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prepared for an action, and that a favorable moment pi marched out to attack him.

The Americans were cooking their victuals, and Greene «ea> at breakfast about ten o'clock, when some of his advance sentjnels, half a mile in front of the camp, lived upon the van of the British. The American troops were ,soon formed, and waited with cheerful countenances the approach of the enemy : Col. O. Williams then rode to head-quarters* 2 or 300 yards in, the r#af of the line, and returned before they engaged. Ail the baggage, as is customary in general actions, was ordered off. The c,a«a^ jy (which was unsaddled and feeding on the first alarm^ was How ready ; and so certain was Greene of success, that without the least hesitation, he ordered lie,ut. col. Washington %n tmn the right flank of the British^ and to charge in their rear. . Hy this time the fire between the British van, and the American light-infantry pickets became very lively, and the Maryland troops (who had been ordered to sit down) stood up and made ready. The second regiment, being on the left of the tine, wis ordered to advance and attack the British on their, right flank, which was done by lieut. col. Ford, who had received amorfcil wound in the action: the first regiment, commanded by col. Gunby, was ordered to charge the eBemy in front. Thje two Virginia'regiments were ordered to act in a similar manner upon the left of the British, and were led on by Greene in pers»»i aided by gen. Huger, lieut. cols. Campbell and Hawes. . r±he artillery was well posted and doing great execution, and a small body of militia was coming into action, then suddenly a number of the Americans began to retire, though the danger was ;twt apparently great, and every body seemed ignorant of the cause. Col. Williams was at this instant near the centre of tire Maryland brigade, and with the assistance of col. Gunbv and other officers endeavored to rally the men. They halted,, arid gavei'a few fires, but could not be brought again to charge. A general retreat took place. Washington, in the execution of the, order given him, had at one time possessed himself of near aoO prisoners ; but he relinquished the greatest part on seeing the army retire. The officers he paroled on the field of battle; arud then collecting his men, wheeled round, made his own retreat good with the loss of three men, and carried off with him fifty prisoners. The fortune of the day was irretrievable; but Gteene, with his usual firmness, instantly took measure's to prevent Raw* don's improving the success he had obtained. The retreat was conducted with such order and deliberation, that most of the A^ mericaa wounded, all their artillery and all their baggage, wet


fafelv carried off, together with "si* Toyal commissioned officers; beside Washington's prisoners. The action was continued with •intervals, till about four in the afternoon, and till the Americans ■had retreated about tour mites-; when a detachment or- the infantry and Cavalry under Washington were ordered to advance 'and annoy the British.- The York, volunteers, a handsome corps ef horse, being a little advanced of the British infantry, Washington with great intrepidity instantly charged tltem^ killed-a 4ui«6er and dispersed the rest. The British army, without attempting any thing further, retired to Camden, and Greene errt?-afarpeil the Americans about five miles from their former post4ion. The field-of battle was occupied only by the dead. The loss of the A-meriSans in killed, wounded and missing, was 264.* 'ifcrnong-the first was Capt. Beatty of the Maryland line, bnfe of ■the best of-officers, and an ornament to his profession. Many of the missing returned. ,:

^'-^h* next'day Greene in general orders Commended the e-xer*i»r»s Ut" several corps, but implicitly and by silence censured the infantry of the battalions,-which-would not have been'done had he known'the real-cause of their apparent misconduct. The virtual censure was severely felt, and the dissatisfaction of the troops upon the occasion, whosaid they were ordered-to retire, arfd the complaints of many of the officers, who acknowledged they had communicated "such orders, at length produced, at the'in•stance or" col. Gun by, a court of inquiry. It then appeared that l&unby received orders to advance and charge bayonets withont 'iiring: this order was instantly communicated- td the regimerrt, twtiiclv advanced cheerfully for s«mie distance, when a firing began Ofi the right, and in a short time becariifr general through the whole regiment. Soon after, twoof the right-hand companies gave •Way, when Gunby ordered tbe other four to be brought o(F.— This was done; and they joined Gdnby at the foot of the bill, where he was exerting himself in rallying the other two companies, and at length affected it'. The regiment was again formed, Md gave? fire or two as above related. Greene in genera! orders pronounced Gunby's- spirit and activity-unexceptionable; but Ins orders-for the regiment to retire extrerriely improper and ■ ttnmititary ; and declared that to be the only probable cause wfry -they did ;Ttot obtain a complete victory.- • •• ,f" Ok the 28th of April, gen. 'Greenethus expressed himself in a fetter to the chevalier de la Lutferne—^'-THis distressed country I :itm sure cannot struggle much longer, without nr.)< e effectual suji

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port. They may struggle a little while longer, but they mustfalk and 1 fear their fall will lay a train to sap the independence of the rest of America.—I have agreeable to your excellency's advkej impressed the states all in my power with a sense of their danger; but they have not the means to make the necessary exertions.-* We fight, get beaten, rise and fight again.. The whole country is one continued scene of blood and slaughter." On the 1st of Alay he wrote to the marquis de la Fayette—"You may depeai upon it, that nothing can equal the sufferings of our little army, but their merit. Let not the love of fame get the better of your prudence, and plunge you into a misfortune ia too eager a pupsuit after glory. This is the voice of a friend, and not the cau» tion of a general." Capt. Smith of the Americans was deprived ef the common indulgence allowed to prisoners, on a ehargt brought against him bv deserters from. Greene's army, of mun. dering an officer and three privates belonging to the guards after the action of Guildford. Greene complained of it to lord Raw*don in a letter of May the 3d, and said—"Nothing can be more foreign to the truth than the charge. I have only to observe Upon it, that had such a charge been made against any of your officers, whom the fortune of war had thrown into our hands* before I should have treated them with any peculiar marks of indignity, I should first have made the enquiry, and had th3 feet better established. It is my wish that the war should be conducted upon the most liberal, rational and generous princi* pies; but I will never suffer an indignity or injury to be offered to our officers without retaliation." '. - .>{,&

Soon after the action with his lordship, Greene, knowing that the British garrison in Camden could not subsist long without fresh supplies from Charleston or the country, detached a rein* forcement to Marion, on the Nelson's ferry; and on the 3d of May crossed the Wateree, and took occasionally such po* sitions as would most effectually prevent succours from going into the town from that quarter. On the 4th he wrote to gov. Reed» of Pennsylvania—"Those whose true interest it was to have, in* formed congress and the people to the northward, with the real state of things, have joined in the deception, and magnified the strength and resources of this country infinitely above their abiii* ty. Many of those who adhere to our party, are so fond of pica* sure,.that they cannot think of making the necessary sacrifices to> support the revolution. There are many good and virtuous people to the southward, but they cannot animate the inhabitants im general, as you can to the northward. When ruin appears, to approach any state, they are alarmed, and begin to think of t


«rting themselves: but its approach no sooner receives a check* than they iink back into a careless inattention.—Virginia hasex* jerted herself in giving a temporary support to the. army ; buthei? pleasure and her policy prevent her giving us-such permanent *id as her strength and resources are capable of affording.—Maryland has done nothing, nor -can I.hearof any exertions -there equal to the emergency of war.—Delaware has not answered my letters.—-These states have few men-here, -a-nd those .they have are daily discharged-—North-Carolina has got next to -no regulars in the field, and few militia, and these the worst in the -world, for they have neither pride aor principle to bind them to any. party,- or to a discharge of their duty,—'Generals Marion and Sumpter have a few people who adhere to them, perhaps raure from a desire and the opportunity of plundering, thaa from any inclination to promote the independence of the United States,—I have been playing the most hazardous game to-keep •op- appearances in this quarter,, until more effectual support could he afforded. But our number is reduced t» a mere shadow.—• 2The war to the northward is nothing. It is-a plain business* Here the war rages like a fire; and the enterprise and activity ef the enemy almost exceed belie£ I have run every risk and hazard, and find the difficulties thicken upon me daily, and you know I am not of a desponding, spirit or idle temper.—If ousr good friends the French cannotlend a helping.hand to save these sinking states, they must and will fall.—Here we are contending «cith more than five times our number, and among a people much more in the enemy's interest than purs." Greene com< ftlains-i» this letter of the Marylanders; but they had raised 500 .regulars, who might have joined him in April, if proper painshad been taken by the executive poweiv ;.,♦ 'On the 7th of May lord Rawdon received- a. considerable reinforcement by the arrival of the detachment under Watson.—» With this increase of strength he attempted the next day to compel gen. Greene to another action, which he found,to be impracticable. Failing in his design he returned to Camden; and on the 10th burned the jail, mills, many private houses, and a great deal of his own baggage. He then evacuated the post, and retired with his whole army to the south of the Santee, leaving about 30 of his own sick and wounded, and as many of the Americans. Greene's return to die southward being unexpected, the. Itores of the garrison were not provided for a siege; but the e* *acuation was hastened, as Greene apprehended, from an alarm that a measure of his had given them. While in the neighbor-! hood of Camden, he hanged, in one day eight soldiers who had «Jeserted frombis army, and were after ward taken prisoners.. _Thi*


execution, according to the information given him, almost bred a mutiny in the garrison, which was composed very much of deserters. It had a strong effect on his Owb troops, from who?* there was no desertion for three months. Rawdon had the bo? nor of saving his men, though he lost the post, the country, asd. the confidence of the tories. He offered every assistance in Ii;s power to the friends of British government, who would accompany him, which was the choice of several families.

The evacuation of Camden animated the friends of congress, and daily increased their numbers, while the British posts; teli in quick, succession. The day after the evacuation, the garrison of Orangeburgh, consisting of 70 British militia and 12. regulars, surrendered to Sumpter. Marion and Lee, after the capture of Fort Watson, crossed the Santee and moved up to Fort .Matte, which lies above the Fork on the south side of the Congaree, where they arrived on the 8th of May. The British had built their works round Mrs. Motte's dwelling-house, which occasion «d her moving to a neighboring hut. She was inforaied that firing the house was the easiest mode of reducing the garrisoa; tipon that she presented the besiegers with a quiver of African arT rows to be employed in the service. Skewers armed with cow* bustible materials were also used, and with more effect.; Success soon crowned these experiments, and her joy was inexpressible upon finding that the reduction of the post had been expedited, though at the expence of her property. The firing of her house compelled the garrison of 165 men to surrender at discretion oa the 12th of May, after a brave defence. Two days after, til* British evacuated their post at Nelson's ferry. On the. 16th, Fort Granby, about 30 miles to the westward of Fort Motte, was reduced. The preceding night Lee erected a battery w\th? in 600 yards of its out-works, on which he mounted a six-pqujider hastily brought from Fort Motte. After the third discharge from this field-pice, maj. Maxwell capitulated. His force cpor sisted of 352 men, a great part royal militia. . Yeryadvantar geous terms were given them, in consequence of mformatiqn that lord Rawdon was marching to their relief. They;had the offer of security to their baggage, in wJiich was included aainixnense quantity of plunder. This hastened the surrender. The American militia were much disgusted that the garrison were so favored. They indicated an inclination for breaking the capitulation and killing the prisoners. When Greene heard of it, k« solemnly declared, that he would put to death any one that should be guilty of so doing. '., ■■*»«{

The day after the surrender of Fort Granby, Lee began.bjk inarch to join Pickens, who, with a body of militia, was in the


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