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the river, and seeing a mantle floating on the the others in his head, body, and limbs. No stream, he inquired what it was that appeared sooner was the Pontiff informed of the death of black; to which they answered, it was a mantle; his son, and that he had been thrown, like filth, and one of them threw stones upon it, in con- into the river, than giving way to his grief, he sequence of which it sunk. The attendants of shut himself up in a chamber and wept bitterly. the Pontiff then inquired from Giorgio , why he The Cardinal of Segovia, and other attendants had not revealed this to the governor of the on the Pope, went to the door, and after many city; to which he replied, that he had seen in hours spent in persuasions and exhortations, his time a hundred dead bodies thrown into the prevailed upon him to admit them. From the river at the same place, without any inquiry evening of Wednesday, till the following Saturbeing made respecting them, and that he had day, the Pope took no food; nor did be sleep not, therefore, considered it as a matter of any from Thursday morning till the same hour on importance. The fishermen and seamen were the ensuing day. At length, however, giving then collected, and ordered to search the river; way to the entreaties of his attendants, he began where, on the following evening, they found the to restrain his sorrow, and to consider the injury body of the Duke, with his habit entire, and which his own health might sustain, by the thirty ducats in his purse. He was pierced with forther indulgence of his grief."-Roscoe's Les nine wounds, one of which was in his throat,' Tenth, Vol. 5, p. 265.
NOTES TO THE SIEGE OF CORINTH
The Turcoman hath left his herd. (p. 116., intentional, resemblance in these twelve lines to
The life of the Turcomans is wandering and a passage in an unpublished poem of Mr. Cole patriarchal: they dwell in tents.
ridge, called “Christabel." It was not till
after these lines were written that I heard that Coumourgi-he whose closing scene. (p. 117. wild and singularly original and beautiful poem Ali Coumourgi, the favourite of three sultans, recited; and the MS. of that production I never and Grand Vizier to Achmet III., after recovering saw till very recently, by the kindness of Mr. Peloponnesus from the Venetians in one com- Coleridge himself, who, I hope, is convinced paign, was mortally wounded in the next, against that I have not been a wilful plagiarist. The the Germans, at the battle of Peterwaradin (in original idea undoubtedly pertains to Mr. Colethe plain of Carlowitz), in Hungary, endeavour- ridge, whose poem has been composed above ing to rally his guards. He died of his wounds fourteen years. Let me conclude by a hope that next day. His last order was the decapitation he will not longer delay the publication of a of General Breuner, and some other German production, of which I can only add my mite of prisoners; and his last words, “Oh that I could approbation to the applause of far more compethus serve all the Christian dogs!" a speech tent judges. ("Christabel" was published in 1816.) and act not unlike one of Caligula. He was a young man of great ambition and unbounded
There is a light cloud by the moonpresumption: on being told that Prince Eugene, then opposed to him, "was a great general," he
'Tis passing and will pass full soon– said "I shall become a greater, and at his expense."
Is, by the time its vapoury sail .... (p. 121.
I have been told that the idea expressed in There shrinks no ebb in that tideless sea. [p. 119. these lines has been admired by those whose
The reader need hardly be reminded that there approbation is valuable. I am glad of it: but are no perceptible tides in the Mediterranean. I it is not original—at least not mine ; it may be
found much better expressed in "Vathek"a work And their white tusk& crunch'd o'er the whiter to which I have before referred, and never skull.
recur to, or read, withoat a renewal of gra
tification. This spectacle I have seen, such as described, beneath the wall of the Seraglio at Constantinople, in the little cavities worn by the Bos- The horsetails are pluck'd from the ground, phorus in the rock, a narrow terrace of which
and the sword.
(p. 122. projects between the wall and the water. I think The horsetail, fixed upon a lance, a Pacha's the fact is also mentioned in Hobhouse's Tra- standard. vels. The bodies were probably those of some refractory Janizaries.
And since the day, when in the strait. (p. 123.
In the naval battle at the mouth of the DarAnd each scalp had a single long tust of hair. danelles, between the Venetians and the
[p. 120. Turks. This tuft, or long lock, is left from a superstition that Mahomet will draw them into Para- The jackals troop, in gather'd cry: (p. 125. dise by it.
I believe I have taken a poetical license to
transplant the jackal from Asia. In Greece I Was it the wind, through some hollow stone. never saw nor heard these animals; but among
(p. 121. the ruins of Ephesus I have heard them by I must here acknowledge a close, though un- | hundreds. They haunt ruins, and follow armies. 737
NOTES TO PA RI8 I N A.
It to the hour when from the bougho
down their cheeks, and upon their knees, imThe nightingale's high note is heard, plored him for mercy: adducing whatever rea
sons they could suggest for sparing the offenders, As twilight melts beneath the morn away. besides those motives of honour and decency
(p. 126. which might persuade him to conceal from the These fourteen lines were printed as set to public so scandalous a deed. But his rage made music some time since, but belonged to the him inflexible, and, on the instant, he commandpoem where they now appear, the greater part ed that the sentence should be put in execution. of which was composed prior to "Lara," and "It was, then, in the prisone of the castle, other compositions since pablished.
and exactly in those frightful dungeons which
are seen at this day beneath the chamber called That should have won as haught a crest. [p. 128. the Aurora, at the foot of the Lion'g tower, at
Haught-haughty.--"Away, haught man, thou the top of the street Giovecca, that on the night art insulting me. SHAKSPEARE, Richard II. of the twenty-first of May were beheaded, first,
Ugo, and afterwards Parisina. Zoese, he thać fler life began and closed in woe. [p. 130. accused her, conducted the latter under his arm “This turned out a calamitous year for the to the place of punishment. She, all along, fanpeople of Ferrara, for there occurred a very cied, that she was to be thrown into a pit, and tragical event in the court of their sovereign. asked at every step, whether she was yet come Our annals, both printed and in manuscript, to the spot ? She was told that her punishment with the exception of the unpolished and negli- was the axe. She inquired what was become of gent work of Sardi, and one other, have given Ugo, and received for answer, that he was the following relation of it, from which, how- already dead ; at the which, sighing grievously, ever, are rejected many details, and especially she exclaimed, “Now, then, I wish not myself the narrative of Bandelli, who wrote a century to live;" and being come to the block, she afterwards, and who does not accord with the stripped herself with her own hands of all her cotemporary historians.
ornaments, and wrapping a cloth round her “By the above mentioned Stella dell' Assas- head, submitted to the fatal stroke which termisino, the Marquis, in the year 1405, had a son nated the cruel scene. The same was done with called Ugo, a beautiful and ingenious youth. Rangoni, who, together with the others, accordParisina Malatesta, second wife of Niccolo, like ing to two calendars in the library of St. Franthe generality of stepmothers, treated him with cesco, was buried in the cemetery of that conlittle kindness, to the infinite regret of the Mar- vent. Nothing else is known respecting the quis, who regarded him with fond partiality. women. One day she asked leave of her husband to un- “The Marquis kept watch the whole of that dertake a certain journey, to which he consent-dreadful night, and, as he was walking backed, but upon condition that Ugo should bear her wards and forwards, inquired of the Captain of coinpany; for he hoped by these means to in the castle if Ugo was dead yet? who answered duce her, in the end, to lay aside the obstinate him, Yes. He then gave himself up to the most aversion which she had conceived against him. desperate Jamentations, exclaiming, “Oh! that I And indeed this intept was accomplished but too were dead, since I have been hurried on to too well, since, during the journey, she not only resolve thus against my own Ugo!". And then divested herself of all her hatred, but fell into gnawing with his teeth a cane which he had in the opposite extreme. After their return, the, his hand, he passed the rest of the night in Marquis had no longer any occasion to renew sighs and tears, calling frequently upon his own his former reproofs. It happened one day that dear Ugo. On the following day, calling to mind a servant of the Marquis, named Zoese, or, as that it would be necessary to make public his some call m, Giorgio, passing before the apart-justification, seeing that the transaction could ments of Parisina, saw going out from them one not be kept secret, he ordered the narrative to of her chambermaids, all terrified and in tears. be drawn out upon paper, and sent it to all the Asking the reason, she told him that her mis-courts of Italy. tress, for some slight offence, had been beating “On receiving this advice, the Doge of Venice, her; and, giving vent to her rage, she added, Francesco Foscari, gave orders, but without pubthat she could easily be revenged, if she chose lishing his reasons, that stop should be put to to make known the criminal familiarity which the preparations for a tournament, which under subsisted between Parisina and her step-son. the auspices of the Marquis, and at the expense The servant took note of the words, and related of the city of Padua, was about to take place, them to his master. He was astounded thereat, in the sqnare of St. Mark, in order to celebrate but scarcely believing his ears, he assured him his advancement to the ducal chair. self of the fact, alas! too clearly, on the 18th of “The Marquis, in addition to what he had alMay, 1425, by looking through a hole made in the ready done, 'from some unaccountable burst of ceiling of his wife's chamber. Instantly he broke vengeance, commanded that as many of the marinto a furious rage, and arrested both of them, ried women as were well known to him to be together with Aldobrandino Rangoni, of Modena, faithless, like his Parasina, should, like her, be her gentleman, and also, as some say, two of beheaded. Amongst others, Barbarina, oras the women of her chamber, as abettors of this some call her, Laodamia Romei, wife of the sinful act. He ordered them to be bronght to a court judge, underwent this sentence, at the basty trial, desiring the judges to pronounce usual place of execution, that is to say, in the sentence, in the accustomed forms, upon the quarter of St. Giacomo, opposite the present colprits. This sentence was death. Some there fortress, beyond St. Paul's." It cannot be told were that bestirred themselves in favour of the how strange appeared this proceeding in a prince, delinquents, and, amongst others, Ugoccion Con- who, considering his own disposition, should, as trario, who was all-powerful with Niccolo, and it seemed, have been in such cases inost indulgent. also his aged and much deserving minister Al-Some, however, there were, who did not fail to berto dal Sale. Both of these, their tears flowing commend him." Prizzi, History of Ferrara.
NOTES TO THE PRISONER OF CHILLON.
By Bonnivard !-May none those marks efface! Bonnivard fat eavant ; ses manuscrits, qui
(p. 131. sont dans la bibliothèque publique, prouvent François de Bonnixard, fils de Louis de Bon- qu'il avait bien lu les auteurs classiques latins, nivard, originaire de Seyssel et Seigneur de et qu'il avait approfondi la théologie et l'histoire. Lunes, naquit en 1496 ; il fit ses études à Turin. Ce grand homme aimait les sciences, et il croyait En 1510 Jean Aimé de Bonnivard, son oncle, lui qu'elles ponvaient faire la gloire de Genève; résigna le Prieuré de St. Victor, qui aboutissait aussi il ne négligea rien pour les fixer dans aux murs de Genève, et qui formait un bénéfice cette ville naissante ; en 1551 il donna sa biblioconsidérable.
thèque au public; elle fut le commencement de Ce grand homme (Bonnivard mérite ce titre notre bibliothèque publique ; et ces livres sont par la force de son âme, la droiture de son en partie les rares et belles éditions du quinceur, la noblesse de ses intentions, la sagesse zième siècle qu'on voit dans notre collection. de ses conseils, le courage de ses démarches, Enfin, pendant la même année, ce bon patriote l'étendue de ses connaissances et la vivacité de institua la République son héritière, à condition son esprit), ce grand homme, qui excitera l'ad- qu'elle emploierait ses biens à entretenir le colmiration de tous ceux qu'une vertu héroique lege dont on projetait la fondation. peut encore émouvoir, inspirera encore la plus
Bonnivard mourut en 1570; mais vive reconnaissance dans les ceurs des Génevois on ne peut
Il parait apgurer, parce qu'il y a une lacune qui aiment Genève. Bonnivard en fut toujours dans le Nécrologe depuis le mois de Juillet un des plus fermes appuis : pour assurer la li- 1570 jusqu'en 1571. berté de notre Répablique, il ne craignit pas de perdre souvent la sienne; il oublia son repos ;
In a single night.
(p. 131. il méprisa ses richesses ; il ne négligea rien Ludovico Sforza, and others. The same is pour affermir le bonheur d'une patrie qu'il ho- asserted of Marie Antoinette's, the wife of nora de son choix: dès ce moment il la chérit Louis XVI., though not in quite so short a period. conme le plus zélé de ses citoyens ; il la servit Grief is said to have the same effect: to such, avec l'intrépidité d'un héros, et il écrivit son and not to fear, this change in her's was to be histoire avec la naiveté d'un philosophe et la attributed. chaleur d'un patriote.
Il dit dans le commencement de son histoire From Chillon's snow-white battlement. (p. 132. de Genève, que, dès qu'il eut commencé de lire The Chateau de Chillon is situated between l'histoire des nations, il se sentit entrainé par Clarens and Villeneuve, which last is at one son gout pour les Républiques, dont il épousa extremity the Lake Geneva. On its left toujours les interéts : c'est ce gout pour la liberté are the entrances of the Rhone, and opposite qui lui fit sans doute adopter Genève pour sa patrie. are the heights of Mellerie and the range of
Bonnivard, encore jeune, s'annonça hautement Alps above Boveret and St. Gingo. comme le défenseur de Genève contre le Duc Near it, on a hill behind, is a torrent ; below de Savoye et l'Evêque.
it, washing its walls, the lake has been fathomed En 1519, Bonnivard devint le martyr de sa to the depth of 800 feet (French measure); within patrte: Te Duc de Savoye étant entré dans Ge- it are a range of dangeons, in which the early trève avec cinq-cents hommes, Bonnivard craig- reformers, and subsequently prisoners of state, nit le ressentiment du Duc; il voulut se retirer were confined. , Across one of the vaults is a à Fribourg pour en éviter les suites; mais il beam black with age, on which we were informfut trahi par deux hommes qui l'accompagnaient, ed that the condemned were formerly executed. et conduit par ordre da Prince à Grolée, où il in the cells are seven pillars, or, rather, eight, resta prisonnier pendant deux ans. Bonnivard one being half merged in the wall; in some of était malbeureux dans des voyages; comme ses these are rings for the fetters and the fettered ; malheurs n'avaient point ralenti son zélé pour in the pavement the steps of Bonnivard have Genève, il était toujours un ennemi redoutable | left their traces-he was confined here several pour ceux qui la menaçaieut, et par conséquent years. il devait étre exposé à leurs coups. Il fut ren. It is by this castle that Roussean has fixed contré en 1530 sar le Jura, par des voleurs, qui the catastrophe of his Heloise, in the rescue of le dépouillèrent, et qui le mirent encore entre one of her children by Julie from the water ; les mains du Duc de Savoye: ce Prince le fit the shock of which, and the illness produced by enfermer dans le Châtean de Chillon, où il the immersion, is the cause of her death. resta sans être interrogé jusqu'en 1536; il fut The chateau is large, and seen along the lake alors délivré par les Bernois, qui s'emparèrent for a great distance. The walls are white. du Pays de Vaud.
Bonnivard, en sortant de sa captivité, eat le And then there was a little isle. [p. 134. plaisir de trouver Genève libre et réformée : la Between the entrances of the Rhone and Vilrépubliqae s'empressa de lui témoigner sa re- leneuve, not far from Chillon, is a very small connaissance et de le dédommager des maux island; the only one I could perceive, in my qu'il avait soufferts ; elle le reçut Bourgeois de voyage round and over the lake, within its cir. la ville au mois de Juin 1536 ; elle lui donna la cumference. It contains a few trees (I think not maison habitée autrefois par le Vicaire-Général, above threc), and from its singleness and dimiet elle lai assigna une pension de 200 écus d'or nutive size has a pecaliar effect upon the view, tant qu'il séjournerait à Genève. Il fut admis When the foregoing poem was composed I was dans le Conseil des Deux-cents en 1537.
not sufficiently aware of the history of BonniBonnivard n'a pas fini d'être atile: après vard, or I should have endeavoured to dignify avoir travaillé à rendre Genève libre, il rédssit the gubject by an attempt to celebrate his couà la rendre tolérante. Bonnivard engagea le rage and his virtues. Some account of his life Conseil à accorder aux Ecclésiastiques et aux / will be found in the above note to the “Sonnet paysans un temps suffisant pour examiner les on Chillon, " with which I have been furnished propositions qu'on leur faisait; il réussit par sa by the kindness of a citizen of that Republic douceur: on prèche toujours le Christianisme which is still proud of the memory of a man avec succès quand on le précho avea charité. worthy of the best age of ancient freedom.
NOTES TO BE P P 0.
Like the lost Pleiad seen no more below. | aspirate, according to the Arabesque guttural.
(P. 144. St. 14. It means what there is as yet no precise name “Quæ septem dici ser tamen esse solent." Ovid. for in England, though the practice is as com
mon as in any tramontane country whatever. Hio namo Giuseppe, call d more briefly, Beppo.
[p. 145. St. 25. Beppo is the Joo of the Italian Joseph.
Raphael, who died in thy embraca, and vice. The Spaniards call the person e “Cortejo.".
[p. 147. St. 46 (p. 146. St. 37. For the received accounts of the cause of Ra“Cortejo " is pronounced "Corteho," with an phael's death, see his Lives.
NOTES TO CANTO I.
That e'er by precious metal was held in.
[p. 199. St. 71. Brave men were living before Agamemnon.
This dress is Moorish , and the bracelets and
bar are worn in the manner described. The “Visere fortes ante Agamemnona.“ HORACE. mother of Haidee was of Fez, her daughter
(p: 153. St. 5. reader will perceive hereafter, that,, as the Save thine "incomparable oil," Macassar!
wore the garb of the country.
(p. 154. St. 17. "Description des vertus incomparables de l'huile
A like gold bar, above her instep rolld. de Macassar."-See the advertisement.
(p. 199. St. 12.
The bar of gold above the instep is a mark They only add them all in an appendir.
of sovereign rank in the women of the families (p. 156. St. 44.
of the Deys, and is worn as such by their female Fact. There is, or was, such an edition, with
Her person if allow'd at large to run.
[p. 199. St. 73.
four The bard I quote from does not sing amiss.
This is no exaggeration; there were
(p. 160. St. 88. women, whom ! remember to have seen, who Campbell's Gertrude of Wyoming; it is the possessed their hair in this profusion; of these, opening of Canto III.
three were English, the other was a Levantine.
Their hair was of that length and quantity, Is it for this that General Count O'Reilly,
that when let down, it almost entirely shaded Who took Algiers, declares I used him vilely? the person, 80 as nearly to render dress a su
[p. 165. St. 116. perfluity of these, only one had dark hair ; the Donna Julia here made a mistake. Count
Oriental's had, perhaps, the lightest colour of O'Reilly did not take Algiers—but Algiers very
the four. nearly took him; he and his army and fleet retreated with great loss, and not much credit, Soft hour! which wakes the wish and melts the from before that city.
(p. 204. St. 108.
Era già l' ora che volge 'l disio,
A naviganti, e 'ntenerisce il cuore ;
(p. 171, St. 216. Lo dì ch han detto a' dolci amici a dio; Me nec femina, nec puer
E che lo nuovo peregrin' di amore
Punge, se ode squilla di lontano,
Che paja 'l giorno pianger che si muore."
DANTE's Purgatory, C. 8. This last line is the first of Gray's Elegy,
taken by him without acknowledgment. NOTES TO CAN TO IT.
Some handa unseen strew'd flowers upon his tomb. For none likes more to hear himself converse.
(p. 204. St. 109. (p. 199. St. 45.
See Suetonius for this fact.
lo non credo più al nero ch' all azzurro;
NOTES TO CANTO IV.
A vein had burst. (p. 209. St. 59.
Doge Francis Foscari, on his deposition, in 1457, Pulci, Morgante Maggiore, 18, 151. I hearing the bell of Si.Mark announce ihe eleetion of his successor, “mourut subitement d'une A marble fountain echoea (p: Eze St. 53. hémorrhagie causée par une veine qui éclata A common furniture.--I recollect being receivdans sa poitrine, (see Sismondi and Daru,) ed by Ali Pacha, in a room containing & marble at the age of eighty years, when “Who would basin and fountain. have thought the old man had so much blood in him?" Before I was sixteen years of age,
The gate so splendid was in all ite features. I was witness to a melancholy instance of the
[p. 223. St. 87. same effect of mixed passions upon a young person; Features of a gate - a ministerial metaphor; who, however, did not die in consequence, at the feature apon which this question hinges. that time, but fell a victim some years afterwards See the “Fudge Family," or hear Castlereagh. to a seizure of the same kind, arising from causes intimately connected with agitation of mind.
Though on more thorough-bred or fairer fingers. But sold by the impresario at no high rate.
(p. 225. St. 106. (p. 211. St. 80. There is perhaps nothing more distinctive of This is a fact. A few years ago a man engaged birth than the hand: it is almost the only sige a company for some foreign theatre, embarked of blood which aristocracy can generate. them at an Italian port, and, carrying them to Algiers, sold them all. One of the women, returned from her captivity, I heard sing, by
Save Solyman, the glory of their
(p. 229. St. 147. a strange coincidence, in Rossini's opera of „L'Italiana in Algeri," 'at Venice, in the begin in his essay "on Empire, " hints that Solyman
It may not be unworthy of remark, that Bacon, ning of 1817.
was the last of his line; on what authority, I From all the pope makes yearly 'tuould perplex
know not. These are his words: “The destrucTo find three perfect pipes of the third aer. tion of Mustapha was so fatal to Solyman's line,
(p. 212. St. 86. as the succession of the Turks from Solyman, It is strange that it should be the Pope and until this day, is suspected to be untrue, and the Sultan who are the chief encouragers of this of strange blood; for that Solymus the Second branch of trade -- women being prohibited as
was thought to be supposititious." Bat Bacon, in singers at St. Peter's, and not deemed trust- his historical authorities, is often inaccurate. I worthy as guardians of the haram.
could give half a dozen instauces from his
apophthegms only. While weeds and ordure rankle round the base. Being in the humour of criticism, I shall pro
(p. 214. St. 103. i ceed, after having ventured upon the slips of The pillar which records the battle of Ravenna Bacon, to touch on one or two as trifling in the 18 about two miles from the city, on the opposite edition of the British poets, by the justly-celeside of the river to the road towards Forli. brated Campbell. --- But I do this in good will, Gaston de Foix, who gained the battle, was kills and trust it will be so taken.--If any thing could ed in it; there fell on both sides twenty thousand add to my opinion of the talents and true feel men. The present state of the pillar and its site ing of that gentleman, it would be his classical, is described in the text.
honest, and triumphant defence of Pope, against
The inadvertencies to which I allude are:
Firstly, in speaking of Anstey, whom he acThe ocean stream.
[p. 215. St. 3. cuses of having taken “his leading characters This expression of Homer has been much cri- from Smollett." Anstey's Bath Guide was pubticised. li hardly answers to our Atlantic ideas lished in 1766. Smollett's Humphry Clinker (the of the ocean, bat is sufficiently applicable to the only, work of Smollett's from which Tabitha Hellespont, and the Bosphorus, with the Ægean could have been taken) was written during intersected with islands.
Smollett's last residence at Leghorn, in 1770.
“Argal,” if there has been any borrowing, An. The Giant's Grave.
(p. 215. St. 5. stey must be the creditor, and not the debtor. I “ The Giant's Grave" is & height on
the refer Mr. Campbell to his own data in his lives Adriatic shore of the Bosphorns, much frequented of Smollett and Anstey. by holiday parties : like Harrow and Highgate. Secondly, Mr. Campbell says in the life of
Cowper that she knows not to whom Cowper And running out as fast as I was able.
alludes in these lines :
(p. 218. St. 33. Nor he who, for the bane of thousands born, The assassination alladed to took place on the Built
God a church, and laugh'd his word to score. eighth of December, 1820, in the streets of R-, not a hondred paces froin the residence of the The Calvinist meant Voltaire, and the church writer. The circumstances were as described. of Ferney, with its inscription, “Deo erexit
Voltaire. Killd by five bullets from an old gun-barrel. Thirdly, in the life of Burns, Mr. C. quotes
[p. 218. St. 34. Shakespeare thus,There was found close by him an old gunbarrel, sawn half off: it had just been discharged,
To gild refined gold, to paint the rose, and was still warm.
Or add fresh perfume to the violet.
This version by no means improves the origiPrepared for supper with a glass of rum. nal, which is as follows:
(p. 220. St. 53. In Turkey nothing is more common than for
To gild refined gold, to paint the lily, the Mussulmans to take several glasses of strong
To chrow a perfume on thc violet, spirits by way of appetizer. I hare seen them
KING Jorx. take as many as six of raki before dinner, and A great poet quoting another should be corswear that they dined the better for it; I tried rect; he should also be accurate when he accuses the experiment, but was like the Scotchian, who a Parnassian brother of that dangerous charge having heard that the birds called kittiewiaks “borrowing:" a poet had better borrow any thing were admirable whets, ate six of them, and (excepting money) than the thoughts of anothercomplained that "he was no hungrier than when they are always sure to be reclaimed: but it is ise began."
very hard, having been the lender, to be de