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tary force ; they appointed a committee to write to the different governments, requiring them to fill up the continental army and forward supplies, in order to a readiness for co-operating witlj the expected assistance. The commander in chief and other popular officers, joined in stimulating them by every motive to fur-. uish speedily tneir respective quotas. The disgrace of appearing contemptible in the eyes of their great ally, and-the mischiefwhicli must be the consequence,,were strongly urged. The people were passionately called upon, not to suffer the .curse of another campaign to rest upon America. They were told that the eyes of all Europe were upon then;; and that their future independence, fortune and happiness depended upon their present exertion. Not* withstanding these joint efforts, general Washington had to complain—" It is with infinite chagrin and mortification I find thai at this day, the fourth of July, more than-six weeks since the first? application to the states for the succour necessary for the intended co-operation, not more than thirty levies have, to my knowledge, joined any part of the army; nor have I any information whaS has been effected in this respect by any one of the states. Some of them have not even informed me what they intend to do.'* The Massachusetts general court had indeed ordered, by their resolves of June the oth and 23d, a reinforcement to be senton, buS it had not arrived. A voluntary subscription, was likewise began about the beginning of the same month in Philadelphia, for the raising of a fund of hard money, to be given as bounties to-fill up the full quota of the Penn-sylvania line. The general assembly of that state had, on the first of June, provided for those exigencies in war that might require sudden and extraordinary exertions, by resolving unanimously, that during the recess of the house, should it be necessary, the prisident (Joseph Reed, esq, whose name ha» often occurred) or vice-president in council, be empowered to declare martial law for the public security, and the safety of the citizens of that commonwealth, A bank was also established for supplying the army with provisions ; and a number of gentlemen' engaged to support it with 189,0001. sterling, payable in gold and silver, according to the sum against which each subscribed his name on the nth. But the American daughters of liberty in Philadelphia, were desirous of sharing with the gentlemen in the splendors of patriotism. .-They had long aspired to the honor o£ giving tire continental army some public mark of the esteem-tbejP entertained of their virtue ; they thereforeconcluded upon form* ingan association. Tothis-end," The sentiments of an American IVvman" were published in the gazette of the 12th, and the dajr following several ladies assembled. It was proposed tq divide the i •■ 'city
city into ten districts, nearly equal in extent, and to invite three or tour ladies in each to go to every house in their ward, and to present to each woman and girl, without any distinction, a subscription paper, meant to procure donations. Forty ladies were invited, who undertook the task assigned them with pleasure, considering it as a great honor. The day following the invitation, they set out on foot, observing to keep exactly to their own ward. As the cause of their visit was known, they were received with all the respect due to their commission; in the mean lime the offering intended for the soldiers was presented, to them. They did'not omit a single house; the collection they made was considerable; but has been much increased by donations from ladies in the country. It is expected that their example will be more or less followed in other states.
For the honor of the Pennsylvania state, you must be furnished with the preambleand parts of an act passed thelstof lastMarcb, in the following words—"When we contemplate our abhorrence of the condition to which the arms and tyranny of Great-Britain were exerted to reduce us—when we look back on the variety of dangers to which we have been exposed, and how miraculously our wants in many instances have been supplied, and our deliverances wrought, when even hope and human fortitude have •become unequal to the conflict:—we are unavoidably led to ai serious and gratelul sense of the manifold blessings which we have undeservedly received from the hand, of that Being from whom every good and perfect gift cometh. Impressed with these ideas, we conceive that it is our duty, and we rejoice that it is in our power to extend a portion of that freedom to others, ■which hath been extended to us ;. and a release from thai state of thraldom, to which we ourselves were tyrannically doomed, and From which we have now every prospect of being delivered. It is not for us to enquire why, in the creation of mankind, the inhabitants of the several parts of the earth were distinguished by a,diff*erence in feature or complexion. It is sufficient to know that all are the work of an almighty hand. We find in the distribution of the human species, that the most fertile as well as the mostbarren parts of the earth, are inhabited by men of complexions different from ours and from each other; from whence'we may reasonably as'well as religiously infer, that he who placed' tbem in their various situations, hath extended equally his care and protection to all, and that it becometh not us to counteract bis mercies. We esteem it a peculiar blessing granted to us, thvt we are enabled in this day to add one more step to universal, civilization., by removing, as much-as possible, the sorrows of
those who have lived in undeserved bondage, and from whicB, by the assumed authority of the kings of Great-Britain, no effectual legal relief could be obtained. Weaned by a long course of experience from those narrow prejudices and partialities we have imbibed, we find our hearts enlarged with kindness and benevolence toward men of all conditions and nations; and we conceive ourselves at this particular period, extraordinarily called upon, by the blessings which we have received, to manifest the sincerity of our profession, and to give a substantial proof of our gratitude."
"And whereas the condition of those persons who have heretofore been denominated negro and mulatto slaves, has been attended with circumstances which not only deprived them of the common blessings that they were by nature entitled to, but has cast them into the deepest afflictions, by an unnatural separation and sale of husband and wife from each other, and from their children,—an injury, the greatness of which can only be conceited by supposing that we were in the same unhappy case :—Injustice, therefore, to persons so unhappily circumstanced, and who, having no prospect before them whereon they may rest their sorrows and hopes, have no reasonable inducement to render their service to society, which otherwise might; and also in grateful commemoration of our own happy deliverance from that state'of unconditional submission, to which we were doomed by the tyranny of Britain—Be it enacted, that no child born hereafter shall be a slave—that negro and mulatto children shall be servants only till twenty-eight years of age—that all slaves shall be registered before the 1st of November next—that negroes, ore. shall. be tried like other inhabitant—that none shall be deemed slaves but those registered—that slaves carried away, See. from this state, may be brought back and registered—and that no negroes or mulattoes, other than infants, shall be bound for longer than seven years." ,., *
The expected succour from France arrived at length in the evening of Monday, July the 10th, at Rhode-Island. The chevalier de Ternay commands the fleet, consisting of two ships of 80 guns, one of 74, four of 64, two frigates of 40, a cu!ter of 20, an hospital ship, pierced for 64, a bomb-ship and 32 transports. The land forces consist of four old regiments, beside the legion de LaHZun, and a battalion of artillery,* amounting to about 6000
* The lift is given from the Providence paper of July, publilhed the week after their arrival at Newport; and differ* from the Englifh publications, which mention in the lift one 84 and tw? 74 gun Ihips, fire frigate* and two armed ftipst
jtnen, under the command of lieutenant-general count de RoChambeau. The inhabitants of Newport illuminated the town upon the occasion. General Heath was present to receive the troops upon their landing, and to put them into possession of the forts and batteries upon the island. On the 24th, a committee from the general assembly of the state, then sitting in the town, waited on the count with a complimentary address. Rochambeau declared in his answer, that he only brought over the van guard of a much greater force destined for their aid ; and that he was ordered by the king to assure them, that his whole power should be exerted for their support. "The French troops," he Said, "are under the strictest discipline ; and, acting under the orders of general Washington, will live with the Americans as their brethren. I am highly sensible of the marks of respect shown me by the general assembly, and beg leave to assure them, thatas brethren, not only my lire, but the lives of the troops under my command, are entirely devoted to their service." The French admiral Was complimented in like manner. Four days before, the American commander in chief strongly recommended to the officers of the continental army, in general orders, the wearing of black and white cockades (the ground being of the first colour, and the relief of the second) as a compliment to, and a symbol of ndship and aff ection for their allies. The marquis de la Fay: arrived at Newport from head-quarters, the same day that the ircsscs were presented to the French commanders ; and unjbtedly carried with him the sentiments of gen. Washington on the movements then making on the part of the British. Though admiral Avbuthnot had only four sail of the line at New-York, on the 10th July, he was within a very few days so strengthened by •the arrival of admiral Greaves, with six ships of the line from Great-Britain, that he had no longer any apprehensions of an attack from the French squadron. The British commanders had indeed so decided a scperiority of force, that they lost no time in preparing to act offensively, both by sea and land. Sir H. Clinton embarked about 8000 men, and proceeded to Huntington-Bar in Long-Island, mean while the militia from Massachusetts and Connecticut were ordered to Rhode-Island ; so that the French regretted his stopping short, and declined to pay them a visit, as they were well prepared to give him a warm reception. At the same time general Washington designed availing himself of Sir Henry's absence, by attacking New-York. He had received considerable reinforcements, and suddeuly crossed the North-River and marched toward fving's-bridge. s':r Henry perceiving what ':d, dropped Ins expedition to Rhode-Island, and sailed G for
for New-York on the 31st, after having lain several days in Huntington-Bay. General Washington proposed to general Arnold his having a command in the designed attack on New-York. The proposal threw him into no small confusion ; but Washington had ho suspicions raised by it, for though he thought him mercenary, he had not the least idea of his being wanting in fidelity. Arnold afterward made his objections to some of Washington's suit,and Urged his being lame as disqualifying him for activity in field duty. The objections being reported to the commander in chief, Arnold was ordered to proceed to West-Point, and take the command of that post and its dependencies.
We must now attend to an event, which could not be related in chronologicalorderwithoutdisturbjngthe preceding narrative. General Washington being informed, that there was a considerable number of cattle and horses on Bergen-Neck, detached gen. Wayne, on the 20th of July, with the 1st and 2d Pennsylvania brigade, four pieces of artillery, and col. Moyland's regiment of dragoons to bring them off. He contemplated also the destruction of a block-house, which gavesecurity toa body of refugees, who committed depredations on the well affected inhabitant* for miles round. Wayne having provided against the enemy's eptercepting his retreat, and sent down the cavalry to drive off the stock, proceeded to the block-house,which was surrounded with an abbatis and stockade. He tried the effects of hisfield-pieces, but found them too light to penetrate the logs. The troops being galled the mean while, by a constant fire from the loop holes of the house, and seeing nochance of making a breach with the cannon, two regiments rushed through the abbatisto the foot of the stockage, with a view of forcing an entrance, whicli Was impracticable. This intemperate valor occasioned the lossof 3 officers wounded, 15 non-commissioned and privates killed,, and 46 non-commissioned and privates- wounded. The stock, in the mean time was driven off.
Let us;now turn our eyes to South-Carolina and its neighborhood :where the British troops spread themselves, and plundered by system, forming a general stock, and appointingcommissaties of captures. Spoil thus collected was disposed of for the benefit of the royal army, f he quantity brought to market wasSo great, that though it sold uncommonly low, yet the dividend of a major-general was upward of 4000 British guineas. The private plunder of individuals, on their separate account, was often more than their proportion of the public stock. Over and above what was sold in Carolina, several vesselswcre sent abroad, to market,loaded with rich spoil taken from the inhabitants. Upward