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ALL debts contracted and engagements entered into, before
Thisconstitution, and the laws of the United States, which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land ; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, any thing in the constitution or laws ol any state to the contrary notwithstanding.
The senators and representatives before mentioned, and the
Done in convention, by the unanimous consent of the states pre-
In CONVENTION, Monday, September 17, 1787
The States of New-hampshire, Massachusetts, Connect^ . Icut, Mr. Hamilton, from New-york, New-jersey, PennSylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, NorthCarolina, South-carolina and Georgia: •;
'I 'HA T the preceding constitution be laid before the United X Slates in congress assembled, and that it.is the opinion of this . Convention, that it should afterwards be submitted to a convention cf delegates, chosen in each state by the people thereof,, under the Recommendation ofits legislature, for their assent and ratification.^ and thai each convention assenting to,, and ratifying the same.,, should give no I ice thereof to the United Slates in congress assembled. Resolved,. That it is the opinion of this convention, that as soox as the conventions of nine states shall have ratified this constitution, . the United States in congress assembled should fix a day on whick electors should be appointed by the states which shall have ratified the same, and a day en whick the electors should assemble to vote for the president, and the time and place for commencing proceeding under this constitution: That after such publication the electors should be appointed, and the senators and representatives elected: That the electors should meet on the day fixed for the elecrtion of the president, and should transmit their votes certified, signed, sealed and directed, as the constitution- requires, to the secretary of the United States in congress assembled, that the senators and representatives should convene at the time and place assigned; that the senators should appoint a president of the senate,-for the sole purpose of receiving, opening and counting the voles for presr ident: and, that after he shall be chosen, the congress, together with the president, should, without delay, proceed to execute /his: coHsitution. By the unanimous order of' the convention.
GEORGE WASHINGTON, President. - William Jackson, Secretary.
In CONVENTION, September 17, 1787.
WE have now the honor to submit to the consideration of theUnited States in congress assembled, that constitution! which has appeared to us the most adviseable:
The friends of our country have long seen and desired, that the power of making war, peace and treaties, that of levying money
ney and regulating commerce, and the correspondent executive and judicial authorities, should be fully and effectually vested in. the general government of the union : butthe impropriety of delegating such extensive trust to one body of men is evident—hence results the nvCessity of a different organization.
It is obviously impracticable in the federal government of these states, to secure all rights of independent sovereignty to each, and yet provide for the interest and safety of all.—Individuals entering into society, must give up a share of liberty to preserve the rest. The magnitude of the sacrifice must depend as well on situation and circumstance, as on the object to be obtained. It is at all times difficult to draw with precision the line between those rights which must be surrendered, and those which may be reserved ; and on the present occasion this difficulty was increased by a difference among the several states as to their situation, extent, habits and particular interests.
In all our deliberations on this subject, we kept steadily on our view, that which appears to us the greatest interest of every true American, the consolidation of our Union, in which is involved our prosperity, felicity, safety, perhaps our national existence.— This important consideration seriously and deeply impressed on our minds, led each state in the convention to be less rigid on points of inferior magnitude, than might have been otherwise expected: and thusthc constitution, which we now present, is-the result of a spirit of amity, and of that mutual deference and concession which the peculiarity of our political situation rendered indispensable.
That it will meet the full and entire approbation of every state is not perhaps to be expected , but each will doubtless consider that had her interests been alone consulted, the consequences might have been particularly disagreeable or injurous to others; that it is liable to as few exceptions as eould reasonably have been expected, we hope and believe ; that it may promote the lasting welfare of that country so dear to us all, and secure her freedom and happinesses our most ardent wish. With great respect, we have the honor to be,
Your Excellency's most obedient,
And humble servants, GEORGE WASHINGTON, President By unanimous order of the convention. Mis Excellency the President of Congress.
The End Of The Third And Last Volume.
The Numerical Letters refer to the different Volumes;
ACT, the first, imposing cus- frein, 231. admirals Hyde Parker
teen United Colonies, 53. for se- Adams, Mr. Samuel, is chosen
Action, the naval, between the alarmed lest his views should be
son, and the Bon Homme Richard, of the general as-
capt. Paul Jones, 457. between, sembly of the church of Scotland,
Sir George Rodney and Don Lan- ii. 188.
gara, iii. 82. Rodney and De Gui- Addresses approving the acts of
chon, 84. Sir Samuel Hood and government and counter petitions,
Count de Grasse, 230. commo- ii. 45.
dore Johnstone and Mr. de Suf- Administration, a new one,
Vol. III. 3 E
formed in 1782, under the auspi- 99. evacuate the island, 101. their
Affairs, the, of the United evacuate New-York island, 118.
Aitken, John, alias Jehn the wine, 215. are defeated by the
Allen, colonel, surprises Tycon- al troops at Germantown, 232.
Allicd 'troops under General tress for want of provision, iii. 43.
Ambassador, the French, pre- treat from before Quebec, 64.
« » the Spanish, the 65. they retreat up the Sorel, and
marquis d'Almodover, presents a on to Crown-Point, 70. move to
Americans insulted by several their force under general Schuy-
, some hundreds arrive under general Burgoyne, Sept.
at Mafblehead in cartel ships from 19, 1777, 248. and again on Oct.
-, the number of, lost by American commerce, the loss of
the war, iii. 390. it not generally felt, ii. 44.
American academy of arts and _ impression, the first,of
sciences, incorporated in the Mas- the bible in English, printed at
American army, the general re- 334.
ib. they take possession of Cob- Arethusa and Belle Poule fri-