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ver, with the wannest wishes of the city for his repose, health and happiness. Long, long may he enjoy them!
The definitive treaty between Great-Britain and the United States, together with a joint letter from the ministers of the linked States, dated at Passy, the 10th of September, was laid before congress on the 13th of December. That and the letter were referred to a committee, who reported upon them January the 14th. The nine states present resolved unanimously to ratify the definitive treaty. In testimony of such ratification, they caused the seal of the United States to be affixed to it; and jt was witnessed by his excellency Thomas Mifflin, president. The treaty begins—" In the name of the most holy and undividedTr'mity.". Then follows the introduction—" It having pleased the Divine Providence to dispose the hearts of the most serene and most potent prince George the third, by the grace of God, king of GreatBritain, France and Ireland, &c. &c. and of the United States of America, to forget all past misunderstandings and differences thit have unhappily interrupted the good correspondence and friendship which they wish mutually to restore; and to establish such a beneficial and satisfactory intercourse between thetwb countries, upon the ground of reciprocal advantages and mutual convenience, as may promote and secure to both perpetual peace and harmony; and having for this desirable end, already laid the foundation of peace and reconciliation, by the provisional articles, signed at Paris on the 30th of November, 1782, by the commissioners empowered on each part, which articles were agreed to Be inserted in and to constitute the treaty of peace proposed to be concluded between the crown of Great-Britain and the said United States, &c. &c.' his Britannic majesty and the United States of America, in order to carry into full effect the provisional articles, &c. have constituted, that is to.say, his Britannic majesty on his part, David Hartley, esq. and the said United States on their part, John Adams, esq. Benjamin Franklin, esq, John Jay, esq. to be the plenipotentiaries for the concluding and signing the present definitive treaty; who after having reciprocally communicated their respective full powers, have agreed upon and confirmed the following articles." The nine first articles are the same with the provisional, five or six words excepted, to accommodate them to the, date of the treaty. But the following 10th article is added—" The solemn ratifications of the present treaty, expedited in good and due form, shall be exchanged between the contracting parties in the space of six months, or sooner if possible, to be computed from the day of the signature of the present treaty. In witness whereof we the
undersigned, their ministers plenipotentiary, have in their name, and in virtue of our full powers, signed with our hands the present definitive treaty, and caused the seals of our arms to be.affixed thereto. Done at Paris, this third day .of September, in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and eithty-three. (L. S.) D. Hartley, (L. S.) John Adams, (L. S.) B. Franklin, H. S.) John Jay, . , < ..'
. On the same day the treaty was ratified, congress unanimously •resolved, upon transmitting to the.several states, the recommendation agreed upon by the commissioners in the 5th provisional article : but too lute.for the credit of America, the benefit of the Xlnited States, or the reliefofthe loyalists. It is conjectured, that ^between twenty and thirty, thousand persons have been forced Upon a residence at the new settlementof Shelburne, and others •in Nova-Sco.tia.; all of whom, might by a temporate conduct and a noble spirit of forgiveness, have been rendered good subjects to •the United States. Through resentment they may hereafter.pTovc ■dangerous enemies, particularly to the Massachusetts, should they be aided by.foreign assistance. The United States have not bnly deprived themselves of their personal service, but also of all their.property, which is not inconsiderable, for there are many; wealthy individuals among them.
..Nearly the.-whole of the American'army has been.disbanded j 'hat The Society of the Cincinnati, which, the late officers of it have •■established, has spread a considerable alarm, General Knox, -jsith the good.intention of reconciling the minds of, his •military brethren to the private life on which they were soon to enter, jjiiEPJeete.drthe plan, before the circulation of the anonymous pa-, perA,through the army in March, 1783.. When the dangerous •design, of these had been frustrated by the prudence of the com•Oian.der in chief, Knox imparted his proposals to certain officers. "Ifiey were afterward communicated to the several regiments of -th^e respective lines, and an officer from each was appointed, who, •with the generals, should take the same into, consideration .at a_' TL\p&\ng on. the 10th. of May, at which baron Steuben, die senior. officer .present,.presided, ^.t their next meeting, on the 13th,. t|ie plan having been revised was accepted. The substance of it isrrr" The.officers of the American army do hereby iq .the most. solemn manner associate, constitute and combine themselves into
pjU'tSrs and members.—The officers.of the American army, hav
■ingigeneraily been taken from the citizens' of America, possess"
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high veneration for the character of that illusstrious Roman, Lucius 2uintus Cbicinnatus, and being resolved to'follow his example, by ruturni'ng to their citizenship, they think they may with propriety denominate themselves, The Society of the Cincinnati. The following principles shall be immutable—an incessent attention to preserve inviolate the exalted rights and ^liberties of human nature, for which they have fought and bled—andanunalterable, determination to promote and cherish between the respective states union and national honor; torender permanent, cordial affection and the spirit of brotherly kindness among the officers; andto extend acts of beneficence towmrd those officers and their families, who nwiy unfortunately be under the necessity of receiv* ir.g it. The general society will, for the sake of frequent com* munication be divided into state societies, and those again into such districts as shall be directed by the state* societies. The state societies shall meet on the fourth of July annually, and the general society on the hist Monday in May annually, so long as they shall e'eern it necessary, and afterward at leastonce in-every threeyears. The state societies are to have a president, vice-president, secretary, treasurer and assistant-treasurer. The meeting of the generel society shall consist of-ifsofficers, and arepresentation from each state s-ociety, in number not exceeding five, whose expence* shall be borne by theirrespective state societies. In-the general meeting, the president, vice-president, secretary, assistant-secretjv jy, tresurer and nssistant-treasurers-general, shall be chosen to serve until ihenext meeting. Those officers who are foreigners,are tbbeconsideieu as members of the societies of any of the slates in which-they may happen to be. As there are and will at all times be men in the respective states eminent for their abilities . and patriotism, whose views may be directed to the same laudable objects with those of the Cincinnati, it shall be a rule to admit such characters as honorary members of the society for their own Jives only ; provided that the number of the- honorary nicmbe; j does not exceed a ratio of one to four of the officers and their descendants. The society shall have an order by which its members shall be known and distinguished, which shall be a medal ofgold, of a proper sire to receive the proposed emblems, and to be suspended by a deep blue ribbon, two inches wide, edged with whitey descriptive of the union of America and France."
The society at the said meeting directed, that the president-general should transmit as soon as might be to each of the following characters, a medal containing the order of the society,' viz..tiiei Chevalier de la Luzerne, the Sieur Gerard, the Gountd'Estaiog, the count de Grasse, the count de Barras, the Chevalier d'£stou-» ehes, the count de Rochambcau, and the generals and -colonels -in the army; and should acquaint them,,that—" the society do themselves the honor to consider them as members." They also, resolved,. that the members of the,several state societies should assemble as soon as may be. for theehoiceof their officers; "that gen. Heath, baron Steuben .and gen. Knax,. be a committee to wait on the commander in chief, with a copy of the institution, and request him to honovthe.society by placing his name at the head of it.'*' They likewise desired general Heath to transmit •copies of the institution* with the proceedings' thereon, to the commanding oiiicer.of the-southern .army, the senior officer in • each state from Pennsylvania to.Georgia, inclusive, and to the commanding officer of the. Rhode-Island,line, , requesting them •to take such measures as may appear to them necessary Tor expediting the establishment of their statc.socicties. Circular letters were accordingly written : and the plan of the Cincinnati cairied into execution, without the .least opposition being given to it by any one state, or body of men in any. .
- • A-pamphlet, was. at length published signed Cassias, dated -Charleston, Oct. 10, H83, entitled Considerations on the Society or Order of Cincinnati; with this motto—" Blow ye the trumpet in Zion." It is thought to be written by ^Edanus Burke, esq. one *of-thechief justicesof South-Carolina,and is wellexecuted. The ^author undertakes to prove,..." that the Cincinnati creates two distinct orders among the Americans—1st, A race ofheredLtary notables, founded on the military, together with the powerful families,, and first-rate, leading men in the state,, whose-view it will ever be, torule; and 2dly, The people or.plebeians,. whose only view is- not to be oppressed ;. but. whose certain fate it will be to suffer ^oppression under the institution." Remarking upon the icason for the members being called the Cincinnati, he exclaims—11 As they were taken from..the citizens, why in the name of God not ;be contented to return to citizenship, without usurping an heyreditary order? Or'with .what propriety car. they denominate themselves from Cincinnatus, with an ambition so rank as.tp aim at nothing less, than Otium cwn. Mignitate,..Retirement aop a peerage? Did that virtuous Roman, having subdued.the enemies of his country, and returned home to tend his vineyard and plant his cabbages—did he confer an hereditary order of peerage on himself and fellow-soldiers? I answer, no j it was more than he dared to do." When near the end he says—" With regard «dtO myself, 1 will be candid to own,,that although I am morally -certain the institution will entail upon us the evils I have mentioned ; yet I have pot the most distant idea, that it will come to a
dissolution..' The first class, or leading gentry'ra the staUrf «f South-Carolina] and who always hold the government, will -find their interest in supporting a distinction that will gratify then: ambition, by removing, them far above their fellow-citizens. The middling order of our gentry, and substantial landholders, may see its tendency ;: but they can take no step to oppose it, having little to do with government. And the lower class, with the city populace, will never reason on it, till they feel the smart, and then they will have neither the power rior the capacity for a reformation."
The alarm is become so universal, that the general society^ A their meeting to be held at Philadelphia in May, must agree upon.. alterations, and remove the most obnoxious parts of the plan, Or the states will be likely to set their faces against the Cincinnati, as a dangerous order. Many of the American officers haveundoubtedly become members merely Upon prudential motives, and will join their influence for the removal of such obnoxious parts. General Greene, the late commanding officer of the southern armyr has acknowledged to me in conversation, that there is not in the society, as-at present constituted, a delkaef with regard to the general body of American citizens ;. and it may be fairly presumed, that a similar sentiment is espoused by-the late commander in chief. It is to be hoped, that the several states will unite in determining,- that the society shall dissolve with the deaths of the present officers and honorary members, and that it shall not be perpetuated by an accession of-new and younger ones. In their late contest with Great-Britain they acted upon the maxim—obsta prrnctpiis. They must apply it afresh, tor their security against lordly dominion. •'• •" '-' - *bs»«.^
How much a people, and governmental powers, are prone to put up with and practise internal encroachments upon hoei-ty, when they have secured themselves from such as are foreign, may appear from the following facts.
In 1782, captain Gilbert DenchWas chosen for Ffopkinton, and suffered to sit as member in the Massachusetts house of representatives, though he had a dwelling in and lived at Bosto-n (6*3. full year before the choice. Edward Pope, esq. was representative for Dartmouth, and naval officer at the same time. -Bsth were under an absolute disqualification by the constitution* On Tuesday the 6th of May, 1783, the town of Boston, which could not comply with a warden-act, upon the plea that it was against the constitution, chose James Sullivan, esq. one of their representatives in direct opposition to the -constitution, which requires that every representative should have been an inhabitant-of the