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in other cases as near as safety and other circumstances would permit. It was orderered by the same authority, that at the election the votes of such only should be received as had never taken British protection, or who having taken it, had notwithstanding rejoined their countrymen, on or before the date of the proclamation. Other persons, though residents, were not considered las freemen of the state, or entitled to the full privilege of citizenship. To counteract the several measures of the governor, general Leslie issued a proclamation on the 15th of December, assuring his majesty's loyal subjects in the province, that they might tely on speedy and effectual support being given to them, by the exertions of the forces under his command ; and at the same time giving notice, that the severest punishments should be inflicted on all who having solicited for and obtained the enjoyment of the privileges of a British subject, should again take arms against his majesty's government,orserve in any civil capacity u,ndet-a'jteCond usurpatiqn.
Vermont, though not admitted into the confederation, nor acknowledged by the United States, exercises all the powers of an independent state—has her legislative, judicial and executive branches, and will continue them, without subjecting herself to the payment of any part of the continental debt till received into the union.
LETTER XL ....... ■' :■»
Rotterdam, April SO, 1?3:2» Friend G.
THE congress of the United States of America, having at length (that they might gain Spain) agreed to recede from their claim to the navigation of the Missisippi. Mr. Jay, agreeable to the request of the count de Florida Blanca, delivered in propositions relative to an intended treaty, on the 22d of last September. The 6th article was thus expressed "The United States shall relinquish to his Catholic majesty, and in future forbear to Xise, the navigation of the river Missisippi from the point where it leaves the United States down to the ocean." But it was accompanied with this remark of his among others—"If the acceptance of it should, together with the proposed alliance, be postponed to a general peace, the United States will cease to consider
'Wemsefves*bound bv any prpposiiiohs ov offers, which he may Viiiw liiake in their behalf." The design, of the Spanish cuuit ap"years to he the drawing of'a 11 such'concessions from the United - States,' that their present distress and the. hopes of aid may ex'' tort.' Beside, by protracting negociations about the treaty, they ""may intend to avail themselves; ot these .concessions a.t a future tliy, when the inducements for offering them have ceased. They neither refuse nor promise to afford the United States fur] JThef aids. Delay may be deemed the ir system* The American ''tSJnirftissioricrs at the European courts labor undo- gieat disadvantages, as their dispatches brought by the captains, of vessels '"•ire-hut sent to.them by a trusty officer, and therefore arc liable .' to be opened and suppressed, as is known to have been doae in "certain instances. Few of the proceedings o£ congress remain Jong secret; and one of their agents has informed.them, that he Iiad very good authority for saving, that copies of the letters which passed between the committee and.the Jate commissioners _ In France, are now in the hands of a certain foreigner. How he jgoi them the agent knows not; but he asserts it as a fact, . .*S The arrival of the British West-India trade was so rr.uchjater 'iti-an had been expected, that au'm. Darby.kept the sea till November. It is'somewhat remarkable, that neither the allied ■fleets, nor the British, took a single prize during the long term they were respectively at sea.
The Spaniards, though they engaged irfthe expedition against Minorca, did not relax in their operations against Gibraltar.— For the more certain and speedy reduction of the place, they erected stupendous works, which were at length arrived at the highest state of perfection, after immense labor and expence. Oeru Elliot considered this as the proper season for attempting at once to frustrate all their views, by attacking, storming and destroying then). The time being fixed [Nov. 27.] and the arrangments made, a strong detachment issued iiom the ganison upon "$te setting of the moon, at 3 o'clock in the morning.. The troops t^ere. divided into three columns, and the whole commanded by G6n. Ross. Each column was formed' in the following; order, - frat/an advanced corps, a body of pioneers, a party of artilleryifeferccarrying combustibles, a sustaining corps', and a reserve ins '^Sfe rear. The pioneers of the left column were seamen. Nothing /iSsjitd 'exceed the silence aiid order of the march, the vigor and "rit of the attack, or the e^a'c't combination of all, the pasts. PET whbie exterior front of tlt.e Spani'-.h work* was every Wliere iffettked at the satrie instant, and the ardor of tl:ie troops vvasir
doned their works with the utmost precipitation. In half an hbufr two mortar batteries of ten 13 inch mortars, and three batteries of heavy cannon, with all the lines of approach, communication and traverse, were in flames, and whatever was subject to the action of fire was finally reduced to ashes. The mortars and eannon were spiked, and their beds, carriages and platforms destroyed. The magazines blew up one after another in the course of the conflagration.. The whole Spanish camp continued spectators of the havoc, without an effort to save or even avenge their works, unless an ill-directed and ineffectual fire of round and gvape-shot might be considered as either. The whole service was performed and the detachment returned to the garrison before day-break. Its loss was too inconsiderable to be mentioned.
On the 27th of November, his British majesty went to ttob house of peers and opened the session of parliament. The speech expressed the king's determined resolution to persevere in the de» fence of his dominions, until such a pacification could be mad* as might consist'with the honor of his crown, and the permanent iterest and security of his people.. The losses in Ameriea were neither dissembled nor palliated; but stated as the ground for requiring the firm support of parliament; and a more vigorousj animated and united exertion of the faculties and resources of the people.. The favorable appearance of affairs in the EastIndies was noticed; which was the only ray of success with which the speech was illuminated. An account had been received, that oa the 1st of July Sir Eyre Coote with his little army came to a general action with Hyder Ally, which lasted eight hours, and was a hard fought day on both sides. Th'fr amazing superiority of the enemy yielded at length to the stea-i diness, spirit and bravery of Sir Eyre's troops. Hyder Ally re* treated precepitately after having had 4000 killed, among vvhont were many of his principal officers.. Sir Eyre lost but few of&»' cers, and about 400 privates killed and wounded.,
The motion for an address in the house of commons produced a warm and animated debate, which continued-till two in ther morning. Mr. Fox moved far an amendment, by omitting, thaj part of it which promised to support the American war; and pro" posed a new one, expressing a wishfor a new system of measurasj which the house would assist to forward. But it was rejected by? 218 against 1,29. During the debate Mr. Burke observed,. thaC "The Colonel Laurens, who drew up the articles of capitulation^ when lord Cornwallis. surrendered, is the son of Mr.'Laurens» who has been committed close prisoner to the Tower of Londowj of which lord Cornwallis is himself the governor: and thus hi*
lordship became a prisoner to the son of his own prisoner." lit ihe house of lords an amendment to the address was proposed by Jord Shelburne in a very easterly speech, but was rejected by a majority of 15.
Mr. Burke had in the former session, moved for an inquiry into the conduct observed on the capture of Statia, which was rejected by a majority of near two to one. He brought on the business afresh ; and inhis speech [Dec. 4.] on the occasion mentioned, that three months were spent by the British-commanders iu disposing of and securing the plunder of the island; that Sir George Rodney?s fleet amounted to 21 sail of the hyie ; and that the whole French force, previous to the arrival of coirat dc Grasse, consisted only of 8 ships of the line, and one fifty.—He said this favorable opportunity was-entirely neglected, the whole British fleet, and near 3000 chosen troops, beirrg kept upward of two months in a state of total inaction, for the important service of protecting the sales at Statia^ He ascribed to the same disgraceful cause, as a second misfortune, the weakness of the detachment sent.under Sir Samuel Hood, to prevent the junction of the Jrench fleet in the West-Indies with that which deGnisse brought from Europe. Sir George declared in reply, that he made the seizure of the effects for the sole and exclusive benefit of the. crown ; and had no intelligence, till long after the confiscation, «f bis majesty's intentions to relinquish bis -right in favor of the fleet and army ; that his presence at Statia was adsolutely ne^ cessary for some time; that during that period, he had planned •two expeditions, one against Curacoa, the other against Surinam, and was upon the point of putting them into execution, when he •received intelligence of the approach of dc Grasse, whose fleet was reported to consist of no more than 12 sail af the line ; and ihat consequently he thought Sir Samuel Hood a sufficient match with fifteen..
An humble address, remonstrance and petition of the lord mayor, alderman and livery of the city of London was agreed to, and ordered to be.preaented to his majesty sitting on the throne. The king determining to receive it at the levee, the mode of thus presenting it was declined. It was however published. The language
and .sentiments of it are peculiarly striking -"It is (they say)
with inexpressible concern, that we have heard your majesty dc■Clare in your speech to both houses of parliament, your intention of persevering in a system of measures which has proved so disastrous to this country. Your majesty's ministers have by false •assertions and fallacious suggestions, deluded your majesty and', ti-.-e .nation, into the present unnatural and unfortunate war.--s
The consequences of this delusion have been, that the trade of this country has suffered irreparable losses: the landed property thro* the kingdom has been depreciated to the roost alarming degrees the property of your majesty's subjects, vested in the public funds, has lost above one third of its value : private credit has been al*,.. most wholly annihilated, by enormous interest given in the public loans, superior to that which is allowed by law in any private contract: your majesty's fleets have lost their wonted superiority; your armies have been captured : your dominions have been lost; and your majesty's faithful subjects have been loaded with a burden of taxes, which even if our victories had been as splendid'as-. our defeats have been digraceful, if our accession of dominion had been as fortunate as the dismemberment oi the empire has beencruel and disastrous, could not in itself be considered but a great and grievous calamity. We beseech your majesty no longer t* continue in a delusion, from which the nation has awakened t. and that your majesty vvill.be giaciously pleased to relinquish entirely, and for ever, the plan of reducing.our brethren in America to obedience by force. W,e further humbly implore youf majesty, that your majesty will be graciously pleased to dismiss from your presence and councils, all. the advisers both publie-and. secret, of the measures we lament, as a pledge to the world of your majesty's fixed determination to abandon a system incom-* patible with the interests of your crown, and the happiness-of your people." . ...**.. . . ,... i ..••;« ■?
.On. the day appointed [ 12th.] for voting the army supplies,the house of commons was early and uncommonly crowded. The op*' position foreseeing tire difficulties ministry would be under was induced to bring forward certain motions, which might discover the-' number of those in the house, who with respect to their general political sentiments, agreed in opinion with them on the prosecu^ tion of the war. A coalition from all parties was designed, for the. sole purpoge of obliging the crown to put an end to the attempt of reducing Americans to obedience by force. Sir James Lowther moved " that all our efforts to subjugate America have been fruitJess, either for the purpose of supporting our friends, or conquer**. ingour enemies; and that it is the opinion of this house, that allfuture attempts to reduce the Americans to obedience by force,wiiJ be ineffectual and injurious to the true interests of this country, by weakening her powers to resist her ancient and confederated enemies." These motions wereopposedby the wholestrength fo government which however produced but a small majority^ the numbers.for them being H9, and against them 220»- Th»'' euificieutly showed a prevailing change of sentiment in regard to