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Consisting of near twenty sail, including armed state vessels and privateers, besides 24 transports. An embargo for 40 days was laid by the general court on all shipping, that a full supply of seamen might be the more easily procured. When the armament was ready for sailing, it lay wind-bound in Nantasket road for some days. By the 25th of July, it appeared off Penobscot. Colonel M'Lean had gained information of its sailing from Boston four days before. His intended fort was incapable of affording any good defence. Two of the bastions were untouched; the remaining two with the curtains, were in. no part above 4 or 5 feet high and 12 thick; the ditch in most parts not more than 3 feet deep ; there was no platform Jaid nor any artillery mounted. When the troops had landed, [July 28.] instead of being put upon vigorous services, the general contented himself with summoning the colonel to surrender, which being refused, they were employed two days in erecting a battery at about 150 yard distance from the fort. The colonel improved this opportunity, and what followed during an ineffectual cannonading, for finishing and strengthening his works, till he was out of all apprehension from being stormed; which he was informed by a deserter, on the 12th of August, was to be in a day or two. Colonel M'Lean, with his .garrison, to their astonishment, discovered that the Americans had totally abandoned the camp and works in the night, [August 14.] and had reimbarked. The cause of this mysterious event was, soon evident by the appearance of Sir George Collier in the Raisonable, attended with five frigates. While Sir George lay at Sandy-Hook, he gained information, on or ^before the 28th of July, from a Boston paper, as it is confidently asserted of the expedition against Penobscot. He sailed for the relief of the place on the 3d of August. It was not, . the intention of the Massachusetts government, that General Lovel should spend much time against it; on the contrary, the speedy reduction of the place was expected. The business being lengthened out, application was made to General Gates for a ^continental regiment ; but before it could reach half way to Penobscot, Sir George Collier entered and proceeded up the bay. By eleven o'clock in the morning, the American fleet presented themselves to his view, drawn up seemingly with the design of 'disputing the passage ; their resolution however soon failed, and an ignominious flight took place. Sir George destroyed and took, including two which were captured on his passage, , 19 armed vessels ; beside the transports, and some provision ves«,


Sels. The expedition against the fort was so wretchedly conducted, as to do no credit either to the general or commodore. The anrry and sailois; had to explore a great part of their way back by land through thick woods and desert wastes:

The Oneidas, and a few other of the si:: confederated Indian nations, frequently called the Mohawks, were friendly to the Americans ; the rest through the power of presents with the influence of Sir John Johnston and some others, who had interest among them, departed from the neutrality they had engaged to observe; and distinguished themselves in that cruel and destructive war, which was carried- on< against the back settlements. Their conduct gave me to that plan of an expedition.1 into their country, which has been already mentioned. When it was to be carried into- execution,- there were to be only two divisions, the main- one under general Sullivan;'and the ether under general James Clinton, which was- to go by the Mohawk river- When Sullivan was preparing to proceed, ha "presented to congress a most expensive and extravagant list of Enumerated articles, in which was a large number of eggs. Ke made his detachment equal to 7000 rations per day. Congresswere -so disgusted with the great demand, and some of the specified articles, that for some tinie they would not order him, any. The quantity of rifle power required, was more than could on any calculation be necessary- The commander in ehief inculcated it upon him, that the success and efficacy of the expedition depended absolutely on the celerity of his movements, and might be defeated, if he did not proceed as-light as possible. The quarter-master-generaL-supplied him with 1400 horses. When he reached Wyoming, hs wrote—" Oftjre salted meat-on hand, there is not a single pound- fit to-be eaten." ~"he next day, [J uly 22. ] the return of the troops, rank and file; ras 2312. Here he waited several weeks, for more men, and for provisions to supply the lossof what had beenspoiled through •'the viilany or carelessness of the commissaries. When general Clinton, who came by the Mohawk river without meeting with any opposition, joined him on the 21st of Aug.- with about 1600 men of every kind, the whole army with its attendants, battocmen, waggoners, &c amounted to 5000. Clinton's division, would of itself, have been sufficient for,the exVpetition, as them Indians, against whom they marched were "only 550, accompanied by about 250 tories, making no mora than 800 in all, headed by colonel Johnston, major Butler and Brandt. They were greatly worn down by their long wait* ing far Sullivan's approach, at Newtown, where they hathcoa.*str acted strong breast works. The general lived well as h&' marched, having taken a number of casks of tongues with him; beside live cattle to supply him with fresh provision. He kept a most extravagant table, and entertained all the officers, upon the plea of securing bis influence among them, while he was making extremely free{ in their presence, with the characters of the Congress and the Board of War. He carried six light field-pieces and two howitzers along with him ; and would have the morning and evening gun fired constantly. At length he arrived [August 29.] at Newtown; and vaunted in the morning what great things he would do with and against the Indians. He began to engage them, by firing his field-pieces at their breast works; which he continued while he detached general Poor to the right, round the mountain, to fall upon their left flank. Poor had to march a mile and a half in full view of the Indians and their associates, who penetrated his design. They waited, however, for his approach: but observing (that when his firing announced his being engaged) other movements were made toward them, they quitted their works, and betook themselves to a sudden and precipitate-flight. To. the left of Sullivan there was a river, and a plain on the right, side of it, along which, had a force been sent early, they could have marched round undiscovered, and have fallen in nearly upon the centre of the Indians, by the time Poor came upon their, left flank. A number of riflemen desired to take that route, but were not permitted. At night Sullivan was not a little mortified upon finding how completely the enemy had escaped. He had 7 men killed and 14 wounded in the course of the day. The army marched on the 31st for: Catherine's town, lying on the Seneca' lake. They had to traverse a swamp several miles long; to pass through dangerous defiles, with steep hills-on each side; and to ford a river, emptying itself into the lake, considerably broad in many places, with a strong current, and up to the middle of the men; its course was so serpentine, that they had to pass through it seven or eight times. Sullivan was advised not to enter the swamp tilt the next day, but in vain. Clinton who brought up the rear, was sufficiently fatigued by the time he reached the entrance, and being assured, that it would kill the horses and cattle to proceed, desisted from marching forward.


Notwithstanding Sullivan kept out flanking parties as he advanced, such was the steepness of tire hills tire narrowness


and difficulty of the defiles, trfat twenty or thirty Indians might have thrown his troops into the utmost contusion. The night .was so exceeding dark, that the men could see but a little way before them. They were wearied out, scattered and broken, Jost all their spirits, Lay down here and there, and wished to die. Had a body of the enemy fallen on them in this situation, it might have produced the most fatal consequences. Now was the general's mind racked and toitured. It was twelve at night before his. troops reached the town. The Indian scouts had watched them while it was light; but had no thought of their continuing to march in so daik a night and to so. late an hour. Before they got to therirst house there was a most dangerous defile, so formed by nature, that had it been possessed by the five and twenty Indians, who were in the town roasting corn, they might have shot down, while ammunition lasted, what Americans they pleased, when within reach of their guns and the sight of their eyes, without risking their own persons. When the troops had safely finished their march Suillivan declared, he would not have such another night for all his command. The men were obliged to halt all the next' day to recruit; and suffered more in the preceding, than they w-ouid have done in a month's regular march.

/.General Sullivan continued in the Indian country, spreading desolation and destruction among the towns and plantations of the enemy, without sparing the orchards of apple and peach-trees, which had been raised from pips and stones, and in some places properly planted by the advice of the missionary who had lived among them. The heat of the climate, and richness of the soil, wiil raise good fruit in a few years from kernals that are produced by suitable trees. Several officers thought it a degradation of the army to be employed in destroyed apple and peach-trees, when the very Indians m their excursions spared them, and wished the general to retract his orders for it. He was told that the trees would .in a littfo time, be worth to the continent at least many thousand hard dollars. He continued relentless, and said—" The Indians shall see, that there is malice enough in our hearts*to destroy every thing that contributes toward their support." Some of the officers, however, who were sent out with parties to lay waste the Indian territory, would see no apple or peach-trees ; so that they were left to blossom and bearr for the refreshment of man or beast, friend or foe, that might chance to pass that way. Thus did Oenfcral Hand and Colonel Duibin do honor to their own cha,.:,, racters.

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