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burnt the distilleries and dwellings of Mr. Langdale, in HolborrT, who was a Roman Catholic. The flames communicated to a number of adjacent houses; which were also consumed. Another party repaired to the King's-Bench prison, which was burned, after the prisoners had removed their effects. ■ A different party, that had assembled to the east of the city, and had burnt some houses in Whitecross-street, Houndsditch, &c. proceeded into it, and down Threadneedle-street, with an intent of attacking the Bank, but were fired upon by the soldiers, who killed several, and drove the rest back. Government observing that the magistracy of the city did not exert themselves in suppressing the riots (though individuals united in forming a military association, which was of service) orders were issued from the adjutant-general's office, in obedience to an order of the king's council, for the military to act without waiting for directions from the civil magistrates, and to use force for dispersing the illegal and tumultuous assemblies of the people. V/hen owc« the troops began to act with vigor, agreeable to these orders, the different mobs were speedily suppressed and the rioters scattered. But in the effecting of this service 210 were killed and 243 wounded, 75 of whom have died in hospitals.
During the night, the city was beheld from one spot, asre* ported, blazing in 36 different parts^ Some of these conflagrar tions were truly tremendous from their magnitude. Of these, the burning remains of Newgate, the King's-Bench prison, the new Bridewell in St. George's-fields, the Fleet-prison, and ike houses and great distilleries of Mr. Langdale, presented spectaieles of the most dreadful nature. « The natural darknes of the night, the gleam of the distant fires, the dreadful shouts of the xiote.s in different quarters, the frequent firings of the soldiers-, and the groans of the dying, formed altogether a scene so dreadful that no description can easily reach.
London, the next day [June 8.] presented in many places the image of a city recently stormed and sacked. All business was at an end; houses and shops were shut up; the Royal Fx-r change, other public buildings, and the streets, .were possessed and occupied by the troops; ruins were still burning and smoaking; and a dreadful void and silence reigned where, scenes of the greatest hurry and noise and business were habitual. From this day the riots were totally at an end, and every thing remained quiet. A number of persons were taken up; and about five o'clockin the afternoon of Saturday the 10th, lord George Gordon was secured, conveyed to the Horse-Guards, and between
tune and ten, conducted to the Tower*
.-The news of the taking of Charleston arrived [June IS.J yery opportunely for ministry a few days after, and served in a considerable degree to erase the memory of past disappointments;" and to revive all the sanguine hopes of a speedy subjugation of the United States. But it did not prevent administration's beiir^ severely censured on account of the preceding disturbances. The mischiefs that had happened were charged to their neglect and? delay in not calling forth the civil|povver in time,, and in not employing the military until it was too late. The censure passed; upon them was amply counterbalanced by other effects that the■rots produced. The scenes of enormity exhibited by the rioters struck: all men with horror ; and inspiring a prevailing dread of popular meetings, however peaceable or legal, threw a general damp on all endeavors whatever for reformation. Thus the cause of ministry was eventually strengthened by a most disgrace<ful tumult, which for a while appeared to threaten the subversion of all government.
"Notwithstanding Sir George Rodney's success in January, the ■siege of Gibralterhas been continued. The vigilance and industry of the Spaniards, in their endeavours to cut off all relief by sea, were redoubled and the difficulty of supplying the garrisons was continally increasing. They attempted by means of seven •fire-ships, to burn the Panther and Experiment men of war, and a royal sloop that lay in the bay ; of which the British commanders had not the smallest notice, till they were alarmed at one ire the morning of June the 7th, by the approaching flames of the burning vessels. The captains, with the most immediate presence of mind, instantly manned their boats, and the officers anci seamen, with their Usual intrepidity, met and grappled the fire-^hips ; and then, amid the bursting of shells, and the horrors of a scene teeming with destruction, boldly towed them off, and ran them on different parts of the shore, after much labor •and sexpence had been bestowed upon their equipment.
The empress of Russia, having accompanied the great duke and duchess on their way to make the tour of Europe, poceedcd, according to a concerted appointment, to Mokilow in Poland, where she had an interview with the emperor ot Germany in the month of June. After some stay there, the emperor accompanied the Czarina on her return to Petersburgh. When he had continued for a while in that city, he returned to Vienna, and Was visited by the prince royal of Prussia. The king of Sweden, made a visit about ihe same time to Holland.
Adm. Geary sailed from Spithead early in June with 23 ships of the line, and was afterward joined by live or six more; -but
he was not in time to prevent the junction of the French fleet from Brest with the Spaniards at Cadiz, by which the two na« tions had acquired such a superiority as affords them the appa; rent dominion of the European seas. The admiral, however^ on the 4th of July, fell in with a rich convoy from Port-au* Prince, of which he took 12 merchantmen, the rest with the ships of war, escaped.
[July 16.] The Belle Poule frigate, commanded by the che* valier Kergariou, was taken by the Nonsuch of 64 guns, Sif James Wallace captain, after an obstinate defence of more than two hours. The chevalier and 24 men were killed ; and about 40 wounded.
Mr. John Adams, and Mr. Francis Dana his secretary, arrived* in Spain about the middle of last December, after a very narrow escape. The frigate on board of which they were it was thought would have foundered at sea in less than 48 hours more. After a short -stay they proceeded to France. Mr. Adams is now at Amsterdam, where he will undoubtedly employ his abilities in forwarding a treaty of commerce between the United Provinces of Holland and the United States of America, which has been in agitation now near two years. As Mr. William Lee, whom congress had appointed commissioner to the courts of Vienna and Berlin, was on his way to the last city, with his secretary, Mr. Samuel VV. Stockton, he accidentally put up at an hotel in Aixla-Chapelle, where Mr. John de Neufville happened to be, -wh? hearing of them, and learning that they were Americans joined company with them. Mr. de Neufville discoursed upon the sutiW ject of a commercial treaty. Mr. Lee had no powers to negoci« ate or sign any thing of the kind with the province or states-df Holland ; but he and his secretary agreed between themselves, that the measure should be ventured upon, could it be executed as they had no doubt of its meeting with the approbation of congress. Mr. de Neufville consulted Mr. Van Berkel, the counsellor and pensionary of Amsterdam, and having received hisdi-rections, proceeded to sign,on the 4th of September 1738, the plan of a treaty of amity and commerce, as destined to be concluded hereafter between the states of Holland and the United States of America. Mr. de Neufville, being properly authorized by the regency of Amsterdam, further engaged, that as long as America should not act contrary to the interest of the states of Holland,the city of Amsterdam would never adopt any measure that might tend to oppose the interest of America, but would, an the contrary, use all its influence upon the states of the Seven United Provinces of Holland, to effect the desired connectionv ,
Though several copies of the plan were early sent to America, and the whole business has been for some time known to many, yet it appears to he still concealed from the British administration; while it is evidently different with respect to some of their councils. Mr. Adams wrote to congress from Amsterdam, on the 23d of August—"Orders are sent to prosecute the war with vigor in North-Carolina and Virginia, the ensuing fall, winter and spring. Britain will yield to fiance and Spain very great things to carry her point against America; but ail will not do. France and Spain are now responsible for their conduct to the arcst of Europe; besides, the separation from America to England, is an object of more pressing importance than any concessions England can make them."
Roxbury, January 11, ITS J.
THE military operations in South-Carolina require an immediate detail. Col. Sumptcr, at the head of his party, madea spirited, though unsuccessful attack on the British post at Rocky-mount on-the 30th of July. He marched in quest of other royal detachments.without delay, and on the 7th of August, succeeded in an attack on their post at the Hanging-rock, where "was a considerable force of regulars and tories. The prince of "Wales's regiment, which defended the place, was nearly annihilated; and a large body of tories that had advanced fiuui NorthCarolina, under colonel Brian, was completely dispersed. Col, Sumpter's party was so short of ammunition, that when the acr tion commenced, not a'man of it had more than ten bullets. In, the latter part of the fight, the arms and ammunition taken from the British and tories who fell in the begining, were turned against their associates.
It being known that an American army was marchiag from the northward for the relief of their southern brethren, the whig militia on the extremities of the state, formed the nisei ves into imall parties, under leaders of. their own choice, and at times attacked detachments of the British-army, but-most frequently tbo« of their own countrymen, who were turning out as a ro-val militias . "These American parties severally acted from their owir impulse, '-,■•■ * and
and set themselves to oppose the British, without either. &* -knowledge of each other's motions, or any pre-concerted generai -plan. Colonel Williams, of the district of Ninety-Six, w#s.pans ticularly indefatigable in collecting and animating the friends p£ congress in that settlement, and with these he frequently haj» rasscd the conquerors.
A considerable number of North-Carolina militia took the field, and agreed to rendezvous at Anson court-house on the 20th 'of July, that they might be in readiness to co-operate with the continental army. On the approach of the Americans, majcr M*Arthur, who commanded on the Pedee, called in his detachments, abandoned his post on theCheraw-hill, and marched dhrectly to join the main body of the royal army at Camden. 0» the day the British relinquished this part of the country, the inhabitants, distressed by their depredations, and disgusted with their conduct, generally took arms. Lord Nairne and 106 British invalids, going down the Pedee, were made prisoners,.by a party of the Americans, commanded by major Thomas, wls^p had been lately received as loyal subjects. A large boat coming, up from George-town, well stored with necessaries for major M Arthur's party, was seized for the use of the American army, AH the new made British militia officers, excepting col. Mill?*; were made prisoners by their own men. The retreat- -of ihc British from their out-posts to Camden, and the advance, of-the American army, joined to the impolitic conduct of the conquc* lors toward' their new subjects, concurred to produce a general levoit in favor of congress. . ,&,
On the 28th of July (the day after the American army, en* camped at Spink's farm, on the road to Camden) col. Otho HiWilliams repeated to general Gates the advice he had given in Substance to baron de Kalb more than a fortnight before; which was to deviate from the direct road to Camden—to order gen, Caswell to join him at the mouth of Rocky-River, on Pedee., and. from thence to send bis heavy baggage, women and invalids to* Salisbury (a day's march higher up the country) and there establish an hospital and magazines—to march all his effective troops from the mouth of Rocky-River to Charlotte, where a magazine, hospital, and, if necessary, an armory might be securely established—and from Charlotte to march by way of Waft haws toward Camden. By this route the army might have proceeded, without impediment, through a well cultivated countjgs, whose inhabitants were attached to the common cause. Magazines and hospitals might have been established in the rear, sec-urp from surprise, and directly upon the.old trading road from Philadelphia