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way of Cornwajlis ; and received iaformation of Tarleton's apt*

proach but just time enough to escape bis legion. They near crossed the mountains and convened at Stanton.. The British convention prisoners had been early marched from Chaartotte

ville toward Pennsylvania . : i;. «9C3Q

..,Lord Cornwallis not having any immediate occasion for gen.-' Arnold, dispensed with his absence; so that he returned to New-! York about the beginning of June. His lordship finding it iia-*> possible to force the marquis de la Fayette to an action, endeavored to prevent his junction with Wayne, who had been ordere4 by gen. Washington to march from the northward with tktt£ Pennsylvania line, amounting to £00, with a view to that event." It was effected without loss at. Racoon-ford on the 7th of Juoev But while this junction was making, his lordship obtained an o* pening for placing himself between the marquis and his .stores^ The stores, which were an object with both armies, had been t&u moved from Richmond to Albemarle old court-house above<thai Point of Fork. His lordship was so far advanced, as that within.' the course of two davs he must have gained possession of them. At the same moment he found that the marquis, by an unexpect* ed and rapid march, was within a few miles of his army. ii/hi* at first might be matter of joy to him, as he saw no practicable; way for the marquis to get between him and the stores, but by: a road, in passing which the Americans might be attacked, to: great advantage. However, contrary to his lordship's-. expecia*i lion the marquis discovered a nearer road to Albemarle. Ithadr been long disused, and therefore was much embarrassed. FayetteL had it opened in the.night, and to the astonishment of Cornwall lis, fixed himself the next day in a strong position between the: British army and the American stores. :"' ?l>aids

His lordship now commenced a retrograde movement, and ra two nights marches measured back upward of 50 miles. He was. accompanied with his detachment, under Tarleton and SinicoeBy about the 17th of June he entered Richmond, the marquis pressing hard after him. On the 18th the British moved toward, the Americans, seemingly with the design of striking a detached; corps. But upon the marching of the light-infantry and PennsyL-* vaniansthey returned into the town. The next day the marquise was joined by Steuben's troops; and, on the night of the 20tit' Richmond was evacuated. His lordship, under an appr eh ens tanthat the marquis was much stronger than was really the casa,Ims^ tened to Williamsburgh, where he occupied a strong post, wasc under the protection of his shipping, and received a reinforcement from Portsmouth. On the 26th of June, ;the day after the „.>-..; main

main body oFthe British army arrived at Williamshurgh, their rear was attacked within six miles of the place by an American light corps under co). Butler, and had 33 killed and wounded. According to a private letter of Fayette to the president of congress, his own troops at this period consisted only of 1500 regular 400 new levies, and about 2000 milkia, in al) 3900, while Cornwallis's amounted to 4000 regulars, 800 of whom were mounted. • *..

~ Jm the course of these movements, beside articles similar to those already specified, the British destroyed above 2000 hogsheads of tobacco, with some brass and a number of iron ordnance. But they were joined by no great number of inhabitants, and scarcely by any of the native Virginians. Lord Cornwallis, iftjbis marches from Charleston to Camden, from Camden to the Dan river, from the Dan through North-Carolina to Wilmington, from Wilmington to Richmond, and from Richmond to.Wiliiamsburgh, made a route of more than 1100 miles, without computing deviations. ■' •" i ••• ■

;The marqtlis de la Fayette kept with his body about 18 or 2© miles distant from lord Cornwallis, while his advanced corps was within 10 or 12, with an intention of insulting the British rear guard when they should pass James-river. His lordship evacuated Willitimsburgh on the 4th of July. On the 6th at noon he received intelligence that the Americans were approaching. Persuaded they would not venture an attack, except under the inu pressicr., that only a rear guard was left on that side of the river, lie used all proper means to encourage that opinion of his weakness.- Gen. Wayne relying upon the assurances of a countryman, that the main body had crossed, pushed forward with 800 men, chiefly Pennsylvania^ and soineiight-'infantry, and to hissurprise discovered the British army drawn up ready to receive him about sun-set. He instantly conceived that the only mode of extricating himself from his perilous situation, was by boldly attacking and engaging them for awhile, and then retreating with the utmost expedition. He pressed on with the greatest intrepidity. His whole force with which he began to engage the British, at no greater distance than 25 yards, did not exceed 500 men, all Bennsylvanians.* After behaving with heroic bravery for a time,, they faced about, and leaving their cannon behind, hurried off the field in haste toward some light>infantry battalions, that by a most rapid move had arrived within about half a mile of them. Lord Cornwallis would admit of no pursuit, for he

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»■ Gen. W»yrre'i letter to gen. Greene.' :" * ulii.u conConjectured, from the strangeness of circumstance's, that* the xvhole was a scheme of Fayette to draw him into an ambuscadi*. The British passed the river at night and retired to Portsmouth1: •and the marquis chose that moment for resting the'American: troops. ;vV3i{ • However we shall notquft Vifgmia without mentiofifrr^' tfi'^t early in the spring a British frigate went up to the Patdmak aM -landed a party of men, who set fire to and destroyed sortie gentlemen's houses on the Maryland side of the river, in sight ■of Mount Vernon, gen. Washington's: seat. The captam'serrt to Mr. Lund Washington, (who supplied tire place of a stew^rtj^ and demanded a quantity of provisions, with which he was filtf. nished, to prevent worse consequences. This compliance did'riot meet with the general's approbation; and in a letter of April the 30th, he expressed to Mr. Lund Washington his uneasiness «t his having gone on board the frigate and furnisheefprovrsionsi and said, "That he would rather it had been left to the ett(t> my to take what they would by force, though at the risk ^oF burning his house and property. -' . :^

We now proceed to the department under gen. Washington'* ■immediate command.

A publication in the New-York paper about the month of1 pril, excited the general -to write to a particular friend—"* Rfvington, or the inspector of his gazette, published a letter fron'i inc to gov. Hancock, and his answer, which never had an 'exist** ence but in the gazette. The enemy fabricated a number of letters for me formerly, as is well known." The following extract^ from his genuine letters will give you the best account of the paS. ticulars to which the same relate. *' May the 1st. I had straitfed impress by military force to that length, I trembled for'thfc consequences of the execution of every warrant which? granted for the purpose, so much are the people irritated by ibe frequent calls which have been made upon them in that way* ** The 8th. Distressed beyond expression at the present situation and future prospect of the army with regard to provision, unless an immediate and regular supply can be obtained, I have determined to make one great effort more, by representations antf requisitions to the New-England states."—" The 10th. Ftt»m th§ yosts of Saratoga to that of Dobb's ferry inclusive, I believfe there is not (by the reports and returns I have received) at this moment on hand one day's supply of meat for the army."—-Tftb 11th. T am sending gen. Hath purposely to the eastern statifcji to represent our distresses, and fix a plan for our regular supply for the future.'*, Three days before, the/general wrote to go?.



Livingston:—" Intelligence has been sent me by a gentleman who has an opportunity of knowing what passes among the fine* Hiy, that four parties had been sent out with orders to take or assassinate, your excellency, governor Clinton, me, and a fourth person, name unknown." The general, at the same time, did not believe thatthe enemy had any design ofassassinating, though declared by one who said he was engaged. The representation made to the Massachusetts general court, of the army distresses,. put them upon those exertions that were beneficial,, though insufficient. On the of May,, Washington was pained with iiu account, that col. Greene, who lay near Croton-river with a detachment of the army, had, been the morningab.ouE Sun-rise, by a. party of' Delancey's corps, consisting 100 cayMcy and about 200 infantry. They came first to the colonel :.nd major Flagg's quarters. The major was killed in bed,, and the colonel badly wounded. .They attempted carrying him off, finding that he could not march fast enough, they murdered him. His death is much regretted. His bravery was seeo. and felt in the defence of Red-Bank, against count Donop,.

Monsieur de Barras, the commandof the French squadron at Newport, arrived at Boston in the Concordfrigate, on the 6th of May. He brought with him dispatches for the count: de Rochambeau, which being.notified to Washington, he, with generals Knox and du Portal, set off for Weathersfield, three fj6] miles from Hartford, where they met the count de Rochambeau and the. chevalier Chastellux on the 21st. At this interview, nfiex combining all present circumstances and future prospects, the plan proposed the last year at Hartford, of attacking New-York.,. was adopted. The object was considered of greater magnitude and more within their reach thanany other. .The weakness of llie garrison,of New-York, its central position for drawing together, rnt-ii and supplies, and the spur which an attempt against that^placc would give to every exertion, were among the reasons v.'liich prompted to the undertaking, and promised success, unless the enemy shouid call a considerable part of their force from the southward. The French troops were to inarch toward the N.urthRiver, as sqon as circumstances would permit, leaving ab.out.200 men at Providence, with the heavy stores and baggage, and 500 militia upon Rhode-Island, to secure the works., On the 24th* letters were addressed to the executive power of Nc,w-Hairrip"»tfe, Massachusetts, Connecticut and Jersey, requiring, among jei- things, militia to the amount of 6200. Washington cnccd the requisition with "Our allies in this country expect depend upon being; supported bv us in the attempt we are

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about to make; and those in Europe will be astonished should w« neglect the favorable opportunity which is now offered." Th* general returned to his head-quarters on the 26th. The »e*t day he forwarded this information to the proper persons** Qrt the calculations I have been able to form, in concert with some of the most experienced French and American officers, the ope* ration in view will require, in addition to the French army, alt the continental battalions from New-Hampshire to New-Jersey to be completed." He added afterward "As we cannot count upon the battalions being full, and as a body of militia will moreover be necessary, I have called upon the several states to hold certain numbers in readiness to move within a week of the* time I may require them."

The British adjutant-general employed one lieutenant James Moody, in attempting to intercept Washington's dispatches. He succeeded repeatedly, though his escapes were narrow. He was urged to renew the service after the interview between Washington and Rochambeau had taken place; accordingly, waylaying the mail some days in the Jerseys, the opportunity offered for his taking and conveying to New-York that very bag which contained the letters that were the object of the enterprise.

Preparations were now making for the A merican army's taking the field; and on the 21st of June, they marched forthe campat Peek's-kill. On the 1st of July Washington mentioned in a letter —"From the 12th of May to this day, we have received only 312 head of cattle—from New-Hampshire 30, Massachusetts 230 and Connecticut 52. Unless more strenuous exertions are made to feed the few troops in the field, we must not only relinquish' our intended operation, but shall disband for want of subsistence; or, which is almost equally to be lamented, the troops will be obliged to seek it for themselves where it can be found." The next morning about three o'clock, the army marched toward NewYork, with no baggage but a blanket and clean shirt each inan, and four days provision, cooked. General Lincoln having tafcwi post with four battalions of infantry and a small detachment of theguards,at no great distance from Fort Independence, was attacked on the 3d, by about 1500 royal troops. The body of the American army, which was at hand, marched to suport him. Lin* coin designed to draw the enemy to a distance from their strong post at Kingsbridge and its dependencies, and thereby to ha»e given Washington and the duke de Lauzun, with the French' legion and Sheldon's dragoons the opportunity of turning their flanks. But it being apparent that Washington determined t» fight at all events, the enemy declined sending out reinforces


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