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pf jFrance and Spain, with their houses, papers, and other move» able property, were to be protected and untouched ;- but they*-, were to consider themselves as prisoners on parole.

The return of the prisoners transmitted to Great-Britain is swelled to. upward of 5000, by comprehending every adult free-, man of the town, between 2 and 3000 sailors taken from theshipping and put into the batteries, and those militia of both Ca-f Tolinas that were in garrison. But the proper garrison did not amount to quite 250Q at the time of surrender. The real number of privates in the continental army was 1977, of whom 5QO were in the hospitals. The captive officers were greatly out of proportion to them; and consisted of 1 major general, 6 briga-r cliers, 9 colonels, 14 lieut. colonels, 15 majors, 84 captains and capt. lieutenants, 84 lieutenants, 32 second lieutenants and en-, signs. The commanders of the militia from the country weie mostly of the first rank, and in honor repaired to the defence of the town, though they could not bring with them privates equal to their respective commands. The continental regiments were completely officered, while the adequate number of privates wa» greatly deficient. The supernumerary regular officers were retained in the garrison, from an apprehension that their being ordered out would have dispirited the army, and from an expectation in the early parts of the siege* that their services would bs wanted to command the large reinforcements of militia that had been promised. During the 30 days siege, only 20 American, sol* diers deserted. The militia and sailors stationed in the batteries Suffered little. Of the continentals who manned the lines, 8#were killed and 138 -wounded; and of the Charleston militia artillery stationed there, 3 were killed and 8 wounded. About 20 inhabitants were killed in their houses by random shot- Upward of 30 houses were burnt, and others greatly damaged. The total loss of the royal forces is stated at 76 killed and 183 Wounded. A prodigious artillery was taken, considerably more than 400 pieces, including every sort, and those in the forts and ships;** - :■'

The capital having surrendered, the next object with the Bri-r tish was to secure the general submission of the inhabitants. To lliis end they posted garrisons in different parts of the country, and marched a large body of troops over the Santee toward that • extremity of the state, which borders on the most populous

* General Lincoln's letters and papers, and other MSS. befideDr. Ramfiy-V {liftory and different publications, have been confulted in drawing up thtfai toys account of ihe opperatjow rcfpeciing Charlefton. . ...''


settlements of North-Carolina. This caused an immediate ret/eat of some American parties who had advanced into the upper parts of South-Carolina, with the expectation of relieving* Charleston. Among the corps which had come forward with, that view* there was one consisting of about 300 continentals, the rear of the Virginia line, commanded by colonel Buford. Tarleton, with about 700 horse and foot, was sent in quest of this party. Having mounted his infantry, he marched 105 miles in 54 hours, came up with them at the Waxhaws, and demanded their surrender on terras similarto those granted to the coutinentalsatCharleston. While the flags were passing and repassing on this business, Tarleton kept his men in motion, and when the truce was ended, had nearly surrounded his adversaries. An action [May 2<h] instantly ensued. The continental party, having partaken of the general consternation occasioned by the British successes, made but a feeble resistance, and soon begged quarters. A few, however,- continued to fire. The British cavalry advanced, but were not opposed by the main body of the continentals, who conceived themselves precluded by their submission. The accident al firing of the few, was an argument however for directing theBritish legion to charge those who had laid down their arms. In consequence of this order, the unresisting Americans, praying for quarters, were chopped in pieces. By Tarleton-'s official account »f this bloody scene, 113 were killed,.150 badly wounded,-unable to travel, and left on parole, and 53 made prisoners ; while they made such ineffectual opposition as.only to kill seven and' wound, twelve of the British. Lord Comwaliis bestowed on* Tarleton the highest encomiums for this enterprise, and recommended him in a special manner to royal favor. Tarleton's quarters is become proverbial j and in subsequent battles a spirit of revenge will give a keener edge to military resentments*

Scarce had admiral Arbuthnot's fleet, with the troops under Sir Henry Clinton, taken his departure from -Sandy-Hook for the reduction of Charleston, ere an intense frost, with great- falls ef snow, shut up the navigation of the New-York port from the sea. The increasing severity of the weather toward the middle of January, entirely cut off ailcommunination with the city byr Water, and soon after deprived the island of New-York, and the adjoining islands, of all the defensive benefits of their insular situation.. .-The NorthrRiver, with the strcights and channels by which they are divided and surrounded,were every where clothed with ice of such a strength and thickness, as would have admitted the.passage of armies, with their heaviest carriages and artillery. In this situation the royal generals and officers at New-York took !.,■• the

the most prudent and speedy measures for the common defence. All orders of men in the city were embodied, armed and office*-' ed, so that the whole force, including seamen,- amounted to neap* 6000. General Washington, however, was in no conditios to* profit by the unlooked for event of a -harder winter than was^ known even in that climate within the memory of roan. He had? weakened his army by detachments to the southward for the relief of Charleston. An ineffectual attempt was made indeed by lord Stirling, with the troops under his command, upon StatenIs-Iand on the 15th of January; but as the royalists retreated tot-heir strong holds and the ice afforded a bridge for reinforcements from New-York his-lordship retreated at night.

The distressed situation of the American commander in chief^ may be conjectured from the following account. A more general and alarming dissatisfaction appeared in his army, than even before in any stage of the War. About the commencement of April it wore, in particular instances, features of a very dangerous complexion ; produced partly by a diversity in the the men's inlistment, partly by the inequality of the rewards given for entering into the service, but mostly by the disparity in the provision made by the several states for their respective troops. The uneasiness continued increasing, from the army's receiving for a considerable time no more than a half, a quarter, or art eighth of their allowance. They bore long with the greatest patience their distress, and every thing was due to the officers fur encouraging them to it, both by exhortation and example. But on the 25th of May, at night, two regiments mutinied; however,, after several expostulations and exertions by the officers, they re-' turned to their huts. A fortnight before, general Greene wrote [May 11.] to his excellency—" I have little prospect either of providing for the march of the Maryland troops to the southward, or of putting this army in motion. Many stores contracted for,, on advantageous terms, and which I had hopes of possessing, have since been sold at private sale for want of money to fulfil our contracts. Many engaged in the manufactory of a variety of articles, seeing but little prospect of our being able to fulfil the conditions on our part, have declined going on. A great number of waggons on which we depended for this army have been soldi" and others left unfinished. All our public horses, which have been to winter and recruit, have been nigh unto starving, and many have actually perished for want of proper supplies of forage. The stores that we have provided at Boston, Pennsylvania, and elsewhere, we find ourselves unable to get forward*. Numberless embarrassments lie before me, such as state laws,,

vulgar '*


the 19th, congress resolved, "That bills be immediately drawn on Dr. Franklin for 25,000 dollars, and on Mr. Jay for 25,000 dollars, payable at 60days sight, and that the money be applied solely to the bringing of the army into the field and forwarding their supplies in such a manner as the exigency and nature of the service may require."

This day has been renderefl very remarkable by an extraordinary phenomenon, which demands a particular relation. An unusual darkness came on between the hours of ten and eleven in the morning, and continued to increase. Your friend, having been accustomed to dark days at London, and frequently observed from his study the bright shining sun gradually, and at length totally eclipsed, as it descended behind the thick vapor which hung over the city, regarded it with no special attention till called to do it by his neighbors, who were much alarmed. He dined by candle-light about one. After that it grew much lighter, and he walked about five o'clock to a tavern, a mile d.isdant, on the road to Boston, to meet a select committee of Roxbury, on special business. When they had finished, about eight at night, he set out for home, not suspecting but that, being fully acquainted with every foot of the road, he should easily return, notwithstanding its being extremely dark.

There were houses all the way, though at a considerable distance from each other. He marked the candle-light of one, and with that in his eye, went forward till he got up to it; but remarked that the appearance of the place was so different from what was usual, that he could not have believed it to be what it was, had it not been from his certain knowledge of its situation. He caught the light of a second house, which he also reached; and thus on. At length, the light being removed from the last he had gained a sight of, ere he was up with it, he found himself in such profound darkness as to be incapable of proceeding, and therefore returned to the house he had passed, and procured a lantern. Several of the company, having farther to go,-were on horseback. The horses could not see to direct themselves; and by the manner in which they took up and put down their feet on the plain ground, appeared to be involved in total darkness, and to be afraid lest the next step should plunge them into an abyss. The gentlemen soon stopt at another tavern, and waited for the benefit of the moon; but after a while, finding that the air received no accession of light from it, when they were certain it was risen, they had recourse to candles to assist them in getting home. In some instances horses felt the forcible operation of the darkness so strongly that they could not be compelled by

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