove the rashness of thus exposing your life to your enemy's sword, and will account it wiser to decline the danger till more thorough repentance has fitted you for martyrdom. I answer, every one is fit who is willing,—be he young or old, Jew or Gentile, Christian or Infidel, man or woman, it matters not. Whoever suffers in the cause of justice he is a martyrma witness of the truth-an asserter of the cause of Christ.

However, this is little to the purpose, for, as my mind presages, bis Majesty is not yet so convalescent that we need concern ourselves about the terms of our reception. But since that firm pillar of the church gives out that all your actions proceed either from pride or anger, you must meet him by a studied display of moderation, in all your words and deeds as well as dress and deportment. And yet this will be but of little avail in the sight of God, unless it proceeds from the inner secrets of your conscience.

As to the appeal of the bishops, I will tell you my opinion. In their anxiety to be free they are perpetuating their slavery-and by a just fate. For when the year of redemption was at hand, which at length summoned the church to liberty, after the six years it had lain in the clay and in the mire, they, because some had married wives, and others bought yokes of oxen, and others heaped up treasure, and others gone after divers lusts, chose rather to remain in their old bondage, and to have their ears bored with the awl of the "usages." &c. &c. &c.

As to the Bishop of Hereford, that supposed deliverer of Israel, who'was to achieve so much by his contempt of the world, and by his learning, of which, by the ignorant, or the ignorant of him, he is supposed to have abundance; if he and his friends call your lordship a troubler of the church, well may it be answered to them in the words of Elias—“I have not troubled Israel, but thou and thy father's house, in that ye have forsaken the commandments of the Lord, and have followed Baalim.” Not that I, the advocate of moderation, would wish the bishops to receive this answer from your lordship: it would come better from their own consciences, or from some holy confessor, who should rebuke their whoredoms with Jezebel.

On the remaining question about which you consult me I really do not feel competent to give advice. I can never urge you to pronounce an anathema against the king, your master, nor an interdict against the innocents of his kingdom. I still abide by what I said to you at the Castle of Theodoric ; your lordship will remember it as you thought the same. I will add, however, that on the points which have arisen since, I advise you to consult the Bishop of Poictiers, and to take the sense of other wise men; and if Herveus is yet returned, to have some conversation with him. But, more than all, be diligent in prayer and other exercises of Christian warfare ; and commend your mind, in this its conflict, to the guidance of our Lord, through the intercession of his saints ; and so proceed to such farther measures, be they what they may, as your cause requires, and as the Holy Spirit points out through its organswise and good men. I think too that you have the Spirit of God; for he who gave you zeal when your deserts were small, will not refuse you wisdom in this emergency.

( To be continued.)

16

HISTORICAL NOTICES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF CHRISTIAN

ARCHITECTURE IN ENGLAND.

First Class.-ANGLO-ROMAN

SPECIMEN.

DOVER CASTLE.NO II.

To the Editor of the British Magazine.

SIR,—The Castle of Dover, with its numerous dependent towers, and varied fortifications, ancient Christian church and watch tower or pharos, and the historical associations connected with the whole, furnish a theme of commanding interest and import to the topographer, antiquary, artist, and historian. Its peculiarity of situation, on the frontiers of a wealthy island, at a short distance from the continent, whose inhabitants have often been engaged in warfare with the natives of Britain, render it at once an object of great importance to its lawful owners, and of envy to those who wish to conquer and govern them. Even before the time of Cæsar's invasion of Britain, it is reasonably supposed that the site of the present fortress was a British strong-hold; and, according to Darell, * the British chieftain, Arviragus, entrenched himself within its lines, and refused to pay tribute to the Roman conqueror. Here also the renowned "King Arthur presided during part of his reign. Other authors contend that Dover Castle was founded and partly built by Julius Cæsar himself; but on either of these points it would be vain to offer conjectures and comments on the present occasion; for there is no authentic evidence to prove or disprove either position. That parts of the buildings are of Roman workmanship seems to be admitted by our best informed antiquaries : and this carries us back from fourteen to eighteen centuries. It would occupy too much space, and be foreign to the purpose of this paper to enter into a history of the castle, or even descant on its great extent, its singularly commanding and imposing site, and the varied, bold, and interesting architectural features of its different parts ; but we may briefly remark, that it occupies a lofty cliff-eminence to the north of the town of Dover, which skirts a bay of the English channel, at the base of a ridge of high hills. A chasm, or narrow valley, separates this chain of heights, and through

“The History of Dover Castle, by the Rev. Wm. Darell, Chaplain to Queen Elizabeth, with ten views and a plan of the castle ;” 410, pp. 68. 1786. Since the publication of this work, the Rev. John Lyons, of Dover, has devoted two quarto volumes to “ The History of the town and port of Dover, and of Dover Castle.” 4to, 1813. The plates in these works are very slight and inaccurate. Mr. Brayley, in “ The Beauties of England"-Kent-has given a condensed and discriminating history and description of the town and castle ; preserving all the essential matter of former authors, and adding new, with more apposite descriptions.

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