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mentioned in his character. Two or three of these airaimals fbk lowed him generally wherever he went. When congress Cob*firmed the sentence of the court-martial, suspending him fur>ifc months, he pointed to his dog and exclaimed, "(_>! that I was that animal, that I might not call man my brother."—Two wir* tues he possessed in an eminent degree, viz. sincerity and veracity. He was never known to deceive or desert a friend, and he was a stranger to equivocation, even where his safety or character were at stake."

A disposition to misrepresent and blacken the Indians, in order to justify, or palliate the practice of cruel measures toward them, has particularly appeared in the case of the Moravian Indians* settled on the Muskingum, a branch of the Ohio ; who early in the last spring suffered deeply on account of what they thought, the peaceable spirit of the gospel required them. The first gathering of those Indians into a degree of civil and religious order, was about 30 years ago. The place of their residence was theft, at Whihaloosing, on the Susquehanna, about 200 miles from Philadelphia. In a visit to that city, about the year 1756, when the province was distressed by the Indian'war, they declared their particular disapprobation of war, and fixed resolution to take u» part therein ; apprehending it to be tiispleasii.g to the Great Being, who, as one of them expressed it, did not make men to destroy men, but to love and assist each other. About i:i years past, these Indians meeting with difficulty, from an increase of white settiers near them, by which spirituous liquors were brought to their towns, removed to the Muskingum ; and were accompanied by some of the Moravians, who have long resided among them, carefully attended both to their civil and religious concerns, and neves left them in the times of their greatest danger and difficulty. These Indians refused to take any part in the present war -r -notwithstanding repeated abuses on that account from other tribes, £3tv ticularly those parties which passed through their towns, hv their, way to the American frontiers, whom they sometimes dissuaded from their hostile intentions, and prevailed upon to go.back again. They also warned the inhabitants of their danger- Th«: conduct being considered as obstructive to the hostile proceedings of the tribes at war, was at length made the plea for carvying them off. In the beginning of August, 1781, the chief of the "Wyondats arrived with 220 warriors ; and acquainted them, thai they were come to take them away, rendering for a reason,.-fiwfc they 'were a great obstruction to them in their war-path* The Wyondats, after committing many outrages, about the beginning. «f September forced them from their three towns, inall bctweea 3 and 400 persons. After a tedious journey in the wilderness^ they arrived at a branch of Sandusky creek, where the body of them were ordered to remain. Some of their principal men were sent to the British commander at Fort Detroit, who commended them as a peaceable people, and exhorted them to remain such \ but added, that many complaints had been made of them, and that they had given intelligence to his enemies, wherefore he bad sent for them. He said, that his instructions had been exceedeAin the ill treatment they had received, and that he would provide for them. Thus the matter rested till the spring of i"J82r when-these Moravian Indians finding corn scarce and dear at Sandusky, desired liberty to return to their settlements, to fetch some of their corn, of which they had left about 200 acres standing. When it was granted, many of them went, among whom were several widows with their children.

When the people at and about the Monongahela understood that anuSiberof Indians was at the Moravian towns, they gave out, that the intentions of those people were to fall upon the back inhabitants, which ought to be prevented. Upon this about 160 men got together, and swimming their horses over the Ohio, came suddenly upon the chief Moravian town. The first person who appeared, they shot at and wounded, when coming up to hint they found he was an half Indian, son to one of the Moravians by an Indian woman, who had been regularly married. They kiiled and scalped him and proceeded to the town. The Indians who were mostly in the fields pulling corn, did not run off as they might, had they been conscious of any offence; hut came of their own accord into the town, at the call of the white people, who at first expressed friendship to them, and soon after violently seized and bound them. The Indians who assist the missionaries in keeping good order amongtheirpcople, and upon occasion gave public exhortations, are called Helpers. Five of the most respectable of these, and other Indians, exhorted the younger to submission and patience; telling them, that they thought their troubles in this world would soon be at an end, and they would be with their Saviour, They-then sung and prayed together, till they were led out one after another, and inhumanly slaughtered ; 'first the men and then the women. Two boys, whomade theirescape, related these particulars. One of them lay in the heap of the •lead, in a house, and was scalped ; but recovering his senses, es* caped. The other hid himself under the floor; was an eye-witness of this tragic Scene; and Saw the blood of the slain running in a stream. These Indians, before they were bound, were so sensible of their awn innocence, that -they informed the white '- people

people, that more of their brethren were at another* town, wha in like manner fell a sacrifice to the barbarityof the whites. The dead bodies were afterward burned with the houses. Before their death, they were obliged to show in what part of the woods they had concealed their effects, when the Wyondats took them away. Those of the third town havirigscrme intelligence of what passed, made their escape. This is a summary of the dreadful transaction, as given by the principal leader of those that remain. The Pennsylvania Packet of April says of these white savages-rr V that they killed upward of •SO {but a few making their escape; about 40 of which were warriors, the rest old women and. children. About 80 horses fell into the hands of the whites, which. they loaded with the plunder, the greatest part furs and skins." It was for the sake of the plunder that the Indians were killed.

It is alledged, in vindication of this deliberate massacre, that 40 of these Indians were warriors preparing to attack the American frontiers: but this assertion contradicts itself j forbad it been the case, they would not have brought fheh- wives, with the widows, and 34 children, who were slain with them; nar would they have suffered themselves to he thus slaughtered without making the Jeast resistance, or killing even one, of Jhek inurderers. ... -■ ...,*

Soon after the death of these Indians, about 500 men, probably encouraged by this easy conquest, and in hope of plunder, assembled at the Old Mingos on the west side of the Ohio,- and being equipped on horseback, set out for Sandusky, where, the Kemaining part of the Moravian Indians resided, in order to destroy that settlement, and other Indian towns in those parts^ W ±he Wyondats, and other Indians, having some knowledgoaf their approach, and being enraged at the massacre, metthem near Sandusky, when an engagement ensued,, in which some of the white people were killed, and several taken prisoners, among whom was the commander, col. Crawford, and his son-in-laia The colonel they burnt to death in a most cruel manner ;. the other, with more prisoners, they tomahawked. The-cruelty e& cicised on the colonel and the death of the prisoners, was. undoubtedly owing in the main to the murder of the peaceable .Moravian Indians.* - . ijt.

. General Washington, in August, established honorary badges of distinction, to be conferred on the non-commissioned ofheeH

* The above account n extracted from fome ObfervatioM on tfce Gtuatiao, difpofuion and character of the Indian natives on the American continent, by that late moft excellent philanthropift of the quakerperfuafion, Anthony Ben* eztt, of Philadelphia. The American papers told a different fioiy, fuch tt *» calculated co exculpate their own people,


•nd soldiers of the army, who had served three years with bravery, fidelity and good conduct; and upon every one who had er should perform any singularly meritorious action. The candidate for the reward annexed to such action, was to set forth the particular fact to the commander ire chief, accompanied with incontestible proof. Upon granting it, the name and regiment of the person, with the action so certified, were to be enrolled in a book of merit, kept in the orderly office* Men who have melilted the last distinction:,, are to be suffered to pass-all guards and sentinels, which a non-commissioned officev is- suffered: to passw Military operations being suspended, the opportunity has- been improved for perfecting the discipline of the army, "The court of Versailles ordered that the corps under count der Rochambeau should go to the West-Indies, in case the evacuation of New-York, or Charleston should take place. In expectation that the latter would happen,, the French legion inarched from. Richmond in Virginia, and the French army under the count from Williamsburghr to the northward, in the beginning of July. Toward the last of October, they proceeded to the •eastern states under the pretext of taking winter quarters there; but in fact with the design of embarking onboard the French squadron of 15 sail of the line and 4 frigates (which arrived under, the command of the marquis de Vandreuil in the lower harbor of Boston, on the 10th of August) whenever the evacuation, on which the ultimate movement depended, should be sufficiently ascertained.

When Rochambeau was about leaving Williamsburgh, the city? and corporation presented him with a polite and affectionate address. His answer closed with—" I feel an additional satisfaction in having fought in Virginia,, under the auspices of a Virginia general, whose glory, equally celebrated in both hemispheres, shines with particular lustre inhit. native country." The count arrived at gen. Washington's head-quarters on the 14th September. Soon after, the French army joined, the American ; and was reviewed by the commander in chief on the 20th. Affection, esteem, and cordiality, were equally visible in the countenances of the French officers and of the Americans. The four divisions of the French army arrived at Boston in the first week of December, under the command of the Baron Viomenil, ordered to the West-Indies instead of count de Rochambeau: the count returns to France. On the 11th, gov. Hancock and the council gave a public dinner to the general and field officers, the marquis de Vandreuil and the principal officers in |hip fleet, ''Tlie Magnisique} a74gjin ship, one of thefleeU hay,


ing been Ipst by accident in the harbor of Boston, Congress, desirous of testifying the sense they entertained of his most Christian majesty's generous exertions in bclialf of the United States, resolved on the 3d of September, to present the America, a 74 gun ship, to the Chevalier de la Luzerne for the service of the trench king. The fleet sailed with the army, on the 29th of December. . .,

On the 20th of December, the celebrated Charleston frigate, commanded by capt. Joiner, and (according to the New-York account) carrying 28 forty-two pounders mounted on her main deck, and on the quarter deck-and forecastle 12 twelve pounders, and 450 men, was taken by the British Quebec of 32 guns, end Diomcde of 44, after a chase of IS hours and a half from off the Delaware.

The demand for bibles being great and the price high, in con. sequence of the war, Mr. Aitken, a printer at Philadelphia, un. dertook and finished an American edition of the holy scriptures in English, the first of the kind. Congress, on the first of iast September, recommended it to their two chaplains (the Rev. Dr. White,* an episcopalian, and the Rev. Mr. Dufficld, a presbyterian) to examine the execution of the work, and if approved, to give it the sanction of their judgment and weight of their -recommendation. They reported in favor of it, that they were of opinion that it was executed with great accuracy as to the sense, and with as few grammatical and typographical errors as could be expected in a work of such magnitude. Whereupon Congress passed a resolve on the 12th of September, highly approving the pious and laudable undertaking of Mr. Aitken, ami recommending his edition of the Bible to the inhabitants of the United States. Notwithstanding this recommendation, should the war close in a short time, imported bibles will be sold so -much cheaper, and on that account be so universally bought, •that Mr. Aitken will be a considerable loser by the great expentt jwhich necessarily attended his undertaking. %

This town of Roxbury has given each of the three years men whom they enlisted for the army in 17&1 and 1782, a bounty of jiot less than fifty-six pounds five shillings sterling, hard money. The bounties given by the towns in the Massachusetts for similar purposes for the last of these years, will average £. 64 4s. 9d. sterling in cash, on every such recruit. The enormity of the sum has proved a heavy burden to numbers who have shared k the expence. . ."• -u

* Since ordained i bMbop according to the rites, and by the hands of the bi.Tiops, of the church of £ngl»ud. '-"""


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