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Saib from the Carnatic was of eminent service ; yet the presidency" of Madras were not satisfied, while the French possessed Cuddalore in the neigbourhood. General Stuart who had succeeded to the command of the British army, was ordered to reduce it. The garrison was numerous, and composed of chosen hardy veterans from among the French, and a number of Tippoo Saib's best troops whom he bad left with them. The general began to besiege the place about the beginning of June, and While Ire pressed it by land, Sir Edward Hughes lay off the harbour to Cut off its communication by sea. But on the 20th of June, Mr. de Suffrein approached him with llshipsof the line, two more than Sir Edward had. An engagement commenced about four in the aft«*noon, and lasted three hours. The French retired on the night to Pondicherry, whither the British followed them. The siege was continued \\\l the news of a general peace in Europe put an end to all hostilities.
When the prelirnlnary articles of peace came to be taken into consideration by the British parliament on the 11th of February, upward of 450 members were present in the house of commons. Great debates ensued, and the contest between ministry and opposition was supported with unabating ferver on each side during the whole night. When the division took place at eight the ensuing morning, the proposed ministerial address on the peace was rejected by a majority of sixteen, 208 voting for it, and 224 against it, in favor of an amendment proposed by lord John Cavendish.- Mr. Thomas Pitt, who opened the debate, and moved foF the address, asserted, that from the papers on the table it.ap- peared, that the last disgraceful war had cost the nation considerably more than the glorious war of the duke of Marlborough, and the still more glorious war of lord Chatham, and indeed than all the wars put together in which the nation had been engaged, from the revolution to the peace of Aix la Chapelle. In the house of lords the address moved by ministry was carried in their favur by 72 votes against 59.'
When the preliminary articles between Great-Britain, France and Spain, were agreed upon, a suspension of arms took place with respect to Holland. But it was not till the 2d of September, that preliminary articles between the Dutch and the British were signed at Paris; by which a reciprocal restitutio^ of all the places and territories taken on either side, Negapatam excepted, was agreed upon. The navigation of the eastern seas was also to be free and unmolested to the British shipping in all parts. These two articles arc the only objects worthy of special notice. Trincomale will be restored to the Dutch by the French, agreeable to
the declaration made by Mr. deVergennes on the 2d of December, 1182, in his most Christian majesty's name, that it was his invariable intention to restore to their high mightinesses such of their colonies as might remain in his hands, whenever the conclusion of a general peace would enable his majesty to give the republic this new mark of his affection toward it. The ratification of the preliminary articles was exchanged with the duke of Manchester on the 29th of September by the plenipotentiaries of their high mightinesses.
On the 3d of September, the definitive treaties between GreatBritain, France and Spain, were signed at Versailles by the duke of Manchester, and the plenipotentiaries of the said courts. On the same day, the definitive treaty with Great-Britain and the U* nited States of America was also signed at Paris, by David HartJey, esq. the British plenipotentiary, and the plenipotentiaresof the said states. On the 10lh, John Adams, esq. wrote to you (as his own hand will inform you, should not the letter miscarry) *' I hope that private honesty will not be violated in any debt, and that as much moderation may be shown towards the tories as possible. The stipulation should be sacred, and the recommendations at least treated with decency, and seriously considered. I cannot help saying, I wish they could be complied with. When I agreed that congress should recommend, I was sincere. 1 then wished and still wish, that the recommendation may be agreed to. This is unpopular no doubt; but treaties are solemn things in which there should be no mental reservations. When New-York and Penobscot are evacuated, the people may be cooler—it will be an ugly bone of contention. I always dreaded it, and would have avoided it, if it had heen possible, but it ■was not." The proper communication of this letter may produce at least in the Massachusetts state, a degree of moderation toward the royalists, the want of which is too glaringly evident in the proceedings of your various town-meetings.
Now that the operations of war have ceased, a subject entirely • novel has offered, which engages the attention and admiration of all orders of people. • 1
It having been observed, that a ball filled with inflammable air ■would ascend till that and the external air of the atmosphere were in equilibrium ; Mr. Montgolfier made experiments, first with a globe of linen and paper, of 105 feet in circumference, and then with one of taffety done over with elastic gum, 36 feet in circumference. The ascent of both answered so fully the expectation of every one present, that Mr. Montgolfier exhibited a new trial of his aerostatic machine, alias air balloon, at the castle de Ja Mu
■ette on the 23d of November in the afternoon. The balloon was -TO feet high and 46 in diameter, containing 00,000 cubic feet, and was capable of lifting up about 1600 weight. It had a gaFlery annexed to it, wherein the marquis d'Alandes and Mr. de fiozier placed themselves. About 54 minutes after one, the several powers by which it was held down, being removed, it rose in a majestic manner, and the serial, navigators- were soon out of sight. When it was at least 3000 feet high, it remained hovering in view. Its passage was such that all Paris bad an opportunity of beholding it. When the travellers found they had passed the metropolis, and were over the open fields, they descended with, the utmostcomposure, after a progress of 30,000 feet within 23. minutes. The affair was attested at five o'clock the same afternoon, by the signatures of the duke of Polignac, the duke of Guines, Benjamin Franklin and others. Since then Messrs. Charles and Robert undertook a similar expedition on the 1st of December. At three-quarters after one, they rose with their chariot annexed to the balloon, in the midst of a profound silence, occasioned hy the emotion and astonishment of all p-arties. When they •were arrived at the height of about 300 fathom, they moved in an horizontal course, by regulating their ballast. After 56 minutes progress they heard the gun, which was the signal of theic disappearing from the observers at Paris. They then ceased to confine themselves to an horizontal direction, and gave-them>selves up to the" contemplation of the varied scenes in- the open eountry beneath them. They shouted vive le roi, and heard their shouts re-eehoed. They waved their banners, and perceived that these signals redoubled the joy and security of those below. They several times descended near enough to be heard. They reached the plains of Nesle about half after three. Their whole passage made about nine Paris leagues, which they- ran- over in two hours, with scarcely a-ny sensible agitation in the air. They had not long descended to the ground before the dukede Chartres, the duke Fitz-James, and a number of horsemen, who had followed them from Paris, galloped up to and joined them;. How far these amusements will extend, and how lo-ng they will be followed, depends upon the s-afety that attends them^ and the taste of the public; but should they be discontinued for ages, till all traditionary traces of them are lost, they will be considered as lying legends-in the faithful pages of modern history. It- only remains to be mentioned, that the ministerial phasnoinenon- which has been exhibited to the British nation- ever since the beginning of last April, in the coalition between lord North -i.nd the honorable Charles Fox, ended the .1-Wh of Decem
berby a royal message importing that it was the king's pleasure, that they should deliver to him the seals of their respective ofiices, as his majesty's principal secretaries of state.
Jtoxbury, June 30, 11&3.
THE last year a court was constituted in pursuance of the 9th article of the confederation, to hear and finally determine the dispute between the states of Pennsylvania and Connecticut, respecting certain lands.. They gave it as their opinion, that Connecticut had no right to the lands in controversy; and that the jurisdiction and pn -emption of ail the territory lying within the charter boundary of Pennsylvania, claimed by Connecticut, did of right-belong to Pennsylvania. Their proceedings and sentence were returned to congress, and ordered on tire 3d of January to be lodged among the acts of congress.
The apprehensions of a speedy peace, with the sufferings of the American army under gen. Washington, produced the last December, an address and petition of the officers, totheTJnited States in congress assembled. The contents comprehended the following articles—present pay—a settlement of the accounts of thearrearages of pay, and security for what is due—a commutation of the half-pay allowed by different resolutions of congress, for an equivalent in gross—a settlement of the accounts of deficiencies of rations and compensation—a settlement of the accounts of deficiencies of clothing and compensation. The signing officers oa the part of the Massachusetts, the Connecticut, the New-York, the New-Jersey and the New-Hampshire lines, at their cantonments on Hudson's-river, said—" We complain that shadows have been offered to us, while the substance has been gleaned bv others. Our distresses are now brought to a point. We ba« borne all that men can bear—our property is expended—our private resources are at an end, and our friends are wearied out ar.e disgusted with our incessant applications. It would be criminal is the officers to conceal the general dissatisfaction which prevails and is gaining ground in the army, from the pressure of evils ami injuries which, in the course of seven long years, have made their condition in many instances wretched. They therefore entre.
"thatcongress, to convince the armyand the world, that the independence of America shall not be placed on the ruin of ,asypai> ticular class af her citizens, will point out a mode for immediate redress."' Gen. M'Dougall, and colonels Brooks and Ogdsn, were chosen acommifctee to wait .upon congress. While the business was pending, certain public creditors and others at Philadelphia, wereicontiiiving how to employ the army for the estab■Jishkigof continental funds. The financier, Mr. RobertsMorrisy or rattier Mr.'Go«crncur Morris, is suspected-to have been at the bottom of the scheme ■: 'the latter is .allowed ;to be a man of great abilities, *but-is thought to be one of >tbc most "dangerous up~ ••on the continent. /Officers and soldiers were to -be thrown into ■such a paroxism of rage and resentment, as should drive'them in~ io the attempt of compelling congiess to comply-with their owa idernands, and Cboscof the.public .creditors, who were to arm and .join them. Letters were sent to certain military persons in .whom <the greatest confidence was placed that soa&irs migbtbe-in rearsdiness. Mean while reports were propagated in Philadelphia, that idangerous combinations were.formingin toe army: whereas Ihe .troops were apparently textcemely quiet, notwithstanding their itemper was wcry -irritable, :on account .of-their "long protracted ■sufferings. -At length, upon the arrival of a particular gentleman (from Philadelphia in camp, about the 8th of March, suchiSentiiments-as the foilpwing-were immediately and industriously circu»lated—that it was universally expected that ihe -army would not ■disband, ttH they had obtained justice—that the .public^creditors ^'looked.up to them for redress.of their grievances, would afford .•them every aid, and even juin»them in the iield if oiccessar.y-r-that some members of congress wished the measure mightiake *eifect, in order to compel the public, particularly the delinquent .states, todo justice- When the minds of the army were thought -to- be prepared by these means, anonymeus invitations were circulated on the 40th of March, requesting a,generai meeting .of the officers on the next day. At the same instance many manuscript •<:apics of an address to the officers [though anonymous, known since tobave "been drawn up by major Armstrong] were scatifeuetl in every state line of Che army. It wusan a peculiar man-ner-calculated to inflame every breast, and topravokc all-to untie * in redressjng■their own grievances, while they had arras in their •hands. To sap tlic influenoe of thecommander inchkf,.$houki -lie attempt to counteract tha measure,they were directed to "suspect-the man who would advise to more moderation and longer •forbearance." As soon as general Washington .obtained tbe knowledge of these papers, after taking notice, in general orders Vol. ill, X x of