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can only exist where man is social, and in a measure civilized.

5. An exchange is a transaction in which both parties receive benefit. When we make it freely, it is because we had rather possess the thing we receive than that which we give, and the person with whom we make the exchange prefers that which we offer him to that which he offers us. Honesty requires that the exchange be free and fair.

6. Suppose this exchange to be of labor with capital.

The man who gives his labor does it because he prefers the wages he gets for it to being idle and destitute. The man who gives his capital does it because he feels that the labor he gets for it is more useful to him than to keep his capital. Labor and capital, thus mutually dependent, are, and should be, friends.

7. There is, however, an old proverb, that,“ When two ride on one horse, one must ride behind.” Capital and labor must, doubtless, journey together till the end of time. Before their mutual dependence was well understood, they kept separate, and pulled different ways. Even now they sometimes quarrel bitterly, instead of advancing their mutual interests by “ the long pull, the strong pull, and the pull all together.”

What three conditions are necessary to the support and comfort of human life? Give the example of the bee. Why must not labor be limited ? Give the illustration. Define the meaning of exchange. What are mutually dependent? Should capital and labor be friends ? Must they journey together ? Do they sometimes quarrel ?

health death snatch

LESSON LXXI. pov-er-typer-pet-u-al pun-ish-ment a-pos-tle ex-pe-ri-ence arch-an-gel proph-et de-scrip-tion in-cor-rup-ti-ble

HEAVEN.

A so

S there is a place of punishment for the wicked,

so there is a heaven of glory for all who come to Jesus. God, in his great love to sinners, sent his Son, not only to deliver them from hell, but to make them happy and glorious with him for ever. When a believer dies, though his body decays, his soul is at once with Jesus, which is far better.”

2. How delightful is the description the Bible gives of heaven. We are told that sickness, sorrow, and death never enter there; that cares, fears, and anxieties are never felt there; that poverty, privation, unkindness, and disappointment are never known there.

3. The body that will rise from the grave will be “ incorruptible,” and will never experience pain, weariness, or decay. Old age will never enfeeble, for there will be perpetual youth ; and death will never snatch away those we love, for death itself will be destroyed. What is still better, there will be no more sin, but all hearts will be full of holy love to God and to one another.

4. Every one will rejoice in the society and happiness of every one else, and God himself will dwell among them. All the good men of former ages wil be there, — the martyrs, and apostles, and prophets. There, too, we shall meet with angels and archangels; and, more than all, we shall behold Jesus in his glorified human body,- - we shall see his face, and ever be with the Lord.

5. To show how glorious heaven is, it is compared to a city with streets of gold, gates of pearl, and walls of jasper and emerald ; 'to a paradise with a river clear as crystal, and the tree of life with healing leaves; to a place of rest after labor; to a father's house, a happy home.

6. The best joys of earth are soon gone. Riches fly, health decays, friends depart, death is written on all things. But the joys of heaven are for ever and ever. Jesus keeps the door; but he has opened it wide for all sinners to enter. If

you

will not come to Jesus, you can not enter heaven; for he is the door, the only door. But he invites

you

to come. incorruptible, never to decay. , martyr, one who dies for the perpetual, never-ending. Christian religion. jasper and emerald, pre- archangels, angels of high

cious stones.

rank.

LESSON LXXII.

flour bless-ing med-i-cine il-lus-tra-tion lead ac-cord-ing pros-per-ous veg-e-ta-ble or-cbard del-i-cate north-ern in-tel-li-gence

MANUFACTURES.

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T only the metals and minerals which we dig

for in the earth, but also many things which grow upon it, are made into things for use or ornament.

This kind of work we call manufactures.

2. From the trees which grow in our forests we make buildings, ships, furniture, cars and carriages, tools and toys. From some of them we use the bark, the leaves, the blossoms, or the roots, for medicines and dye-stuffs.

3. The fruit and vegetables from our orchards and gardens we manufacture into preserves, sauces, jellies, and pickles; and even the sugar to sweeten them has to be first manufactured. The grain also which we raise must be made over into flour or meal before it is fit for the use of man.

4. Our flax must be worked into linen or cordage; our wool and cotton must be carded, spun, and woven for clothing us; our plain cloths must be dyed and figured according to our tastes. And even the rags, and seemingly useless bits of cloth, are again manufactured into paper.

5. Then how various and large are the manufactures of iron, gold, silver, lead, and copper! And how greatly the skill of the workman increases the value of the raw material on which he works. A simple illustration, often given, will show what we

mean.

6. A bit of common iron, weighing an ounce, is scarcely worth a penny.

But let this same bit of iron be made into steel watch-springs, and its cost will be increased to several shillings. This fact leads us to another thought,-the value of industry. The life of labor which God ordained for man is a real blessing.

7. There are many kinds of labor. Some require only bodily toil; some only that of the mind; while

others keep both mind and body at work. Some labors need strength chiefly; others demand nice and delicate skill. The pay for labor is more or less, usually, according to the knowledge and skill required.

What do we manufacture from trees? What from fruits and vegetables ? What from grain? What from flax, wool, and cotton? What do we make from rags ? What large manufactures · have we? How do some labors differ from others ?

LESSON LXXIII. friend whit-tling mal-le-a-ble pow-er-ful edge quar-ter black-smith ma-chin-er-y knife char-coal heav-i-er man-u-fact-ur-er

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THE COST OF A POCKET-KNIFE.
BOY may use his good strong jack-knife with but

very slight ideas of its cost. If you should ask him, he would perhaps look up at you with surprise,

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